Multistakeholder_Model-Histories-Trends-Recent Developments


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The Multistakeholder Internet Governance Model: Histories,Trends, Recent Developments, Lessons for the developing world.

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Multistakeholder_Model-Histories-Trends-Recent Developments

  1. 1. The Multistakeholder Model Histories, Trends, Recent Developments, Lessons for Ghana Edwin A. Opare General Secretary, ISOC Ghana 10th July, 2014
  2. 2. Overview • Definitions • Stakeholder • Multistakeholder Model(MSM) • Internet Governance • History & Trends • WSIS • Geneva Summit, 2003 • Tunis Summit, 2005 (Tunis Agenda) • Internet Ecosystem • Global Ecosystem • Ghana Ecosystem
  3. 3. Overview • Recent Developments • WCIT-12 • Snowdenism • I* Montevideo Statement • Panel on Global Internet Corporation & Governance Mechanisms • /1Net • NTIA/IANA Stewardship Transition • NetMundial • Enhancing ICANN Accountability • Where to Engage • Global IGF • Africa IGF • West Africa IGF • Local Internet Activities (Capacity building, Policy Development etc) • Lessons for Ghana
  4. 4. Stakeholder An individual, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect interest or stake in a particular organization or subject. These may include government(s), international organisations, civil society, private sector, technical communities, and academic organisations.
  5. 5. Multistakeholder Model (MSM) Multistakeholder Governance Model is a governance structure that seeks to bring stakeholders together to participate in the dialogue, decision making, and implementation of solutions to common problems or goals.
  6. 6. Internet Governance A working definition of Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet. Source: Tunis Agenda - Paragraph 34
  7. 7. WSIS The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. One of its chief aims was to bridge the digital divide separating rich countries from poor countries by spreading access to the Internet in the developing world.
  8. 8. WSIS - Geneva Summit, 2003 • Delegates from 175 countries took part in the first phase of WSIS. • A Declaration of Principles - a road map for achieving an information society accessible to all and based on shared knowledge was adopted. • A Plan of Action - sets out a goal of bringing 50 percent of the world's population online by 2015. It does not spell out any specifics of how this might be achieved. • The Geneva summit also left unresolved more controversial issues, including the question of the future of Internet governance and funding. • When the 2003 summit failed to agree on the future of Internet governance, the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) was formed to come up with ideas on how to progress.
  9. 9. WSIS – Tunisia Summit, 2005 • The second phase of WSIS held in Tunis, Tunisia in 2005 resulted in agreement on the Tunis Commitment and the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society(TAIS), and the creation of the Internet Governance Forum. • The summit itself attracted 1,500 participants from International Organizations, 6,200 from NGOs, 4,800 from the private sector, and 980 from the media with event funding provided by several countries. • A dispute over control of the Internet threatened to derail the conference. However, a last-minute decision to leave control in the hands of the United States-based ICANN for the time being avoided a major blow-up. • As a compromise there was also an agreement to set up an international Internet Governance Forum and Enhanced Cooperation, with a purely consultative role.
  10. 10. The WSIS Stocktaking Process • The WSIS Stocktaking Process is a follow-up to WSIS. • Its purpose is to provide a register of activities carried out by governments, international organizations, the business sector, civil society and other entities, in order to highlight the progress made since the landmark event. • Following paragraph 120 of the TAIS, ITU has been maintaining the WSIS Stocktaking database as a publicly accessible system providing information on ICT-related initiatives and projects with reference to the Plan of Action developed at the Geneva Summit.
  11. 11. Tunis Summit - APC Recommendations • Just on the eve of the November 2005 Tunis event, the Association for Progressive Communications(APC) came out with its stand. • APC proposed specific actions in each of the following five areas: • The establishment of an Internet Governance Forum; • The transformation of ICANN into a global body with full authority over DNS management, and an appropriate form of accountability to its stakeholders in government, private sector, and civil society;
  12. 12. Tunis Summit - APC Recommendations • The initiation of a multi-stakeholder convention on internet governance and universal human rights that will codify the basic rights applicable to the internet, which will be legally binding in international law with particular emphasis on clauses in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights directly relevant to the internet, such as the rights to freedom of expression, association, and privacy. • Ensuring internet access is universal and affordable. APC argued: "The internet is a global public space that should be open and accessible to all on a non- discriminatory basis. The internet, therefore, must be seen as a global public infrastructure. In this regard we recognize the internet to be a global public good related to the concept of the common heritage of humanity and access to it is in the public interest, and must be provided as a global public commitment to equality“. • Measures to promote capacity building in "developing" countries with regard to increasing "developing" country participation in global public policy forums on internet governance.
  13. 13. Global Internet Ecosystem There is no definitive list of organisations and there are a lot of participants! Some of the significant entities include: • Internet Society (ISOC) • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • Internet Architecture Board (IAB) • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) • Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) • Regional Network Operators Groups (*nogs) • W3C, ITU, and many more!
  14. 14. Global Internet Ecosystem - RIRs The RIRs are responsible, within their assigned regions, for allocating globally unique IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) and autonomous system numbers (ASNs). Allocation policies are determined in- region through open policy development processes. Number Resource Organisation (NRO) is comprised of the five RIRs and coordinates global allocation policies.
  15. 15. Global Internet Ecosystem - *NOGs • *NOGs focus on information exchange between ISPs and network operators within a region. • They work to deliver key information and experiences to those who need it – the network operator. • The act as a human networking opportunity so people can meet and interact with their peers and other companies. Critical for when things go bad on the network!
  16. 16. Ghana Internet Ecosystem
  17. 17. Ghana Internet Ecosystem Cont. • Policies: reforms since '96, ICT4AD... • Laws: NCA,NITA, ETA,DP Acts • Regulators: NCA, NITA, Data Protection Commissioner,... • Providers: GISPA, • Civil Society: Telecom chambe, ISOC, ITAG, GASSCOM, GhNOG, Consumer Protection Agency, GhIGF..,GhNIC
  18. 18. WCIT-12 • ITU convened the World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from 3-14 December 2012. • This conference reviewed the current International Telecommunications Regulations (ITRs), which serve as the binding global treaty designed to facilitate international interconnection and interoperability of information and communication services, as well as ensuring their efficiency and widespread public usefulness and availability.
  19. 19. Snowdenism • Revelations about NSA, GCHQ Massive Online Pervasive Surveillance Activities • Xkeyscore • Tempora • Prism
  20. 20. I* Montevideo Statement • The leaders of organizations responsible for coordination of the Internet technical infrastructure globally met in Montevideo, Uruguay, to consider current issues affecting the future of the Internet following revelations by Edward Snowden. • The I* (ISOC,ICANN, IETF/IAB, IANA and 5 RIRs) organizations in their statement stressed the need to maintain an open, resilient, stable, secure, unfragmented(single) Internet.
  21. 21. Panel on Global Internet Corporation & Governance Mechanisms • Chaired by President Toomas Ilves of Estonia, and vice chaired by Vint Cerf, the Panel met during a series of in-person and virtual meetings from November 2013 to May 2014. • By end of May, the Panel released its final report: “Towards a Collaborative, Decentralized Internet Governance Ecosystem” • The purpose and specific mandate of this Panel was to advance discussion on Internet governance issues, identify the framework, principles and processes to evolve the IG ecosystem, and present a roadmap for the evolution of global Internet cooperation. • The Panel’s Report presents recommended next steps towards a developed, collaborative, decentralized Internet governance ecosystem (by 2017) reflecting the velocity and transnational nature of the Internet.
  22. 22. Panel Topline Recommendations • Coalesce and support broad multistakeholder alliances; • Develop new and strengthen existing IG mechanisms; • Evolve collaborative decision-making; • Establish urgently needed sustainable funding and resource models to enable IG evolution and to strengthen and operationalize the collaborative IG ecosystem; • Support ICANN accountability and IANA globalization; • Explore additional questions to be answered for moving forward.
  23. 23. /1Net • The purpose of 1net is to provide an inclusive and open venue supporting discussion of Internet governance matters for all those interested (individuals, governments, civil societies, technicians, etc.) and to deliver the results of those discussions to the agendas of established and developing Internet governance institutions. • Discussions on /1net happens on the /1net mailing list and periodic publications on the /1net website. • Visit to get engaged
  24. 24. NTIA/IANA Stewardship Transition • The NTIA under the US Commerce Department in March 2014 announced its intention to transition its oversight responsibility of the IANA Functions to the Global Internet Community after its contract with ICANN expires in 2015 • Visit to get engaged
  25. 25. NETMundial • The Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance dubbed NETMundial took place in Sao Paolo, Brazil from April 23-24, 2014. • NEMundial Executive Secretariat consolidated 188 content contributions made by stakeholders into a draft Outcome document. Draft outcome document was made available for public comments between April 15th and 21st. • A total of 1,370 comments were received, consolidated into one single report by NEMundial Executive Secretariat • The meeting congregated 1,480 stakeholders with active voices (including remote participation), from a diversity of 97 nations. • The meeting followed an initiative proposed by and /1net. • Visit for more information on NetMundial and to download the final version NetMundial Outcome document
  26. 26. Enhancing ICANN Accountability • How should ICANN’s broader accountability mechanisms be strengthened to address the absence of its historical contractual relationship to the U.S. Government?
  27. 27. Where to Engage • Global IGF • Africa IGF • West Africa IGF • Local Internet Activities (Capacity building, Policy Development etc)
  28. 28. Where to Engage Standards Development • IETF • W3C Network Organisations • *nogs • ISOC Policy and Regulation • ISOC • ICANN • RIRs • ITU
  29. 29. Lessons for Ghana The world will not wait for us while we take forever to decide when and how we engage in Global Internet Governance discussions! The time to get involved is now, Ghana!!!
  30. 30. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. cooperation 7. 8. nternet%20Governance%20iPDF_06.pdf 9. 10. 11. 12. 06-en
  31. 31. The End