Supplemental sonification of bingo

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This presentation explores the multimodal sonification of the away count for bingo cards. Results show that supplemental sonification helps reduce player error.

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  • Hello, My name is Eelke Folmer My Final talk will be about supplemental sonification of a bingo game
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I’m posing the question how do we play games. Lets take a first person shooter as an example. The game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. Based on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy) and then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). Based on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right?
  • Now looking at other games you can identify the same basic steps and you can synthesize this in a basic interaction model for games that can be represented as a simple state machine.
  • okay so now we’ve represented playing games as a simple model which kind of resembles a kind of test that is being used in psychology to study human
  • In psychology people have done all sorts of experiments on human behavior using a technique that is called choice response task. Which are perceptual motor tasks that study the content duration and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations For example a subject is presented a certain stimuli and then they have to press a certain button that corresponds to this stimuli. Studies found that when stimuli are represented in multiple modalities simultaneously can be detected at lower thresholds, faster and more accurately than when presented separately in each modality.
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback. But are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, can you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs. Can you play a game without visual feedback? Not really. Audio and haptic doesn’t tell you what to do and when.
  • Now going back to video games. You see that they actually only present a stimuli in the visual modality. So in this paper we explore
  • As people often make errors in playing games theres the potential to explore how supplemental representation of feedback in a different modality than feedback could increase performance and player error.
  • And we focus on the game of bingo
  • Bingo is a significant industry.
  • Going back to our game interaction model the game mechanics of bingo resemble the simplest way you can play a game. Bingo is the closest thing to a choice response task while still a game. It is also simple and finite which allows for a controllable user study.
  • So who plays bingo? well grandma does and that’s a stereotype that is hard to debunk
  • The demographics are slightly changing. Especially in the UK a younger audience is playing it and mostly online.
  • frequency of clicks to indicate the level of radiation. Other types of sonification include using volume or the pitch of a tone. Timbre, Sonification has primarily been explroed in sensory substitution. There’s all sorts of navigation systems for users who are blind which uses sonification and there’s all sorts of audio games for users. Not much work has been done in the area of using supplemental sonification e.g. representing information using visual as well as audio
  • The variable we seek to sonify is the away count. The away count indicates how far the player is away from achieving a bingo. This is a dynamic variable that depends on the specific pattern used.
  • Supplemental sonification of bingo

    1. 1. Supplemental Sonification of a Bingo Game Daniel Ramos, Eelke Folmer - FDG’11, Bordeaux
    2. 2. Why How do we play games? <ul><li>Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic} </li></ul><ul><li>Player determines in game response (shoot) </li></ul><ul><li>Player provides input (press button) </li></ul><ul><li>goto 1 until gameover or finished </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno POW Bzzzzzz
    3. 3. Generalize steps Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno 1. feedback 2. up/down 3. button 1. feedback 2. left/right/gas 3. wheel 1. feedback 2. left/right/shoot 3. button / mouse pong mario kart fps
    4. 4. Gameplay State Machine Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    5. 5. Choice Response Task Stimulus Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno <ul><ul><li>multimodal representation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>error-- </li></ul></ul>visual Response + audio Response haptic + Response
    6. 6. Role of Feedback Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno POW Bzzzzzz
    7. 7. Video Games Stimulus Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno visual Response + audio Response ?
    8. 8. Research Question Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno Can supplemental sonification increase performance & reduce player errors?
    9. 9. What is Bingo <ul><li>Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>horizontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diagonal </li></ul></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno Ball calls <ul><li>Multiple Bingos </li></ul><ul><li>single line </li></ul><ul><li>full card </li></ul>16 48 63 “ Bingo”
    10. 10. is Bingo a Video game? <ul><ul><li>Up to 100 cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows cards closest to Bingo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jurisdiction determines how bingo is played </li></ul></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    11. 11. Bingo is BIG business <ul><ul><li>Charitable Bingo -> 1.8 Billion (US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WoW -> 1.0 Billion (worldwide) </li></ul></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno 2009
    12. 12. Why Bingo? <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Finite ~bingo <24 calls </li></ul><ul><li>Controllable </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    13. 13. Who plays Bingo? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    14. 14. Bingo Demographics <ul><li>57% female </li></ul><ul><li>11% age 65 and up </li></ul><ul><li>20% are 18-24 year olds (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Online bingo > 20% market share </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    15. 15. avoiding a sleeper <ul><li>Bingo casino halls are crowded / noisy </li></ul><ul><li>players more likely to have sensory impairment due to their age </li></ul><ul><li>players play with a large number of cards </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    16. 16. Sonification <ul><li>Displaying data in non speech audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geiger counter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of sonification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbre {instruments} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of a repetitive cue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Icons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Games (users with visual impairments) </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    17. 17. Simulator Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    18. 18. Simulator Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    19. 19. Away Count <ul><li>AC is the smallest value for any pattern </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno ac = two ac = three
    20. 20. Types of sonification <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch {99hz, 119hz, 156hz, 193hz} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbre {piano, cello, organ, pan flute} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Icons {dog, jackhammer, cash register, audience clapping} </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Length ~ 1 second </li></ul><ul><li>Only sonify when AC changes for a card </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    21. 21. Test Away Count <ul><li>random intervals (avg 6 calls between test) </li></ul><ul><li>log: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>value of provided AC and AC for each card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time it takes to do test </li></ul></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    22. 22. Demo Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    23. 23. User study <ul><li>9 participants </li></ul><ul><li>2 female / 7 male </li></ul><ul><li>age = 41.2 (SD=12.8) </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Bingo Players </li></ul><ul><li>No impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Versions {none, pitch, audiocon, timbre} </li></ul><ul><li>Randomized & Balanced </li></ul><ul><li>4 Tests or Bingo </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    24. 24. Results Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno Significant P<0.05 No Significant p> 0.05 Timbre > None AudioIcons > None Pitch <> None AudioIcons <> Timbre Post Hoc Tests
    25. 25. Qualitative results <ul><li>all subjects felt sonification helped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 preferred audio icons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 preferred pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 preferred timbre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 preferred timbre & pitch </li></ul></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    26. 26. Discussion & future work <ul><li>Semiotics of audio icons </li></ul><ul><li>Sonification can be facilitated on most daubers </li></ul><ul><li>Test with sensory impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Use in other games </li></ul><ul><li>Explore haptic feedback </li></ul>Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno drop 7
    27. 27. Qquestions Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno ?

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