The Multistakeholder Model
Histories, Trends, Recent Developments, Lessons for Ghana
Edwin A. Opare
General Secretary, ISOC Ghana
10th July, 2014
• Multistakeholder Model(MSM)
• Internet Governance
• History & Trends
• Geneva Summit, 2003
• Tunis Summit, 2005 (Tunis Agenda)
• Internet Ecosystem
• Global Ecosystem
• Ghana Ecosystem
• Recent Developments
• I* Montevideo Statement
• Panel on Global Internet Corporation & Governance Mechanisms
• NTIA/IANA Stewardship Transition
• Enhancing ICANN Accountability
• Where to Engage
• Global IGF
• Africa IGF
• West Africa IGF
• Local Internet Activities (Capacity building, Policy Development etc)
• Lessons for Ghana
An individual, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect
interest or stake in a particular organization or subject. These
may include government(s), international organisations, civil
society, private sector, technical communities, and academic
Multistakeholder Model (MSM)
Multistakeholder Governance Model is a governance structure
that seeks to bring stakeholders together to participate in the
dialogue, decision making, and implementation of solutions to
common problems or goals.
A working definition of Internet governance is the development
and application by governments, the private sector and civil
society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms,
rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that
shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
Source: Tunis Agenda - Paragraph 34
The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)
was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences
about information, communication and, in broad terms,
the information society that took place in 2003 in
Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis.
One of its chief aims was to bridge the digital divide
separating rich countries from poor countries by
spreading access to the Internet in the developing world.
WSIS - Geneva Summit, 2003
• Delegates from 175 countries took part in the first phase of WSIS.
• A Declaration of Principles - a road map for achieving an information
society accessible to all and based on shared knowledge was adopted.
• A Plan of Action - sets out a goal of bringing 50 percent of the world's
population online by 2015. It does not spell out any specifics of how this
might be achieved.
• The Geneva summit also left unresolved more controversial issues,
including the question of the future of Internet governance and funding.
• When the 2003 summit failed to agree on the future of Internet
governance, the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) was
formed to come up with ideas on how to progress.
WSIS – Tunisia Summit, 2005
• The second phase of WSIS held in Tunis, Tunisia in 2005 resulted in agreement
on the Tunis Commitment and the Tunis Agenda for the Information
Society(TAIS), and the creation of the Internet Governance Forum.
• The summit itself attracted 1,500 participants from International Organizations,
6,200 from NGOs, 4,800 from the private sector, and 980 from the media with
event funding provided by several countries.
• A dispute over control of the Internet threatened to derail the conference.
However, a last-minute decision to leave control in the hands of the United
States-based ICANN for the time being avoided a major blow-up.
• As a compromise there was also an agreement to set up an
international Internet Governance Forum and Enhanced Cooperation, with a
purely consultative role.
The WSIS Stocktaking Process
• The WSIS Stocktaking Process is a follow-up to WSIS.
• Its purpose is to provide a register of activities carried out by
governments, international organizations, the business sector,
civil society and other entities, in order to highlight the progress
made since the landmark event.
• Following paragraph 120 of the TAIS, ITU has been maintaining
the WSIS Stocktaking database as a publicly accessible system
providing information on ICT-related initiatives and projects with
reference to the Plan of Action developed at the Geneva Summit.
Tunis Summit - APC Recommendations
• Just on the eve of the November 2005 Tunis event,
the Association for Progressive Communications(APC) came
out with its stand.
• APC proposed specific actions in each of the following five
• The establishment of an Internet Governance Forum;
• The transformation of ICANN into a global body with full authority over
DNS management, and an appropriate form of accountability to its
stakeholders in government, private sector, and civil society;
Tunis Summit - APC Recommendations
• The initiation of a multi-stakeholder convention on internet governance and
universal human rights that will codify the basic rights applicable to the internet,
which will be legally binding in international law with particular emphasis on
clauses in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights directly relevant to the
internet, such as the rights to freedom of expression, association, and privacy.
• Ensuring internet access is universal and affordable. APC argued: "The internet is
a global public space that should be open and accessible to all on a non-
discriminatory basis. The internet, therefore, must be seen as a global public
infrastructure. In this regard we recognize the internet to be a global public good
related to the concept of the common heritage of humanity and access to it is in
the public interest, and must be provided as a global public commitment to
• Measures to promote capacity building in "developing" countries with regard to
increasing "developing" country participation in global public policy forums on
Global Internet Ecosystem
There is no
and there are
a lot of
Some of the significant entities
• Internet Society (ISOC)
• Internet Engineering Task Force
• Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
• Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN)
• Internet Assigned Numbers
• Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)
• Regional Network Operators
• W3C, ITU, and many more!
Global Internet Ecosystem - RIRs
The RIRs are responsible, within their
assigned regions, for allocating globally
unique IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) and
autonomous system numbers (ASNs).
Allocation policies are determined in-
region through open policy development
Number Resource Organisation (NRO) is
comprised of the five RIRs and
coordinates global allocation policies.
Global Internet Ecosystem - *NOGs
• *NOGs focus on information
exchange between ISPs and network
operators within a region.
• They work to deliver key information
and experiences to those who need it
– the network operator.
• The act as a human networking
opportunity so people can meet and
interact with their peers and other
companies. Critical for when things
go bad on the network!
• ITU convened the World Conference on International
Telecommunications (WCIT) in Dubai, United Arab
Emirates, from 3-14 December 2012.
• This conference reviewed the current International
Telecommunications Regulations (ITRs), which
serve as the binding global treaty designed to
facilitate international interconnection and
interoperability of information and communication
services, as well as ensuring their efficiency and
widespread public usefulness and availability.
I* Montevideo Statement
• The leaders of organizations responsible for
coordination of the Internet technical infrastructure
globally met in Montevideo, Uruguay, to consider
current issues affecting the future of the Internet
following revelations by Edward Snowden.
• The I* (ISOC,ICANN, IETF/IAB, IANA and 5 RIRs)
organizations in their statement stressed the need to
maintain an open, resilient, stable, secure,
Panel on Global Internet Corporation &
• Chaired by President Toomas Ilves of Estonia, and vice chaired by Vint Cerf,
the Panel met during a series of in-person and virtual meetings from
November 2013 to May 2014.
• By end of May, the Panel released its final report: “Towards a Collaborative,
Decentralized Internet Governance Ecosystem”
• The purpose and specific mandate of this Panel was to advance discussion
on Internet governance issues, identify the framework, principles and
processes to evolve the IG ecosystem, and present a roadmap for the
evolution of global Internet cooperation.
• The Panel’s Report presents recommended next steps towards a developed,
collaborative, decentralized Internet governance ecosystem (by 2017)
reflecting the velocity and transnational nature of the Internet.
Panel Topline Recommendations
• Coalesce and support broad multistakeholder alliances;
• Develop new and strengthen existing IG mechanisms;
• Evolve collaborative decision-making;
• Establish urgently needed sustainable funding and resource models to
enable IG evolution and to strengthen and operationalize the collaborative
• Support ICANN accountability and IANA globalization;
• Explore additional questions to be answered for moving forward.
• The purpose of 1net is to provide an inclusive and
open venue supporting discussion of Internet
governance matters for all those interested
(individuals, governments, civil societies, technicians,
etc.) and to deliver the results of those discussions to
the agendas of established and developing Internet
• Discussions on /1net happens on the /1net mailing list
and periodic publications on the /1net website.
• Visit www.1net.org to get engaged
NTIA/IANA Stewardship Transition
• The NTIA under the US Commerce Department in
March 2014 announced its intention to transition its
oversight responsibility of the IANA Functions to the
Global Internet Community after its contract with
ICANN expires in 2015
• Visit www.icann.org/stewardship to get engaged
• The Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance dubbed
NETMundial took place in Sao Paolo, Brazil from April 23-24, 2014.
• NEMundial Executive Secretariat consolidated 188 content contributions made by
stakeholders into a draft Outcome document. Draft outcome document was made
available for public comments between April 15th and 21st.
• A total of 1,370 comments were received, consolidated into one single report by
NEMundial Executive Secretariat
• The meeting congregated 1,480 stakeholders with active voices (including remote
participation), from a diversity of 97 nations.
• The meeting followed an initiative proposed by CGI.br and /1net.
• Visit http://netmundial.br/ for more information on NetMundial and to download the
final version NetMundial Outcome document
Enhancing ICANN Accountability
• How should ICANN’s broader accountability
mechanisms be strengthened to address the absence
of its historical contractual relationship to the U.S.
Where to Engage
• Global IGF
• Africa IGF
• West Africa IGF
• Local Internet Activities (Capacity building, Policy
Where to Engage
Lessons for Ghana
The world will not wait for us while we take forever to
decide when and how we engage in Global Internet
Governance discussions! The time to get involved is now,