Energy Efficiency in Thermal System - Case Studies from Nepal

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This presentation was held in the context of DCCI Capacity development Workshop December 2013 in Nepal. For further information go to our website.

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Energy Efficiency in Thermal System - Case Studies from Nepal

  1. 1. Nepal Energy Efficiency Programme (NEEP) Component 3: Energy Efficiency in Industry DCCI Training Need Assessment 05.08.2013
  2. 2. TS3: EE in Thermal System/ Case Studies Bhishma Pandit Long term Energy Efficiency Expert GIZ/Integration
  3. 3. Introduction to Thermal Energy • Energy in the form of the vibrations and movements of microscopic particles • Heat is the common name for thermal energy of an object that is due to the motion of the atoms and molecules that constitute the object.
  4. 4. Combustion Combustion Fuel + Oxygen Oxides + Heat
  5. 5. Combustion Combustion reaction and heat liberation for One kg of molecule When there is complete combustion: C + O2 CO2 + 7448 KCal/kg 2 H2 + O2 2H2O + 31500 KCal/kg S + O2 SO2 +537.5 KCal/kg
  6. 6. Calorific Value • The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced, and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value. • The difference being the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour produced during the combustion process. Carbon Hydrogen Water Vapour Sulphur Moisture Water vapour Water Vapour GCV – 10,500 Kcal/kg NCV – 9800 Kcal/kg 2
  7. 7. Energy Costs and Heating Values Type of Energy Gross Calorific Value, KCal Cost per Unit, NRs. Cost Per KCal Coal 5000 / kg NRs. 24.0 / kg NRs 0.0048 Rice Husk 3200 / kg NRs. 6.25 / kg NRs. 0.002 Furnace Oil 9900 / liter NRs. 75 / liter NRs. 0.0075 HSD 9400/ liter NRs. 100/ liter NRs. 0.0107 Electricity 860 / kWh NRs. 7.10 / kWh NRs. 0.0083 TOTAL - - -
  8. 8. Energy Cost for Dairy industry Average specific fuel oil consumption of 8 liters per 1000 liters milk for the reference year 2011/12.
  9. 9. Group Work: Rice Husk-?? CV: 3200 kcal/kg HSD: 9400 kcal/liter
  10. 10. Thermal Equipments Used in Industries •Boilers •Furnaces •Refrigeration & Air Conditioning •Hot water Generators
  11. 11. Introduction • It is an enclosed Pressure Vessel • Heat generated by Combustion of Fuel is transferred to water to become steam • Process: Evaporation • Steam volume increases to 1,600 times from water and produces tremendous force • Care is must to avoid explosion. What is a boiler?
  12. 12. Boilers
  13. 13. Typical Boiler Specifications • Boiler Make & Year :XYZ & 2003 • MCR(Maximum Continuous Rating) :10TPH (F & A 100oC) • Rated Working Pressure :10.54 kg/cm2(g) • Type of Boiler : 3 Pass Fire tube • Fuel Fired • Heating surface : Fuel Oil : M2
  14. 14. Furnace
  15. 15. Performance Evaluation of a typical Furnace Figure 4.10 Heat losses in industrial heating Furnaces
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION Refrigeration deals with the transfer of heat from a low temperature level at the heat source to a high temperature level at the heat sink. – Air conditioning for comfort – Refrigeration for process
  17. 17. TON OF REFRIGERATION The cooling effect produced is quantified as tons of refrigeration. 1 ton of refrigeration = 3024 kCal/hr heat rejected.
  18. 18. VAPOUR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (R22)
  19. 19. VAPOUR – ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM CONDENSOR GENERATOR Regulating Valve Waste Heat/ Direct Fired THROTTLING VALVE WEAK SOLUTION ABSORBER EVAPORATOR Heat load In COOLING WATER IN HOT WATER OUT STRONG SOLUTION
  20. 20. Efficiency
  21. 21. What are the losses that occur in a boiler? S tea m O utp u t 6 . S urface loss 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D ry F lu e gas loss H 2 loss M oisture in fu el M oisture in air C O loss 7 . F ly ash loss Fu el In p u t, 10 0 % B o iler F lue gas A ir 8 . B ottom ash loss E fficien cy (b y In D irect M eth o d) = 10 0 – (1 + 2 +3 +4 + 5 +6 + 7 +8 )
  22. 22. Trial Data Flue gas temperature after air preheater Ambient temperature Preheated air temperature = 750oC = 40oC = 190oC Specific gravity of oil Average fuel oil consumption Calorific value of oil = 0.92 = 400 Litres / hr = 400 x 0.92 =368 kg/hr = 10000 kCal/kg Average O2 percentage in flue gas =12% Weight of stock = 6000 kg/hr Specific heat of Billet = 0.12 kCal/kg/0C Surface temperature of roof and side walls = 122 oC Surface temperature other than heating and soaking zone = 85 oC
  23. 23. Furnace Efficiency (Direct Method) F u rn a ce E fficien cy (D irect M eth o d ) F u el in p u t H eat In p u t H eat o u tp u t E fficien cy E fficien cy L o sses = 4 0 0 litres / h r = 3 6 8 k g /h r = 3 6 8 x 1 0 ,0 0 0 = 3 6 8 0 0 0 0 k C al = m x Cp x Δ T = 6 0 0 0 k g x 0 .1 2 x (1 3 4 0 – 4 0 ) = 9 3 6 0 0 0 k C al = O u tp u t x 1 0 0 In p u t = 936000 x 100 3680000 = 2 5 .4 3 % = 2 5 % (ap p ) = 7 5 % (ap p )
  24. 24. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT The specific power consumption kW/TR is a useful indicator of the performance of refrigeration system. By messing refrigeration duty performed in TR and the Kilo Watt inputs measured, kW/TR is used as a reference energy performance indicator. The refrigeration TR is assessed as TR = Q Cp  (Ti – To) / 3024 Where TR is cooling TR duty Q is mass flow rate of coolant in kg/hr Cp is coolant specific heat in kCal /kg / 0C Ti is inlet. Temperature of coolant to evaporator (chiller) in 0C. To is outlet temperature of coolant from evaporator (chiller) in 0C.
  25. 25. ENERGY AUDIT INSTRUMENTS Role : Instruments Play a vital role in energy audit to characterize and quantify energy. To conserve energy, it is necessary to know how & how much energy is being consumed Instruments also provide a means to monitor equipment performance and check condition In order to arrive at the quantitative assessment, several fixed and portable instruments are used to measure the parameters related to. Energy consumption data Efficiency related data Operation & control data 26
  26. 26. Various Energy Audit Instruments Various categories of portable energy audit instruments are  Thermal  Mechanical  Chemical  Electrical  Lighting 27
  27. 27. Thermal Measurements Temperature can be measured by  Thermometer  Thermocouple & Indicator  Thermograph  Data-logger  Pyrometer  Hygrometer 28
  28. 28. Mechanical Measurements  Flow  Vane Anemometer  Pitot Tube  Ultra Sonic Flow Meter(For Liquids)  Multi Function Kit  Flow/Velocity  Pressure  Temperature  RH Contd.. 29
  29. 29.  Pressure    Bourden Gauge U Tube Manometer with pitot tube Pressure Recorder  Leaks  Ultra Sonic Leak Checker  Speed   Stroboscope Meter Contact Tachometer Contd.. 30
  30. 30.  Multifunction kit  Sound   Time   dB Meter Stop watch Measuring tape 31
  31. 31. Chemical measurements  Flue Gas Analysis  Oxyliser (O2, CO2 Temp, Efficiency)  Fyrite Kit (CO2 & O2)  Flue Gas Analyzer (CO2 & O2, CO, Temp, Efficiency) 32
  32. 32. Ultra-sonic Flow Meter Application: Flow measurement of Liquids Parameters measured: Velocity & discharge of liquid flow Make: Panametrics, Ireland No of Sets: 01 Range: 0.03 to 12.2 m/s (pipe size 2 to 24 inches) 33
  33. 33. Ultra-Sonic Flow Meter Application: Flow measurement of Liquids Parameters measured: Velocity & discharge of liquid flow Make: Fuji, Japan No of Sets: 01 Range: 0 to 32 m/s 34
  34. 34. Multi Function Kit Application: Thermal and mechanical Parameters - velocity, temperature, pressure, humidity Make: Testo, Germany No of Sets:02 Range: 0.4 to 60 m/s, -200 to 1200oC, 0 to 100 hpa, 0 to 100% RH 35
  35. 35. Non Contact Tachometer -Stroboscope Application: Speed Measurements Parameters measured: Speed of Rotating Element Make: Testo, Germany No of Sets: 2 Range: 20 to 20000 rpm 36
  36. 36. Contact Type Tachometer Application: Measurement of Speeds Parameters measured: Speed (rpm) No of Sets:01 37
  37. 37. Digital Anemometer Application: Measurement of Air, gas velocity Parameters measured: Velocity Make: Lutron, Taiwan No of Sets:04 Range: 0 – 30 m/s 38
  38. 38. Digital Hot wire Anemometer Application: Gas and air velocity, temperature in ducts Make: Airflow, England No of Sets:01 Range: 0.25 to 30 m/s and 0 – 80oC 39
  39. 39. Gas and Air Pressure measurement Application: Measurement of static, dynamic and total pressure in gas and air ducts Make: Air Flow, UK No of Sets: 1 40
  40. 40. Leak Detector Application: Measurement of Air Leakages Parameters measured: Air Leakage Make: Air Flow, UK No of Sets:01 41
  41. 41. Digital Pressure Gauge Application: Measurement liquid, gas and air pressure Parameters measured: Pressure Make: Syscon, India No of Sets:01 Range: 0-50 bar 42
  42. 42. Pressure & Vacuum Gauges Application: Measurement of Pressure Parameters measured: Pressure No of Sets: 3 Range: 0 to 21 kg/cm2 43
  43. 43. Digital temperature & humidity data logger Parameters measured: Dry bulb temperature & humidity Make: Gemini, USA No of Sets:04 Range: -15 to 150oC and 0-99 % RH 44
  44. 44. Temperature Data Logger Application: Measurement of Temperatures Parameters measured: Temperatures (8 temp. channels) Make: Grant, UK No of Sets:01 Range: 0-1200oC 45
  45. 45. Non Contact Type Infrared Temperature Indicator Application: Measurement of Surface Temperatures Parameters measured: Surface Temperatures Make: Raytek, USA No of Sets:01 Range: -18 to 870oC 46
  46. 46. Infrared Pyrometer Application: Measurement of Surface Temperatures Parameters measured: Surface Temperatures Make: Raytek, USA No of Sets:02 Range: -18 to 870oC 47
  47. 47. Thermocouples & Temperature Indicator Application: Measurement of temperature Parameters measured: Surface, gas and liquid temperatures Make: Center, Taiwan No of Sets: 1 o Range: -50 to +400 C 48
  48. 48. Digital Temperature Indicator Application: Measurement of Temperature Parameters measured: Surface, gas and liquid temperatures Make: OMEGA No of Sets: 04 Range: -50 to +1200 oC No of couples: 20 49
  49. 49. Digital Temperature & Hygrometer Application: Measurement of Temperatures & humidity Parameters measured: Dry bulb temperature & humidity Make: Center, Taiwan No of Sets:01 Range:-20 to 60oC, 0 to 100% RH 50
  50. 50. Digital Temperature & Hygrometer Application: Measurement of Temperatures & humidity Parameters measured: Dry bulb temperature & humidity Make: IRA, India No of Sets:01 Range:0 to 50oC, 10 to 95% RH 51
  51. 51. Sling Hygrometer Parameters measured: Dry bulb and Wet bulb temperature Make: Lawrance & Mayo No of Sets:04 Range: 0- 50oC 52
  52. 52. Combustion Test (Fyrite) Kit Application: Measurement of Flue Gas quantities Parameters measured: Co2 & O2 Make: Testo, Germany No of Sets:06 Range: 0 to 20% Co2; 0 to 21% O2 53
  53. 53. Flue Gas Analyser Application: Measurement O2 temperature and CO in flue gas paths Make: Kane May, UK No of Sets: 1 Range : O2 0-21% and CO upto 10000 ppm 54
  54. 54. Flue Gas Analyser Application: Measurement O2 temperature and CO in flue gas paths Make: Neotronics, UK No of Sets: 1 Range : O2 0-21% and CO upto 10000 ppm 55
  55. 55. Combustion Gas Analyser Application: Measurement of Flue Gas Parameters Parameters measured:Co, Co2, No, No2, So2, Pressure, Efficiency Make: Krykard, Italy Range: O2-0 to 25%, CO-0 to 4000ppm,CO2- 0 to 20%, NO- 0 to 5000,No20 to 800 ppm, So2-0 to 500ppm, pressure- 0 to 150mbar/hpa, etc 56
  56. 56. Flue Gas Analyser Application: Measurement of Flue Gas Parameters Parameters measured:o2, Co, No, No2, So2, Humidity Make: TESTO, Germany Range:02-0 to 21%, CO-0 to 20000 ppm, NO- 0 to 3000,No2-0 to 500 ppm, Humidity- 0 to 100% 57
  57. 57. Energy Monitor Application: Measurement of single phase Electrical Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, kW, kWh Make: Sagatron No of Sets:10 Range: 16A, 250V, 4 kW 58
  58. 58. 3-Phase Power Analyser Application: Measures all Electrical and Harmonic Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, PF, KW, kVA, kVAr, Hz, first 50 Harmonics Make: Chauvan Arnaoux, France No of Sets: 01 Range: 830V, 3000A 59
  59. 59. 3-Phase Power Analyser Application: Measures all Electrical and Harmonic Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, PF, KW, kVA, kVAr, Hz, first 50 Harmonics Make: RCC Technologies, Canada No of Sets: 01 Range: 600V, 1000A 60
  60. 60. 3-Phase Power Analyser Application: Measures all Electrical and Harmonic Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, PF, KW, kVA, kVAr, Hz, Harmonics (first 25th) Make: Dossena, Italy No of Sets: 01 61 Range: 600V, 1000A
  61. 61. Portable Load Management System Application: Measures all Power Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, PF, KW, kVA, kVAr, Hz Make: ALM-03 Krykard No of Sets: 01 Range: 750V, 1000A 62
  62. 62. Handheld Power Harmonic Analyser Application: Measures all power and Harmonic Parameters Parameters measured: V, A, PF, kW, kVA, kVAr, Hz, Harmonics Make: Fluke, WA No of Sets:02 Range: Up to 600V, 1000A, 600 kW, up to 31st Level harmonics Accuracy 63
  63. 63. Suppliers Challenges / Performance Monitoring and Guarantee • • • • Output performance test Guarantee – efficiency How to monitored the performance Out put and input performance
  64. 64. Cases COST ECONOMICS OF REPLACING SMALL OIL-FIRED BOILER WITH RICE HUSK-FIRED
  65. 65. Heat Recovery from ammonia compressor discharge Cold Water in Hot Water Out Water Out Water In Desuperheater Condenser Refrigerant Oil Separator Expansion valve Water Evaporator Oil Compressor In Chilled Water Out Annual savings due to heat recovery – 6000 x 50/(0.85 x 10500) = 35 liters/day - 35 x Rs.75 x 350 - NRs. 9.2 lakhs
  66. 66. Any Questions? Thank you . Thank you . Thank you . Thank you

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