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Water Resource Management In The European Union


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Water Resource Management In The European Union

  1. 1. Water Resource Management in the European Union <br />By: Emily Gove & Ben Kearns<br />Image courtesy of: Emily Gove<br />
  2. 2. European Union (E.U.)<br />Established Nov. 1st 1993 by the Treaty of Maastricht <br />International economic & political union of 27 democratic member states <br />committed to regional integration<br />Frontier-free travel and trade, the adoption of the Euro, governed by multiple institutions<br />European Commission<br />European Parliament<br />Council of the E.U.<br />European Court of Justice<br />Committed to solving environmental issues such as acid rain, air & water pollution, and climate change<br />European Environment Agency (EEA)<br />E.U. leaders agreed to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020<br />Image courtesy of:<br />
  3. 3. Water Resources in the E.U.<br />Relatively abundant water resources across Europe; sufficient to meet demand in most areas<br />Total freshwater resources : 2,270 km3/year<br />Only 13% abstracted<br />Threats include:<br />Overexploitation for energy cooling & industrial sector<br />Increase in severity/frequency of droughts due to climate change<br />Reduced river flows, lowered lake & groundwater levels <br />Saline intrusion from over-pumped coastal aquifers<br />Zell Am See, Austria<br />Image courtesy of: Emily Gove<br />
  4. 4. Legislation: Stages of Policy Evolution in the E.U.<br />1st: 1975-80; Concerned with “environmental quality standards” & “emission limit values”<br />2nd: 1980-95; Legislation<br />Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (1991)<br />Nitrates Directive (1991)<br />Drinking Water Directive (adopted in 1998)<br />Directive for Integrated Pollution on Prevention Control (adopted 1996)<br />3rd: 1995-Today<br />Water Framework Directive (adopted in 2000)<br />Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) paradigm<br />Continued analysis of existing legislation <br />Image Courtesy of:<br />
  5. 5. The Water Framework Directive<br />Dec. 22, 2000: long-term policy basis for integrated water-management, with clearly defined interim objectives<br /><ul><li>Analysis, planning and management of water resources at river basin scales</li></ul>Long-term protection of freshwaters, which prevents future deterioration and protects and enhances the status of ecosystems (aquatic, terrestrial, and wetlands)<br />promotes sustainable water use<br />ensures reduction of pollutant loads <br />mitigation of floods and droughts<br /><ul><li>Major objective: To achieve “good water status” for all waters by 2015</li></ul>Rhine River, Germany<br />Image courtesy of: Emily Gove<br />
  6. 6. Images courtesy of: UNEP<br />
  7. 7. Availability: Precipitation<br /><ul><li> 1901-2005: 6-8% increase on average
  8. 8. Large geographical differences in precipitation across Europe
  9. 9. Reduction of rainfall in the Mediterranean & E. Europe
  10. 10. Increase in winter precipitation for most of western & northern Europe
  11. 11. Climate models predict increase in frequency/intensity of droughts
  12. 12. Sustained & extensive occurrence of below average water availability
  13. 13. S. Europe most vulnerable to these climate fluctuations
  14. 14. Low soil moisture, reduced groundwater levels, drying up of wetlands</li></ul>“Dry days” defined as days with precipitation below 1 mm <br />
  15. 15. Availability: River Flow<br />River Flow: measure of the availability of freshwater resources within a basin, determined by precipitation & temperature, and catchment characteristics such as geology, soils and land cover (EEA)<br />Avg. river flow: 450mm/year<br />Seasonal & regional variation<br />
  16. 16. International River Basins of Europe<br />Image courtesy of:<br />
  17. 17. Availability: Storage<br />Groundwater<br />55% for public water supply<br />Higher quality than surface water<br />Reservoirs<br />7,000 large dams in Europe<br />20% of FW resources<br />Fluctuation in river flow makes it difficult to maintain a reliable water supply without storage in reservoirs<br />Snow & glaciers (Alps)<br /><ul><li>40% of FW resources
  18. 18. Predicted fall in winter retention as snow, earlier snowmelt and reduced summer precipitation are expected to reduce river flows in summer, when demand is typically at it’s highest
  19. 19. 1.48°C rise in temperature over the last 100 years (twice global average).
  20. 20. Rising snowline, melting glaciers, reduced river flow</li></ul>Austrian Alps (June 2008)<br />Image courtesy of: Emily Gove<br />
  21. 21. Abstraction<br />“Abstraction” - refers to the volume of water taken from a natural or modified resource over the calendar year.<br />Strong regional variations<br />Eastern Countries (Electricity)<br />Western Countries (Electricity)<br />Southern Countries (Agriculture)<br />Total freshwater abstraction across E.U.<br />288 km3/year<br />500 m3 per capita/year<br />
  22. 22. Abstraction: Industry/Energy Production<br />Energy Production accounts for 44% of total freshwater abstracted across the E.U.<br />Very little consumed <br />Most discharged into surface waters at high temperature<br />Obtained via:<br />Public water supply<br />“self” abstraction<br />Fig. 4.1 Large decline in E. Europe<br />Due to decline in water intensive process (mining/steel manufacturing)<br />Highly water intensive operations abstract their own<br />Principal source = surface water<br />Fig. 4.3 Reductions across E.U.<br />Cooling tower use <br />Recirculation methods<br />Reduced intake<br />Increased efficiency<br />Avoid shutdowns<br />Chemicals and petroleum refinement account for ½ the freshwater used by manufacturing industry<br />
  23. 23. Abstraction: Public Use<br /><ul><li>21% of freshwater abstracted for public water systems</li></ul>Fig. 5.1 Household size: (demographic shift)<br />Increased number of people living alone<br />Larger households use less water per-capita <br />Smaller households contribute to a reduction in effectiveness of water saving measures<br /><ul><li>Includes: households, small businesses, hotels, offices, hospitals, schools, and some industries
  24. 24. Only 20% is consumed and 80% is returned as treated wastewater
  25. 25. Key Drivers:
  26. 26. Population (~497mil. In 2007)
  27. 27. Household size (2.4 in 2005)
  28. 28. Income (appliances)
  29. 29. Consumer behavior (Fig. 5.2)
  30. 30. Tourism</li></ul>Household use: 60-80% of supply<br />60% used for personal hygiene and toilet flushing<br /><ul><li>Groundwater = very important
  31. 31. Sewers, surfaces, and release of wastewater into rivers</li></li></ul><li>Abstraction: Agriculture<br /><ul><li>Accounts for 24% of total water use
  32. 32. Abstraction varies regionally:
  33. 33. 0% in the North
  34. 34. 80% in the South</li></ul>~70 % abstracted does not return to the water body<br />Plant consumption<br />Evapotranspiration<br /><ul><li>Irrigation types utilized:
  35. 35. Permanent (South)
  36. 36. Support (South)
  37. 37. Temporary (North)
  38. 38. Two delivery systems utilized:
  39. 39. Pressure
  40. 40. Gravity
  41. 41. Six countries account for 84% of total irrigated area across the E.U.
  42. 42. Italy, Spain, France, Greece, Romania and Portugal</li></li></ul><li>E.U. Water Quality<br />France<br />Supply and sanitation is generally of good quality<br />Distribution losses are high (26%)<br />Germany<br />Very low per capita water use<br />Advanced wastewater treatment<br />Very low distribution losses (7%)<br />England<br />Distribution losses high (19%)<br />Efforts to increase household metering (33%)<br />Portugal<br />Drinking water is not consistently good<br />Does not comply with EU drinking water directive parameters nor EU wastewater discharge regulations <br />50% of supply zones non compliant for coliforms<br />20% of supply zones non compliance for fecal coliforms<br />Netherlands<br />Water consumption is one of the lowest at 124 liter per capita per day<br />Drinking water network is in good enough shape that treated water does not require chlorination before reaching the consumer<br />
  43. 43. Abstraction Impacts: Basin Overuse<br /><ul><li>Water Exploitation Index (WEI):
  44. 44. Annual calculation of the ratio of total freshwater abstraction to total renewable resource
  45. 45. WEI above 20% = under stress
  46. 46. WEI above 40% = severe water stress
  47. 47. WEI – National and Annual Estimate
  48. 48. Does not fully reflect the level of stress on resources of sub-national regions
  49. 49. Does not account for seasonal variations in water availability and abstraction
  50. 50. Does not account for consumptive use nor water that is returned</li></ul>Image courtesy of:<br />
  51. 51. Abstraction Impacts: Saline Intrusion<br />Cause: excessive groundwater abstraction from coastal aquifer causing freshwater level to lower and sea water to flow into aquifer<br /><ul><li>Problem Areas:
  52. 52. Mediterranean
  53. 53. Northern Europe</li></ul>Guadiana Basin<br />Greece<br /><ul><li>Greece:
  54. 54. Agriculture / Tourism
  55. 55. 12 of 19 groundwater bodies (63%) intruded or at risk</li></ul>Annual Abstractions La Mancha Occidental Aquifer and Water-level Recovery<br /><br />
  56. 56. Conclusions on Future E.U. Water Resource Management<br />Water Pricing Across All Sectors<br />Prudent “water user pays” principal based on volume of water used<br />Drought Management Plans<br />At river basin scaled<br />Shift approach from “crisis response” to “ risk management”<br />Efficiency and Conservation<br />Implementing best technologies and practices<br />Leakage detection efforts<br />Raising Public Awareness<br />Education efforts<br />Concept of “virtual water” within E.U. countries<br />
  57. 57. Conclusion Continued…<br />Tackling Illegal Abstraction<br />Major political and technical challenge<br />Severe penalties for non-compliance<br />Alternative Supplies<br />Demand may still exceed availability<br />Supply-side measures and treated wastewater re-use<br />Desalination<br />Preferable since it increases the total available freshwater resource<br />Does not create incentive to reduce water use nor improve use efficiency<br />Information Requirements<br />Reliable, up-to-date information at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales<br />Use both measured and modeled data to explore the impacts of specific water management scenarios<br />