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Vowels latest

  1. 1. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 2
  2. 2. Vowels Pure Vowels - 12 [monophthongs] Front Vowels - 4 Back Vowels - 5 Central Vowels - 3 Diphthongs - 8 Towards /i/ - 3 Towards /u/ - 2 Towards /ǝ/ - 3kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 3
  3. 3. Front Vowels i: - eat, beat, bee i - it, bit, city e - any, bed æ - axe, batkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 4
  4. 4. Front Vowels Symbol Active Passive Lips Tongue Initial Middle Final Description i: Front of tongue Hard Palate Spread Tense eat beat bee Front Close Unrounded Centralised Front i Rear front tongue Hard Palate Loosely Spread Tense it bit city Unrounded vowel above half-close Front unrounded e Front of tongue Hard Palate Spread More Tensed any bed X between half-close and half-open Front unrounded æ Front of tongue Hard Palate Neutrly open less tensed axe bat X vowel just below half-openkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 5
  5. 5. Front Vowelskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 6
  6. 6. Central Vowels ʌ - up, cup ǝ: - earn, learn, err ǝ - about,kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 7
  7. 7. Central VowelsSymbol Active Passive Lips Jaws Initial Middle Final Description ʌ Centre Betwn Nurly Central unrounded of tng H&S Palate opn wide up cup X just above open ǝ: Centre Betwn H&S Sprd wide earn learn err Central unrounded vowel bet half-close of tng Palate and half-open ǝ Centre Betwn H&S Sprd wide about forget tailor Central Unrounded vowel just below of tng Palate half openkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 8
  8. 8. Central Vowelskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 9
  9. 9. Back Vowels u: - ooze, boot, two u - put, to ɔ: - ought, bought, law ɔ - ox, box ɑ: - art, part, carkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 10
  10. 10. Back VowelsSymbol Active Passive Lips Jaws Tongue Initial Middle Final Description u: Back of tongue Soft Palate Closly round - tense ooze boot two Black close rounded Back rounded v u Frnt of Back of tongue Soft Palate round - lax X put to* just above half- close ɔ Back of tongue Soft Palate Slight round Wide open - ox box X Back rounded v just above the open position ɔ: Back of tongue Soft Palate round Wide open - ough t bought law Back rounded v bet. half-open and half close Tongue ɑ: bet. Cen’r n Soft Palate Nutrly Open Wide - art part car Back open unrounded backkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 11
  11. 11. Back Vowelskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 12
  12. 12. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 13
  13. 13. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 14
  14. 14. Diphthongskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 15
  15. 15. Diphthongs The tongue starts in the position required for the articulation of a particular vowel and moves in the direction of the position required for the articulation of a different vowel. The glide should take place within one syllable.kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 16
  16. 16. Diphthongs Diphthongs gliding towards /i/ -3 Diphthongs gliding towards /u/ -2 Diphthongs gliding towards /ǝ/ -3kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 17
  17. 17. Diphthongs gliding towards /i/kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 18
  18. 18. Diphthongs gliding towards /i/ /ei/ A glide from a front unrounded vowel just below half-close to a centralised front unrounded vowel just above half- close Initial - aim Middle - pain Final - playkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 19
  19. 19. Diphthongs gliding towards /i/ /ai/ A glide from a front open unrounded vowel to a centralised front unrounded vowel just above half-close. Initial - ice Middle - bite Final - buykaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 20
  20. 20. Diphthongs gliding towards /i/ /ɔi/ A glide from a back rounded vowel between open and half-open to a centralised front unrounded vowel just above the half close position. Initial - oil Middle - boil Final - boykaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 21
  21. 21. Diphthongs gliding towards /u/kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 22
  22. 22. Diphthongs gliding towards /u/ /au/ A glide beginning at a back open unrounded position and moves in the direction of centralised back rounded vowel just above the half-close position. Initial - out Middle - bout Final - cowkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 23
  23. 23. Diphthongs gliding towards /u/ /ǝu/ A glide from a central unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open to a centralised back rounded vowel just above the half-close position. Initial - over Middle - boat Final - gokaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 24
  24. 24. Diphthongs gliding towards /ǝ/kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 25
  25. 25. Diphthongs gliding towards /ǝ/ /iǝ/ A glide from a centralised front unrounded vowel just above half-close to a central unrounded vowel between half close and half-open position. Initial - ear-ring* Middle - fierce Final - fearkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 26
  26. 26. Diphthongs gliding towards /ǝ/ /uǝ/ A glide from a centralised back rounded vowel just above half-close to a central unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open position. Initial - --- Middle - during Final - curekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 27
  27. 27. Diphthongs gliding towards /ǝ/ /Ɛǝ/ A glide from a front half-open unrounded vowel to a central unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open position. Initial - aeroplane Middle - careful Final - carekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 28
  28. 28. From Daniel Jones’ Pronunciation Dictionarykaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 29
  29. 29. Phonemic Analysis• Phoneme: /t/ (aspirated) (unaspirated) “flap” “glottal stop” Allophone 5: „bit‟ (unreleased)
  30. 30. Consonant Clusterskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 31
  31. 31. Beginning with voiced bilabial nasal- /m/ 001- mp (final) bump, camp, hemp, limp, lump, ramp 002- mps (final) amps, camps, lamps, lumps, mumps, trumps 003- mf (final) lymph, nymph 004- mft (final) triumphed 005- mfs (final) nymphs 006- mt (final) camped, dreamt revamped, lumped 007- mt (medial) empty, temptation 008- mtr (medial) temptress 009- mts (final) tempts 010- md (final) aimed, assumed, formed, roamed, shamed 011- mst (final) glimpsed 012- mz (final) comes, terms, timeskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 32
  32. 32. beginning with voiceless bilabial plosive- / p / 013- pθ (final depth 014- pθs (final depths 015- pθr (medial upthrust 016- pt (final) abrupt, Egypt, except, harped, kept, opt 017- pt (medial abruptly, absorption, acceptable 018- pts (final) accepts, adopts 019- ps (final) cups, equips, jumps, perhaps, steps 020- ps (medial) Epsom, Ipswich, lopsided, upside down 021- pst (final) lapsedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 33
  33. 33. beginning with voiced bilabial plosive- / b / 022- bd (final) absorbed, bribed, curbed, lobbed, robed, robbed 023- bz (final) cabs, fibs, jabs, knobs, verbs, yobskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 34
  34. 34. beginning with voiceless labiodental fricative- / f / 024- fθ (final) fifth, twelfth 025- fθs (final) fifths, twelfths 026- fθl (medial) fifthly 027- ft (final) craft, drift, gift, left, lift, loft, soft 028- ft (medial) after, daftest, often rafter, softly, swiftly, thrifty 029- fts (final) crofts, drifts, gifts, lifts, lofts 030- fs (final) beliefs, cliffs, chefs, chiefs, hankerchiefs, laughskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 35
  35. 35. beginning with voiced labiodental fricative- / v / 031- vd (final) arrived, believed, involved, lived, proved, saved 032- vz (final) additives, captives, loaves, loves, serves, waveskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 36
  36. 36. beginning with voiceless dental fricative- / θ / 033- θs (final) baths, cloths, maths, oaths, paths, truthskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 37
  37. 37. beginning with voiced dental fricative- / ð / 034- ðd (final) bathed, betrothed, clothed, seethed, swathed 035- ðz (final) bathes, breathes, clothes, loathes, seethes, sootheskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 38
  38. 38. beginning with voiced alveolar nasal- / n / 036- nθ (final) month, tenth 037- nθ (medial) anthem 038- nt (final) ant, aren´t, aunt, bent, can´t, font, want 039- nts (final) ants, fonts, grunts, hints, hunts, pants 040- ntst (final) chintzed 041- nd (final) behind, concerned, find, found, friend, owned 042- nd (medial) friendship, landlord -----* Note rules for deletion of / d / 043- ndz (final) bends, ends, friends, sounds 044- ns (final) hence, pence, since, tense 045- ns (medial) pensive, tenses 046- nz (final) hens, lens, pens, runs, tens 047- nʧ (final) lunch, pinch 048- nʧt (final) lunched, pinched 049- nʤ (final) change, hinge 050- nʤd (final) changed, hingedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 39
  39. 39. beginning with voiceless alveolar plosive- / t / 051- tθ (final) breadth, eighth, hundredth, thousandth, width 052- tθs (final) breadths, eighths, hundredths, thousandths, widths 053- ts (final) cats, eats, fights, its, meets, parts, puts, waits 054- tst (final) amidst, midstkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 40
  40. 40. beginning with voiced alveolar plosive- / d / 055- dz (final) almonds, beds, birds, hands, kinds, weeds, wordskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 41
  41. 41. beginning with voiceless alveolar fricative- / s / 056- sp (final) clasp, crisp, gasp, lisp, wasp 057- st (final) chased, first, pursed 058- sts (final) thirsts 059- sk (final) ask, desk, dusk, riskkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 42
  42. 42. beginning with voiced alveolar fricative- / z / 060- zd (final) amazed, crazed, gazed, lazed, phased, phrasedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 43
  43. 43. beginning with voiced alveolar lateral approximant- / l / 061- lmd (final) filmed 062- lmz (final) elms, films 063- lp (final) help 064- lpt (final) helped 065- lps (final) helps 066- lbd (final) bulbed 067- lbz (final) bulbs 068- lf (final) self 069- lfθs (final) twelfths, Alf´s 070- lft (final) elfed 071- lvd (final) delved 072- lθ (final) health 073- lθs (final) tilthskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 44
  44. 44. beginning with voiced alveolar lateral approximant- / l / 074- lnd (final) kilned 075- lnz (final) kilns 076- lt (final) difficult 077- ltst (final) waltzed 078- ld (final) cold, held 079- ldz (final) holds, worlds 080- ls (final) else 081- lz (final) fills, girls 082- lʧt (final) filched 083- lʤd (final) bilged 084- lʃt (final) welshed 085- lk (final) milk, silk 086- lks (final) milks 087- lkt (final) milked 088- lkts (final) mulctskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 45
  45. 45. beginning with voiced alveolar approximant / r / rm (final) silent before a consonant in England & Wales- "alarm" / əˈl /, "arm" / ˈ /, "warm" / ˈ ɑ:m ɑ:m wɔ:m / rm (final) generally pronounced (& sometimes rolled) in Scotland & Ireland "alarm" / əˈl ɑ:rm /, "arm" / ˈ ɑ:rm /, "warm" / ˈ wɔ:rm / The / r / within these consonant clusters is generally pronounced in Canada most parts of the USA. The / r / is pronounced by all English speakers when it precedes a vowel sound, as in "angry" / ˈ / or "zebra" / ˈ ærɪ zebrə /. / r / can precede several other consonants sounds, though in these contexts it is rarely pronounced in England and Wales.kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 46
  46. 46. beginning with voiceless post- alveolar affricate- / ʧ / 089- ʧt (final) hitched, matched, watchedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 47
  47. 47. beginning with voiceless post- alveolar affricate- / ʤ / 090- ʤd (final) caged, edged, forged, judged, wagedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 48
  48. 48. beginning with voiceless post- alveolar fricative- / ʃ / 091- ʃt (final) cashed, fished, mashed, washedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 49
  49. 49. beginning with voiceless post- alveolar fricative- / ʒ / 092- ʒd (final) leisured, measured, pleasured, treasuredkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 50
  50. 50. beginning with voiced palatal semi- vocalic- / j / / t / + / j / is often replaced by / ʧ / in words such as "nature" / ˈ neɪʧəʳ /, "future" / ˈfju:ʧəʳ /, "feature" / ˈ fi:ʧəʳ /, and "creature" / ˈ kri:ʧəʳ /. This type of assimilation is known as coalescence. / d / + / j / is often replaced by / ʤ / in words such as "gradual" / ˈ græʤʊəl / and individual / .kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 51
  51. 51. beginning with voiced velar nasal /ŋ/ 093- ŋθ (final) length 094- ŋt (final) instinct 095- ŋts (final) instincts 096- ŋd (final) longed 097- ŋst (medial) minxed 098- ŋz (final) things 099- ŋk (final) think 100- ŋg (final) thingkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 52
  52. 52. beginning with voiceless velar plosive- / k / 101- kθ (final) sixth 102- kθs (final) sixths 103- kt (final) fact, worked 104- kts (final) conflicts, contexts, expects texts 105- ks (final) six, works 106- kst (final) context, next, oversexed, pretext, textkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 53
  53. 53. beginning with voiced velar plosive-- -- / g / 107---------gd (final) -------bagged, hugged, logged, tagged, wagged 108---------gz (final) -------eggs, figs, mugs, rugskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 54
  54. 54. Minimal Pairkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 55
  55. 55. ship sheep fit feet --- ----------------------- bit beat sit seat knit neat rich reach pit Pete gin Jean chip cheapkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com six seeks 56
  56. 56. bit bet did dead -- ----------------------- fill fell will well rid red pit Pete sit set bill bellkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 57
  57. 57. bet bat --- pen ----------------------- pan men man head had said sad guess gas letter latterkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com better batter 58
  58. 58. bet but net nut -- ----------------------- hem hum said sud sex sucks better butter wren run Ben bun trek truckkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 59
  59. 59. bet Bert bed bird --- ----------------------- head heard ten turn Hell hurl Ben burn edge urgekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com nest 60 nursed
  60. 60. sell sale ---- -----------------------bait bet pen pain tell tale well whale red raid fell failkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com get 61 gate
  61. 61. cat cut ----- hat ----------------------- hut cap cup lack luck sack suck batter butter ran runkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com bank 62 bunk
  62. 62. cat cart back bark ----- ----------------------- sack Sark Dan darn mad marred mack mark had hardkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com cad 63 card
  63. 63. cot caught cod chord ---- ----------------------- pot port not nought shot short fox forks spot sport knotty naughty odder orderkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 64
  64. 64. bud bird bun burn -- ----------------------- fussed first shut shirt cub kerb ton turn thud thirdkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com such 65 search
  65. 65. pull pool - pulled ----------------------- pooled wood wooed would wooed should shoed could cooed full fool soot suit hood whodkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com look 66 Luke
  66. 66. cart cot card cod ----- ----------------------- part pot dart dot stark stock sharp shop carp cop harp hopkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 67
  67. 67. cart caught ----- card ----------------------- chord part port art ought bard board jar jaw car corekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com martyr 68 mortar
  68. 68. four fur --- court ----------------------- curt all url pore purr form firm chord curd sport spurtkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com whore her 69
  69. 69. court coat ----- ----------------------- bowl ball four foe Paul pole form foam chord code bought boat shawl shoalkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com torn 70 tone
  70. 70. day die bay buy --- ----------------------- tape type fate fight pain pine hate height bait bite lace licekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 71
  71. 71. here hair beer bare --- ----------------------- deer dare fear fair ear air pier pair mere marekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 72
  72. 72. peer poor mere more ---- ----------------------- tear (water from eye) tour spear spoor dear dour sheer sure year your beer boorkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 73
  73. 73. pair poor mare more tear (rip----------------------- ---- apart) tour spare spoor dare dour share sure bear boorkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 74
  74. 74. coat cot - code ----------------------- cod rote rot dote dot bloke block shown shone cope cop hope hopkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com note not 75
  75. 75. load loud phoned found ----- ----------------------- road rowed (argued)row (with oars in a boat) row (argue) rote rout oat out devote devout moaned moundkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 76
  76. 76. bow bower -- cow ----------------------cower ow hour ow our sow (pig) sourkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 77
  77. 77. pin bin pea bee -- ----------------------- pa bar pat bat pill bill pig big peach beach pump bumpkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com path bath 78
  78. 78. ten den tip dip ---- ----------------------- town down team deem tier dear try dry trip dripkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com true drew 79
  79. 79. coal goal coat goat -- ----------------------- course gorse cap gap come gum core gore kill gillkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com curl girl 80
  80. 80. fan ----- ----------------------- van fine vine fear veer fault vault feign vane fairy vary few viewkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com fat 81 vat
  81. 81. thigh thy mouth (noun) mouth (verb) teeth (noun) --- ----------------------- teethe (verb) wreath (noun) wreathe ( verb) ether either cloths (noun) clothes (vowel sound change & noun)kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 82
  82. 82. thigh ----- ----------------------- tie thread tread thin tin thorn torn theme team thug tug both boatkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com death debt 83
  83. 83. thigh die thread dread ----- ----------------------- din thin thorn dawn theme deem thug dug Perth purredkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 84
  84. 84. thin sin thick sick --- ----------------------- thought sort theme seem thong song thigh sighkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com thorn sawn 85
  85. 85. then den thy die --- ----------------------- thee Dee there dare theyll dale breathe breedkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com breather breeder 86
  86. 86. --- ----------------------- then Zen clothe close bathe bays lathe laze writhe rise breathe breezekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 87
  87. 87. sip zip Sue zoo ----- ----------------------- Zed said seal zeal ice eyes rice rise lice lieskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 88
  88. 88. thin thing run rung -- ran rang ----------------------- din ding Dan dang Don dong pin pingkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 89
  89. 89. thing think sing sink ---- ----------------------- sung sunk singer sinker singing sinking ring rinkkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com rang 90 rank
  90. 90. load road lay ray ----------------------- lice rice lend rend lid rid light writekaviarasu.kk@gmail.com lights rights 91
  91. 91. wet vet west vest wine ----------------------- vine worse verse went vent whale veil wane veinkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 92
  92. 92. ------------------------SILENT "h" (avoid producing it) happy hour wholly honest hateful honourable unhappy dishonourable horrible exhibit holy ghostkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 93
  93. 93. ------------------------ No intial "h" (avoid adding the sound) had add hair air heart art heat eat hedge edge heal eel hate eightkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 94
  94. 94. sheet cheat shop ----------------------- chop shin chin shes cheese shoe chew sheep cheap sherry cherry sheep cheapkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com share chair 95
  95. 95. sheep jeep shot ----------------------- jot shore jaw shin gin she gee shoe Jew shack Jack sherry Jerrykaviarasu.kk@gmail.com shell gel 96
  96. 96. chest test chop top ----------------------- chin tin cheese teas chew two chose toes cherry Terrykaviarasu.kk@gmail.com churn 97 turn
  97. 97. cheap jeep chore jaw ----------------------- choke joke chin gin chain Jane cheer jeer cheers jeers cheering jeeringkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 98
  98. 98. jet yet juice use ----------------------- job yob jot yacht jeer year jaw your jaws yours Jack yakkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com joke yolk 99
  99. 99. Transcriptionkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 100
  100. 100. Transcribe What is your name? | ˈ s jə ˈ wɔt neim | This is my pen | ðis iz mai pen | Did you do your | did ju də jər examination well? iɡˈ ʃn̩ zæmiˈnei wel | Dickens is my favourite |ˈ dikinz iz mai ˈ feivərit author ɔˈ ˈ θə | The King and the queen | ðə kiŋ ənd ðə kwiˈn went for a tour. ˈwent ə tuə | fərkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 101
  101. 101. Practice setkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 102
  102. 102. Practice set Match the phonemic transcription with the English words Match the phonemes with the vowel sound in the first syllable of the words Select the consonant sound / θ / or / ð / contained within these words Check the words which contain the sound shownkaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 103
  103. 103. Practice set Select the consonant sound /ʃ/ , /ʧ/ or /ʤ/ contained in the words Match the vowel sound in the first syllable of the word with the correct phoneme Select the initial consonant sound: / g / , / j / or the voiced postalveolar affricate / ʤ / RP English Vowelskaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 104
  104. 104. Stress • Stress makes a syllable sound more prominent. • (due to increased articulatory effort) • Stress may be denoted by an accent over the vowel in the stressed syllable.kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 105
  105. 105. Stress•Examples of stress contrasts:• “contrast” • (N) • (V)• “insult” • (N) • (V)

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