blood/urine/breath/hair levels Appearance of tissue and organs
Crack comes from the crackling sound heard when its heated The soft drink Coca-Cola originally contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per serving, which combined with caffeine to create the drink’s powerful stimulating effects. While cocaine was officially removed from the drink’s ingredients in 1903, a cocaine-free version of the coca leaf is still used as a flavor additive in the soda.
Chapter 7 Drugs
Drugs and ForensicsIdentify/test a sample to determine if it is a drug
Drug Tests• Presumptive/Screening - possibly present • Spot or color tests • Microcrystalline test—a reagent is added, producing a crystalline precipitate that is unique for a certain drug • Chromatography• Confirmatory - positively present • Mass Spectroscopy • Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
Spectroscopythe interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matterSpectrophotometer—an instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substance
Mass• Electron beam is directed at sample molecules• Electrons break apart the sample molecules into ions• Sorted according to their mass-to-charge ratio by an oscillatingelectric or magnetic field.•Each molecular species has its own unique mass spectrum.
Infrared• Material absorbs energy in the near-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum• Compares the IR light beam before and after it passes through a transparent sample• Result—an absorption or transmittance spectrum• Gives a unique view of the substance; like a fingerprint
Forensic Toxicologist• Cause of death – needed for death certificates• Clarifying death• Impairment of drunk drivers
Forensic toxicologist• What drug was taken?• How much was taken?• When was it taken?• How did it affect the person?
Illegal v. IllicitAn illegal drug is a drug that is against the law to have, use, or distribute.An illicit drug is a legal drug used in an inappropriate or illegal way.
Anabolic steroids• Synthetically produced variants of male hormone testosterone• Street names: arnolds, gym candy, roids, juice• Cases • Operation Gear Grinder • Olympics, NCAA, Major League Baseball, NFL
OxyContin• Prescribed pain killer• Contains oxycodone• Twice as potent as heroin• Street names: kicker, oxy, oxycotton, hillbilly heroin• Heath Ledger
LSD• Blotter paper• No medical purpose• Flashbacks• March 2003 – largest LSD lab seizure ever made
Marijuana• Most commonly abused illicit drug• Decreases ability to concentrate, slows reactions and impairs coordination• 10/1/04 – 1/11/05: 1,777 Federal offenders sentenced for marijuana related charges• In 2005: DEA seized 282,139 kg marijuana• Medicinal marijuana
Heroin• Highly addictive• Processed from morphine• No medical use• Injected• Pure heroin rarely sold• Kurt Cobain, River Pheonix
Cocaine• Oldest drugs• Other names: crack, nose candy, blow• Social elite
Ecstasy• Party drug• Operation Candy Box – one million tablets per month• Florida – lead in seizures
Rohypnol• Tasteless, odorless and colorless• Date rape drug, roofies• Sedative, muscle relaxer and amnesia• 10x stronger than Valium• 1 pill more intoxicating power than 6pack of beer