From Lewin to OD: Planned Approach to Change By Renni Rengganis
Kurt Lewin & Organizational ChangeKurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 - February 12, 1947) was aGerman-American psychologist known as one of the modernpioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology His best-known contribution in organizational Change was Action Research, Field Theory, Group Dynamics, & Three step Change Process These contributions have had lasting impact and became evident, in fact many modern theories are evolution of his original idea
Action ResearchResearch that was designed with action in mindCyclical of action research: • Take First action step• Identify a general or initial idea • Evaluate• Reconnaissance of fact-finding • Amend Plan• Planning • Take second action step
Field Theory Adopt a rather novel approach for understanding human behavior, Any new behavior is the result of some change in the field
Group DynamicsKey important :If one’s environment has the potential impact toinfluence behavior then the group which one’s belongdo too, (caused group is part of environment) Lewin focus his effort on the development of group experiment, many in the notion of group change.
Lewin’s Three-step Model Unfreezing Change Refreezing •Group member must •Organization moves to have felt need of change the desired state. (new • Changes are policies, structure, values reinforced & etc. supported. (made system to support such as compensation system)
Making Sense od Lewin’s work First : Lewin was Challenger of the notion of mas as machine Second : Lewin introduced the notion of research as an impectus for changes Third : Lewin drew attention to the impact of environment on behavior Fourth : Lewin drew attention to the role of groups on individual and group behavior Fifith : Lewin recognized that change could only success and sustain if the paticipants felt a need for changes
Organizational Development ( OD ) Definition : concern foe vitalizing, energizing, activating and renewing of organization through technical and human resources (Argyris ,1962) Long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal process. (more effective & collaborative management of organizations culture) French&Bell , 1978 Underlying assumptions of OD ( French&Bell, 1978) : 1. Assumption about people as Individual 2. Assumption about people in groups and about leadership 3. Assumption about people in organizations 4. Assumption That related to values in the client Organization 5. Value and believes systems of behavioral scientist change agent
Kotters eight step change model :• Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.• Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.• Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.• Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against.• Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognize progress and achievements.• Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.• Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.• Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture.
Making Sense of OD :Some criticism of OD :• OD is extensive into what for multi-billion dollar industry• OD has become overly prescriptive and that client focus has been lost• Planned Change is ineffective in today’s turbulent, global environment.
Thank You Renni Rengganis - 29011025 Magister of science in Management