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Introduction to sms technology
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  1. 1. SMS APPLICATIONS twitter:
  2. 2. Agenda • Messaging Protocols – USSD, SMS, MMS • SMS Background • SMS Applications • Designing SMS Applications • Course Infrastructure – J2me SMS – SMSLib – Active XPerts - php twitter:
  3. 3. Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) •Short, user-initiated responses (pull) • –Balance check: Vodacom,tigo: *102# •USSD supported in all GSM phones. •New standards support push messages –Balance Transfer –M-Pesa –Instant messaging •USSD is not SMS! twitter:
  4. 4. Short Message Service (SMS) •GSM Protocol that allows for exchange of short messages •CDMA networks also have SMS protocol •Each SMS messages is 140 bytes (byte = 8 bits). –Can encode up to 160 7-bit characters using default GSM alphabet twitter:
  5. 5. Multimedia Message Service (MMS) •Extension to SMS that allows message to include more content: –Images, videos, and audio •Use WAP browser to display the message •Much bigger payload than SMS •Problems: –Displaying on different phone (content adaption) –Access to MMSC from provider twitter:
  6. 6. Short Message Service Center (SMSC) •GSM network node that delivers SMS messages •When user sends a messages: •Forwarded to SMSC •Stored at SMSC until it can be delivered to recipient –If msg cannot be delivered, queue for later retry –Termed Store-and-Forward •Some SMSCs also provide a "forward and forget" option where transmission is tried only once •SMSCs now connected to Internet –Better quality of service twitter:
  7. 7. SMS Gateways •Device or service providing SMS transport –Allowing SMS transport with or without phone –Allow SMS traffic between business and mobiles •Direct To Mobile Gateway Appliance –Mobile phone or USB GSM modem –Connected to PC, can send/receive messages –Good for low to medium message volume (this class!) •Direct To SMSC Gateway –Gateway connected to SMSC via Internet –Business has interface to Gateway (usually Internet) •Gateway then forwards message to SMSC (SMPP) twitter:
  8. 8. Gateway Software for Business •Installed on Business computer to send/receive messages •Can use either Direct-to-Mobile or Direct-to- SMSC –Can use multiple at same time! •Require either: –Sending device (phone/modem) –Contract with Operator or Service Provider twitter:
  9. 9. Gateway Software for Business Examples: –NowSMS •Not open-source –Active Expert –Kannel •Linux •Open source •Written in C –smslib •Windows XP •Open-source •Written in Java twitter:
  10. 10. Gateway Software for Business Examples: -SMS Enabler –OZEKI –Active Xperts twitter:
  11. 11. Direct To Mobile Gateway •Using a phone or GSM Modem as a Windows modem –Connecting –Installing –Testing •PC to modem/phone connections –USB –Bluetooth –Infrared twitter:
  12. 12. Service Providers •Service providers have contracts with operators –Resell SMS services to you –Provide APIs to send/receive messages •HTTP, PHP, Java, etc. –Can use Gateway software also (smslib) •Examples: –Clickatell •Problems: –Hard to send messages twitter:
  13. 13. Gateways •The Service itself is useless. Before starting the Service, you should define your gateways. •Gateways refer to the physical devices or services which can send and/or receive messages. •SMSLib has the following predefined gateways: –Serial modem gateway (classorg.smslib.modem.SerialModemGateway): –For modems which are connected via serial ports (or emulated serial ports, like USB etc). –IP modem gateway (classorg.smslib.modem.IPModemGateway): for modems which are connected via IP interfaces twitter:
  14. 14. Gateways….cont •Clickatell gateway (classorg.smslib.http.ClickatellHTTPGateway): for sending messages viaClickatell. •BulkSMS gateway (classorg.smslib.http.BulkSmsHTTPGateway): for sending messages viaBulkSMS. •SMPP gateway (classorg.smslib.smpp.jsmpp.JSMPPGateway): for sending / receiving messages via the SMPP protocol. twitter:
  15. 15. SMS Applications twitter:
  16. 16. SMS is Ubiquitous •Least-common denominator technology. –All phone support SMS –Almost everyone is familiar with SMS –SMS messages are cheap, free on some networks •Reach the most users •But many constraints twitter:
  17. 17. Types of SMS Applications •Information Push •Information Pull •State Update •Mobile-Based Systems •Redirect •Downloads twitter:
  18. 18. Information Push •Broadcasting information to a group –Bible verses, jokes, pickup lines •Alerts and notifications: –Ex: weather warnings, coupons, email notification, stock notification, credit card alerts •Users can subscribe and unsubscribe –Via SMS, web portal or email •Users can pay for service –Daily / monthly / yearly rate –Operator agreement –Reverse SMS billing (charge receiver) twitter:
  19. 19. Information Pull (Query) •Two way interaction •User sends a formatted message requesting information –Ex: Google search, phone number search, directions, weather, sport scores, transportation information •User subscription or charged per message –Operator agreement –Reverse billing twitter:
  20. 20. State Update •User sends a message to update the state of a system –Maybe an acknowledgment is returned •Examples: –Voting Systems •Idols East Africa –Update the state of an Internet site •Update Facebook/Twitter status, update personal blog, micro-publishing –Disaster Information: •Update disaster locations to inform others via SMS –SMS Forms: •Predefined format •Medical Records, Field Surveys, Business Agents twitter:
  21. 21. Mobile-Based Systems •User interacts with full system via SMS –User has continued presence with system –Database backed •Protocol of SMS interactions –“command arguments” •Menu driven with session support: –Have to remember the state of the users interactions •Examples: –Independent M-Pesa, IM networks, classified ads twitter:
  22. 22. Downloading •SMS messages can carry binary data •SMS can be used as the transport layer for wireless downloads. –Ex: ringtones, wallpapers, pictures twitter:
  23. 23. Redirect •SMS as redirection for phone user –Can be automatic or require click on link •Provide a link to WAP site. –Download ringtone (Cellulant) –Download image –Download application twitter: