Identification and proclamation of human rights is one of the most significant attempts to respond effectively to the inescapable demands of human dignity. The church sees in these rights the extraordinary opportunity that our modern times offer. Through the affirmation of these rights, for more effectively recognizing human dignity and universally promoting it as characteristics inscribed by God the creator in his creature. The roots of human rights are to be found in the human dignity that belongs to each human being.
The ultimate source of human rights is not found in the mere will of human beings, in the reality of the state, in public powers, but in man himself and in God as his creator.
When God became man, to save every single man, the joyous announcement of the angels rang out peace on earth to men of goodwill! And the church, in the course of the centuries had the task and carried out the mission of ensuring that the rights of man should be recognized, respected and promoted, and or diffusing the new commandment of love: Love among individuals, Love among groups, Love among peoples. The Catholic Church is the chief figure in every effort to promote and protect human rights. Christianity has worked for the recognition of the values or the human personality in international law, with gradual pressure in three directions:
1. By making a powerful contribution to the affirmation of the rights of human person.2. By basing this affirmation on the irrepressible claim of natural law; and by coupling also the nucleus of international law with this law.3. And a posteriori counter-proof of the goodness of the church’s message is offered by its translation into works made in the course of centuries.
UNIVERSAL: They are present in all human beings without exception of time, place and subject. INVIOLABLE: It would be vain to proclaim these rights, if at the same time everything is not done to ensure the duty of respecting them by all people. INALIENABLE: No one can deprive another person whoever they maybe at this rights.
―Human rights are to be defended not only individually but also as a whole, protecting them only partially would imply a kind of failure to recognize them.‖ They correspond to the demands of human dignity and entail, in the first place, the fulfillment of the essential needs of the person in the material and spiritual needs.
THE RIGHT TO LIFE: Right of the child to develop in the mother’s womb from the moment of conception. The right to live in a united family and in a moral environment conducive to the growth of the child’s personality. The right to develop one’s intelligence and freedom in seeking and knowing the truth. The right to share in the work which makes wise use of the earth’s material resources and to derive from that work the means to support oneself and one’s dependents. The right to freely establish a family, to have and to rear children through the responsible exercise one’s sexuality.
―The Right to Life‖ is the condition for the exercise of all other rights and, in particular, implies the illicitness of every form of procured abortion and of euthanasia.‖ ―All men are to be immune from coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power, in such wise that no one is to be forced to act in a manner of contrary to his own beliefs, whether privately alone in association with others, within due limits.‖
INDISSOLUBLY LINKEDSOCIAL DIMENSION: ―In human society, to oneman’s right there corresponds a duty in all otherpersons: The Duty, namely, of acknowledging andrespecting the right in question.‖ THE MAGISTERIUM underlines the contradiction inherit in affirming rights without acknowledging corresponding responsibilities. Therefore, those who claim their own rights, yet altogether forget or neglect to carry out their respective duties, are people who build with one hand and destroy with the other.
The MAGISTERIUM points out that international law rest upon the principle of equal respect for states, for each people’s right to self determination and for their free cooperation in view of the higher common good of humanity. The rights of nations are nothing but ―HUMAN RIGHTS‖ fostered at the specific level of community life. A nation has the fundamental right to existence, to its own language and culture, through which a people expresses and promotes. The international order requires a balance between particularly and universality which all nations are called to bring about.
The solemn proclamation of human rights is contradicted by a painful reality of violations. ―Wars and violence of every kind‖ ―Genocides and Mass Deportations‖ ―Virtual worldwide dimension of new forms of slavery‖ Human trafficking, Child soldiers, Exploitation of workers, Illegal drug trafficking, prostitution. Unfortunately, there is a gap between the ―letter‖ and the ―spirit‖ of human rights, which can often be attributed to a merely formal recognition of these rights.
The church social doctrine, in consideration of the privilege of accorded by the gospel to the poor, repeats over and over that the more fortunate should renounce some of their rights so as to place some of their goods more generously at the service of others and that an excessive affirmation of equality can give rise to an individualism in which is one claim in his own rights without wishing to be answerable for the common good.
Defense(Denunciation of the Violations of HumanRights)Promotion of Human rights (Proclamation of the Christian Foundation of Human Rights)Proclamation is more important thanDenunciation and the latter cannot ignore theformer. This commitment is open to ecumenical Cooperation
To dialogue with other religions, organization, government and NGO’s at the national and international levels. The Catholic Church tradition presents its most extensive delineation of Human Rights in Pope John XXII’s encyclical PEACE ON EARTH (PACEM IN TERRIS) POPLE JOHN XXIII contends that PEACE CAN BE ESTABLISHED ONLY IF THE SOCIAL OERDER SET DOWN BY God is fully observed. Thus, he sketches a list of rights and duties to be followed by individuals, public authorities, national governments, and the world community
1. Right to life and worthy standard ofliving, including rights to proper development oflife and to basic security2. Rights of moral and cultural values, includingfreedom to search for and expressopinions, freedom of information, and right toeducation.3. Right to Religion and Conscience.4. Right to choose one’s state in life, rights toestablish a family and pursue a religious vocation.5. Economic Rights, including right to work, a justand sufficient wage, and to hold private property.6. Rights of meeting and association .7. Right to emigrate and immigrate.8. Political rights, including right to participate inpublic affairs and juridical protection of rights.
1. To acknowledge and respect rights toothers.2. To collaborate mutually.3. To at for other responsibly.4. To preserve life and live it becomingly.The development of each person, thehonoring of her or his rights, and thecommon good of all the human family arethe responsibility of each and of all.
A look at the background of Human RightsOriginally, people had right only because of theirmembership in a group, such a family. Then, in539 BC, Cyrus the Great, after conquering the cityof Babylon, did something totally unexpected – thefreed all salves to return home. Moreover, hedeclared people should choose their own religions.The Cyrus Cylinder, a clay tablet containing hisstatements, is the first human rights declaration inhistory.The idea of human rights spread quickly toIndia, Greece and eventually Rome. The mostimportant advances since then have included
1215: The Magna Carta – gave people new rights and made the king subject ot he alw. 1628: The Petition of Right – set out the rights of the people. 1776: The United State Declaration of Independence – proclaimed the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 1789: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen – a document of France, stating that all citizens are equal under the law. 1748: The Declaration of the Rights of Human Rights – the first document
Human rights are ―commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being. ― Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere), and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national and international law. While some dictionaries define the word right as ―a privilege‖, when used in the context of ―human rights‖, we are talking about something more basic. Every person is entitled to certain fundamental rights, simply by the fact of being human. These are called ―human rights‖ rather than a privilege (which can be taken away at someone’s whim).
They are ―rights‖ because they are things you are allowed to be, to do or to have. These rights are there for your protection against people who might want to harm or hurt you. They are also there to help us get along with each other and live in peace. Many people know something about their rights. Generally they know they have the right to food and a safe place to stay. They know, they have a right to be pad for the work they do. But there are many other rights. When human rights are not well known by people, abuses such as discrimination, intolerance, injustice, oppression and slavery can arise. Born out of the atrocities and enormous loss of life during World War II, the United Nationals Universal. Declaration of Human Rights was singed in 1948 to provide a common understanding of what everyone’s right are. It forms that basis for a world built on, freedom, justice and peace .
IntroductionThe United Nations (UN) came into being in1945, shortly after the end of World War II.The stated purpose of the UN is to bring peace toall nations of the world. After World War II, acommittee of persons headed by Mrs. EleanorRoosevelt, the wife of US President Franklin D.Roosevelt, wrote a special document which―declares‖ the rights that everyone in the entireworld should have—the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights. Today there are 192 member statesof the UN, all of whom have signed on inagreement with the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights.
Where Do Universal Rights Begin?"In small places, close to home—so close and so smallthat they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. Yetthey are the world of the individual person; theneighborhood he lives in; the school or college heattends; the factory, farm or office where he works. Suchare the places where every man, woman, and child seeksequal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity withoutdiscrimination. Unless these rights have meaningthere, they have little meaning anywhere. Withoutconcerted citizen action to uphold them close tohome, we shall look in vain for progress in the largerworld."Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of US President Franklin D.Roosevelt, and Chair of the United Nations Commissionthat wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in1948.
Human rights are the rights a person has simply because he or she is a human being.All human beings are born free and equal in dignity andrights. They are endowed with reason and conscience andshould act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.Kant said that human beings have an intrinsic value absentin inanimate objects. To violate a human right wouldtherefore be failure to recognize the worth of human life.Human right is a concept that has been constantly evolvingthroughout human history. They have been intricately tiedto the laws, customs and religions throughout the ages.Most societies have had traditions similar to the ―goldenrule‖ of ―Do unto other says you would have them do untoyou.‖ The Hindu Vedas, the Babylonian Code ofHammurabi, the Bible, the Qurann (Koran), and the Analectsof Confucius are five of the oldest written sources whichaddress questions of people’s duties, rights, andresponsibilities.
Different countries ensure these rights in different way. In India they are contained in the Constitution as fundamental rights, i.e. they are guaranteed stature. In the UK they are available through precedence, various elements having been laid down by the courts through case law. In addition, international law and conventions also provide certain safeguards. Human rights refer to the ―basic right and freedoms to which all humans are entitled‖. Examples of rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to live and liberty, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the rights to participate in culture, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education.
―A human right is a universal moral right, something which all men, everywhere, at all times ought to have, something of which no one may be deprived without a grave affront to justice, something which is owing to every human simply because he is human.‖ Human rights are inalienable: you cannot lose these rights any more than you can cease being a human being. Human rights are intendependent: all human rights are part of a complementary framework. For example, your ability to participate in your government is directly affected by your right to express yourself, to get an education, and even to obtain the necessities of life.
Another definition for human rights is thosebasic standard without which people cannotlive identity. To violate someone’s humanrights is to treat the at person as though he orshe was not a human being. To advocatehuman rights is to demand that the humandignity of all people be respected.In claiming these human rights, everyone alsoaccepts the responsibility not to infringe on therights of others and to support those whorights are abused or denied.
Any society that is to protect human rights must have the following characteristics: A de jure or free state in which the right to self-determination and rule of law exist. A legal system for the protection of human rights. Effective organized (existing within the framework of the state) or unorganized guarantees.
1. First generation rights which include civil and political rights. 2. Second generation rights such as economic, social and cultural rights. 3. Third generation rights such as the right of self-determination and the right to participate in the benefits form mankind’s common heritage.
Human rights may be either positive or negative. An example of the former is the right to a fair trial and an example of the latter is the right not be tortured. Universal Declaration of Human Rights This simplified version of the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has created especially for young people.
1. WE ARE ALL BORN FREE & EQUAL. We all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.2. DON’T DISCRIMINATE. These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.3. THE RIGHT TO LIFE. We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.4. TO SLAVERY: Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our salve.5. NO TORTURE. Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us.6. YOU HAVE RIGHTS TO MATTER WHERE YOU GO. I am a person just like you!7. WE’RE ALL EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW. The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.8. YOUR HUMAN RIGHTS ARE PROTECTED BY LAW. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly.9. NO UNFAIR DETAINMENT. Nobody has the right to put us in prison without good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country.
10. THE RIGHT TO TRIAL. If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do.11. WE’RE ALWAYS INNOCENT TILL PROVEN GUILTY. Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.12. THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY. Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters, or bother us or our family without a good reason.13. FREEDOM TO MOVE. We all have the right to go where we ant in our own country and to travel as we wish.14. THE RIGHT TO SEEK A SAFE PLACE TO LIVE. If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.15. THE RIGHT TO SEEK A SAFE PLACE TO LIVE. If we are the right to belong to a country.16. MARRIAGE AND FAMILY. Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.
17. THE RIGHT TO YOUR OWN THINGS. Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.18. FREEDOM OF THOUGHT. We all have the right to live in what we want to believe, to have religion, or to change it if we want.19. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION. We all have the right to make up own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.20. THE RIGHT TO PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in pace to defend our rights. The righto take part in the government of our country.21. RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GOVERNMENT. Every grown- up should be allowed TO CHOOSE THEIR OWN LEADER.S22. SOCIAL SECURITY. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education , and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.23. WORKER’S RIGHTS. Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.
24. THE RIGHT TO PLAY. We all have the right to rest from work and to relax.25. FOOD AND SHELTER FOR ALL. We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.26. THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION. Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.27. COPYRIGHT. Copyright is a special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; other cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that art, science and learning bring.28. A FAIR AND FREE WORLD. There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.29. RESPONSIBILITY. We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.30. No one Can Take Away Your Human Rights.