Healing both of soul and body has always been part of the Christian concern. During his life, Jesus spent much time healing the sick and befriending the sinner. The church today continues this healing mission of Christ through the Sacrament of the Anointing of the sickand the Sacrament of Reconciliation.
Commonly called the sacrament ofconfession and penance. One of the seven sacraments of theCatholic Church and sacred mysteries of theOrthodoxy in which faithful obtain Divinemercy for the sins committed against Godand the neighbor and are reconciled withthe community of the Church ( Vatican II, Lumen Gentium)
VATICAN II’s View of Confession Confession- stresses the importance of acknowledging our sins while asking for God’s forgiving grace. Sacrament of penance- emphasize rather the whole process of conversion, including contrition, repentance and satisfaction. Sacrament of Reconciliation- brings out the inner relationship between being reconciled with God and with our neighbor.
Marks of SacramentSacraments are: an outward sign of an inward grace Absolution or The forgiveness of sins Reconciliation that the priest grants to the of the penitent penitent to God
PurposeRECONCILING OF MAN TO GODTo repent and ask for God’s forgiveness and that grace can be restored and resist sins
What are required? He must be contrite – or in other words sorry for his sins. He must confess those sins fully, in kind and in number. He must be willing to do penance and make amends for his sins
A good rule of the thumb is to go once per month. To go to confession even if we are aware of venial sin only. Frequently during lent Lent-40 days penitential season before Easter
HISTORY OF SACRAMENT OF RECONCILIATION Dates back to the New Testament and the time of Jesus 3 major periods in its development Early Christian Penance Tariff penance Individual Confessions
from Apostolic times till 6-7centuryThere are 3 major phases From the beginning of the Church till the middle of the 2nd Century 3rd Century canonical penance Canonical penance between 4th and 6th Century
1. From the beginning of the Church till the middle of the 2nd Century All writings of that period like the Shepherd of Hermas, Didache or Letters of St. Ignance of Antioch - show that grave sins were not rare among Christians. Cyrille Vogel - collected a list of twelve major sins named in the new testament and the apostolic fathers writings.
12 Major Sins Impurity: adultery, fornication, pederasty, concupiscence, impure language Murder Idolatry Sorcery, magic Avarice Theft Envies: jealousy, greed, love of vain glory, hatred
Lies:false witness, perjury, hypocrisy, slander Spite: anger, rebellion, argument, perverseness , bad temper, gossips, insults, injustice, deceitfulness, vanity, arrogance Fickleness and insanity Drunkenness and intemperance
Christians in the early communities ways of obtaining forgiveness Practicing deeds of penance: Prayer Tears and prostrations Fasting Alms giving
Confession was pronounced always in the beginning of liturgies especially Eucharist. After committing grave sins, he/she was denied access to the Eucharistic table. He/she would do proportionate penance Prescribed by the head of the local church. (ex. Bishop) “public penance”, wearing sackcloth and ashes. Public confession.
2. 3rd Canonical penanceHippolytus of Rome criticized the popes for being too easy to accept grave sinners back to the communion of the church
3. Canonical penance between 4th and 6th Century It was called canonical penance because special canons were issued by regional, local church councils on dealing with the public penance Acts of ancient councils like: Penitents have no access to Eucharistic communion- until bishop reconciled him with the community of the church. (canon 29 of the council of Epaone)
From 7th Century till 12th-13th CenturyNew approach of the Christianity to thepractice of penance .Council of Chalon-sur-Saone-- diocesanbishop prescribed penance to a sinner as manytimes as he or she would fall into sin. Penitential practices consist of: Confession,Acceptance of satisfaction fixed by the priest,and reconciliationPenitential books were provided.
From 12th century onwardsIn 1215 the Fourth Century of the Lateran- every catholicChristian goes to confession at least once a year.Council of Trent, in 1907,in lamentabili become sostandardized, priest were given list of sins withcorresponding penances prescribed by the book.In the 20th Century during the Vatican 2- Pope JohnPaul II began a fostering and renewing on this sacrament.In 1984he issued ‘Reconciliatio et Paenitentia whichcited Mark 1:15 “Repent and Believe in the gospel”
PROCESS OF TOTAL CONVERSION Conversion on the Bible “conversion” – life-long process of moving toward closer union with Christ, our Savior in his community Away from sinful ways and habits Repentance and turning back to God
OLD TESTAMENT 3 themes Conversion of the heart Radical change in behavior Sharp realization that it is God who effects true conversion
NEW TESTAMENT Jesus continued and deepened this call to the same process Jesus drew sinners into a process of conversionExample: The parable of Prodigal son orthe Forgiving father
Moral Conversion – turning away from the self-centered pursuit of satisfying our own egotistical needs and toward loving service of others. Affective conversion- overcoming the temptations, prejudices, exaggerated amor propio, over sensitivity, hatred and pride. Intellectual conversion- understanding and judging the basic meaning and value of ourlives Religious conversion- “falling in-love with God”.
Breaking God’s law, or our relationship with Him and others,or as going against ones conscience.
- made up of the objectivenature, intension, circumstances. Sin as a moral reality is an attitude, an action of failure to act, or a power or force that leads us into evil. Sin alienates, separates, makes us strangers from ourselves (intra-personal), neighbors (inter-personal), community (societal) and GOD.
Personal sin- within ones self Social sin- negative moral attitudes and acts or failure to act that are common to a community or particular society. Structural sin- refers to existing structures that condition society in a harmful and unjust way.
Can be: Grave-hurt our relationship to God in a serious way, and must be confessed in the sacrament of Penance or Reconciliation. Venial-(from “venia”- pardon or forgiveness)are excusable sin which do not involve the person’s fundamental freedom nor lead to spiritual death. Mortal- a sin which leads to death, the loss of true or “eternal life” – “exclude from the kingdom of God”. Turning away from God.
The New rite of Penance (1973) 3 different rites of reconciliation Revising the traditional rite “individual penitents” Several penitents with individual confession and absolution Several penitents with general confession and absolution More communal and less individualistic More liturgical and less legalistic More focus on the on-going conversion process Focuses on the necessity of the inner conversion of heart
The priest and penitent should first prepare themselves by prayer to celebrate the sacrament. After making the sign of the cross the priest welcomes the penitent warmly with : “may the lord Jesus welcome you. He came to call sinners not the just. Have confidence in Him” Short reading from scripture Penitents confession of sins and acceptance of a penance.( priest would offer suitable counsel)
The penitent prays an act of contrition and the resolution of amendment, asking for God’s pardon. The priest confessor would extend his hand over the head of the penitent and pronounce the word of absolution: “God the Father of Mercies, Through the death and resurrection of his son Has reconciled the world to Himself And sent the Holy Spirit among us For the forgiveness of sins; Through the ministry of the church May God give you pardon and peace, And I absolve you from your sins In the name of the Father, and of the Son, And of the Holy Spirit.” Penitent answers: AMEN.
The basic effect is reconciliation with God and the Christian community, the church. Those who by graves him have withdrawn from the communion of love with God are called back to the life they have lost. Draws strength to overcome their daily weaknesses and gain the full freedom of the children of God. Become more closely conformed to Christ and to follow more attentively the voice of the Holy Spirit.
Is the remission of temporal punishment for sin in response to certain prayers or spiritual works. Kinds of indulgences Partial indulgence –removes part of the temporal punishment due to sin Plenary indulgence- removes all temporal punishment due to sin ○ Receive the Sacrament of Reconciliation ○ Receive Holy Communion
TWO EFFECTS: It destroys our communion with God, thus depriving us of eternal life. But all sin also weakens and wounds our union with God and our relations with others and the community (temporal punishment).
GROUP 4Jeannette F. Santiago BSPT-2Mae Ann P. Cabaddu BSPT-2Mark Julius HipolitoEmil Lagaduen