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Computer As Culture


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Published in: Technology

Computer As Culture

  1. 1. From Snow Crash to Augmented Reality Jing Huang
  2. 2. Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson The Second Life Virtual Reality Mixed Reality Augmented Reality
  3. 3. Neal Stephenson science fiction historical fiction Cyberpunk postcyberpunk
  4. 4. Snow Crash (1992) Genre(s) : Science fiction Cyberpunk Postcyberpunk
  5. 5. Defining Cyberpunk It is a science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life". Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among hackers, artificial intelligences, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth. -----Wikipedia
  6. 6. Postcyberpunk “ typical postcyberpunk stories continue the focus on a ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information and cybernetic augmentation of the human body, but without the assumption of dystopia.” -----Wikipedia
  7. 7. William Gibson  “the father of Cyberpunk”  the rise of reality television  establishing the conceptual foundations for the rapid growth of virtual environments such as video games and the Web  Neuromancer (1984)
  8. 8. “People shouldn't look at science fiction like they look at "real" fiction. They shouldn't expect that this is what the future is going to look like. Science fiction authors are sort of charlatans; we come up with a few ideas and we make a living off of that.” --------William Gibson
  9. 9. Discussion Do you agree with William Gibson’s idea about science fiction? If they agree with Gibson, do they think science fiction is only bluff, a lie? or it is something that worth? What is your attitude towards science fiction ?
  10. 10. Plot Summary of Snow Crash The story takes place in a semi-America of the future, where corporatization, franchising, and the economy in general have spun wildly out of control.
  11. 11. Plot summary Hiroaki (Hiro) in reality  half-black  half-Korean  pizza delivery man in the Metaverse  warrior prince  Swordsman  hacker
  12. 12. Invented Words in Snow Crash Avatar: “The people are pieces of software called avatars” (Stephenson, 1992, p.33). Metaverse: “They are the audiovisual bodies that people use to communicate with each other in the Metaverse” (Stephenson, 1992, p.33).
  13. 13. The Metaphor of the Real World The Metaverse is a 3-D virtual universe online, where humans, as avatars, interact with each other.
  14. 14. A Review and a Tribute of Snow Crash  Neal Stephenson’s prediction in Snow Crash has been partially achieved.
  15. 15. Second Life
  16. 16.  v=01OSKJwXuDM&feature=related
  17. 17. Do you have a avatar in Second Life or in some other virtual world? why do you think people like this alternative universe? why do they build new online identities? If a teacher can set up a class in 2nd Life, to overcome distance, is it useful? Or still is it just a game?
  18. 18. Avatar  =d1_JBMrrYw8
  19. 19. Virtual Reality “Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer- simulated environment, whether that environment is a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world.” Wikipedia
  20. 20. Testers Wanted - Nintendo Virtual Reality  v=9xGJNQZ3wCA
  21. 21. Mixed Reality “Mixed reality (MR) refers to the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualisations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A mix of reality includes augmented reality, augmented virtuality and virtual reality.” Wikipedia
  22. 22. Mixed Reality Figure 1: Simplified representation of a “virtuality continuum” (Paul Milgram &Fumio Kishino,1994).
  23. 23. Constitution of MR Interfaces 1. Monitor based (non-immersive) video displays 2. Video displays as in Class 1, but using immersive head-mounted displays (HMD's), rather than “window-on-the-world” monitors. 3. HMD's equipped with a see-through capability
  24. 24. Constitution of MR Interfaces 4. Same as 3, but using video, rather than optical, viewing of the "outside" world. 5. Completely graphic display environments 6. Completely graphic but partially immersive environments ---- Paul Milgram &Fumio Kishino,1994.
  25. 25. Augmented reality “Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery - creating a mixed reality.” Wikipedia
  26. 26. Augmented Reality “Augmented reality refers to a situation in which the goal is to supplement a user’s perception of the real world through the addition of virtual objects.” ------- Ronald Azuma (1997)
  27. 27. Augmented Reality Game  Augmented Reality over time...  =xEQ9s8PRwW8
  28. 28. Applications of Augmented Reality Military --- AR technology has currently experienced the most widespread use. Example: RBS Complex v=p0oWSeqes1M
  29. 29. Applications of Augmented Reality Manufacturing / repair Example: BMW augmented reality  v=P9KPJlA5yds
  30. 30. Applications of Augmented Reality Using consumer cell phones  Layar, worlds first mobile Augmented Reality browser 
  31. 31. Discussion Privacy Issue Does mobile Augmented Reality browser affects people's private life?
  32. 32. Augmented Reality over time...  AR Blurs the line of what is real and what is not. Real world is enhanced with the help of AR.
  33. 33. Challenge To what extend can we replace the physical sources by virtual sources using the technology, and still endue the same perceptual, cognitive, the emotional experience that we have on the real world condition.
  34. 34. References  Augmented reality. (2009). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from http://  Mixed reality. (2009). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from  Neal Stephenson. (1992). Snow Crash, ROC: London, pp.33-41.  Paul Milgram & Fumio Kishino. (1994).A TAXONOMY OF MIXED REALITY VISUAL DISPLAYS. Retrieved October 18, 2009, from  Ronald Azuma. (1997) “A Survey of Augmented Reality”, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4): 335-385.  Tracy Seneca. (1994). The Power of Language in Snow Crash and Babel 17. Impact of New Information Technologies. Retrieved October 18, 2009, from  Virtual reality. (2009). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from http://  William Gibson. (n.d). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from