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  1. 1. Chapter 7 Drugs
  2. 2. Drugs and ForensicsIdentify/test a sample to determine if it is a drug
  3. 3. Drug Tests• Presumptive/Screening - possibly present • Spot or color tests • Microcrystalline test—a reagent is added, producing a crystalline precipitate that is unique for a certain drug • Chromatography• Confirmatory - positively present • Mass Spectroscopy • Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
  4. 4. Spectroscopythe interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matterSpectrophotometer—an instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substance
  5. 5. Mass• Electron beam is directed at sample molecules• Electrons break apart the sample molecules into ions• Sorted according to their mass-to-charge ratio by an oscillatingelectric or magnetic field.•Each molecular species has its own unique mass spectrum.
  6. 6. Infrared• Material absorbs energy in the near-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum• Compares the IR light beam before and after it passes through a transparent sample• Result—an absorption or transmittance spectrum• Gives a unique view of the substance; like a fingerprint
  7. 7. Forensic Toxicologist• Cause of death – needed for death certificates• Clarifying death• Impairment of drunk drivers
  8. 8. Forensic toxicologist• What drug was taken?• How much was taken?• When was it taken?• How did it affect the person?
  9. 9. Illegal v. IllicitAn illegal drug is a drug that is against the law to have, use, or distribute.An illicit drug is a legal drug used in an inappropriate or illegal way.
  10. 10. Classifications• Hallucinogens – marijuana, LSD, PCP, Ectasy• Stimulants – cocaine, nicotine,• Narcotics – opium, heroin, codeine, oxycodon• Depressants – alcohol, barbiturates
  11. 11. Anabolic steroids• Synthetically produced variants of male hormone testosterone• Street names: arnolds, gym candy, roids, juice• Cases • Operation Gear Grinder • Olympics, NCAA, Major League Baseball, NFL
  12. 12. OxyContin• Prescribed pain killer• Contains oxycodone• Twice as potent as heroin• Street names: kicker, oxy, oxycotton, hillbilly heroin• Heath Ledger
  13. 13. LSD• Blotter paper• No medical purpose• Flashbacks• March 2003 – largest LSD lab seizure ever made
  14. 14. Marijuana• Most commonly abused illicit drug• Decreases ability to concentrate, slows reactions and impairs coordination• 10/1/04 – 1/11/05: 1,777 Federal offenders sentenced for marijuana related charges• In 2005: DEA seized 282,139 kg marijuana• Medicinal marijuana
  15. 15. Heroin• Highly addictive• Processed from morphine• No medical use• Injected• Pure heroin rarely sold• Kurt Cobain, River Pheonix
  16. 16. Cocaine• Oldest drugs• Other names: crack, nose candy, blow• Social elite
  17. 17. Ecstasy• Party drug• Operation Candy Box – one million tablets per month• Florida – lead in seizures
  18. 18. Rohypnol• Tasteless, odorless and colorless• Date rape drug, roofies• Sedative, muscle relaxer and amnesia• 10x stronger than Valium• 1 pill more intoxicating power than 6pack of beer