ment of                                             g Environ                                       hangin                ...
!  Laboratory Medicine is a canonical field   of study for degree courses in medicine   as well as for other courses direc...
!  Being a pervasive discipline, ML represents a   elevant field of study of either pre- or   postgraduation curricula.!  ...
!  The more recent integrated concept of   medical pedagogy where instruction in   clinical disciplines starts early and  ...
!  From an academic point of view, LM   represents an area of teaching that   comprises disciplines such as clinical   bio...
Course of Laboratory Medicine forUndergraduate Students!  Test Ordering! Preanalytical Issues!  Analytical Issues!  Test I...
Medical Laboratory   Technicians (MLTs)!   Also known as BIOMEDICAL TECHNICIANS.!   The main work of MLTs is directed at e...
Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLTs)!   MLTs prepare specimens for histology    examination, perform cell counts, and eva...
The Profession of Laboratory Technologist/ Technicians in the United States!   There are two levels of clinical laboratory...
The Profession of Laboratory Technologist/  Technicians in the United States!  The usual requirement for an entry-level   ...
!  Agencies that accredit specific areas for   clinical laboratory workers include: !  The National Accrediting Agency for...
!   Some states require laboratory personnel to be    licensed or certified.!   Licensure of technologists often requires ...
!   Technicians can advance and become chief    medical technologists or clinical laboratory    technologists or laborator...
The Profession of Laboratory  Technician in Europe!   Medical/Biomedical laboratory technician is the one    main recogniz...
!   Curricula:!   Training at the post-secondary level, of at least 1 year, or    of an equivalent duration on a part-time...
Main Tasks, Attribution, and Duties of   Laboratory Technicians!   Tasks include sampling, preparing, processing, testing,...
!   Responsible for actions under their competence,    conduct laboratory analysis and research pertaining to    biomedica...
!   They control and verify the correct operation of the    equipment employed and provide for its day-to-day    maintenan...
Activities performed in clinical   laboratories by technicians!   Performing laboratory tests in order to produce reliable...
!   Constructing, maintaining, and operating standard    laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges, titrators,    pipettin...
!   Ensuring the laboratory is well stocked and resourced;!   Recording and sometimes interpreting, results to be    shown...
!   Conducting searches on identified topics relevant to the    research;!   Following and ensuring strict safety procedur...
Training of Laboratory    Technicians!   When starting with university-based courses, the    student lab technician should...
!   When starting with university-based courses, the    student lab technician should learn some preliminary    concepts a...
!   Before end of training, competence in the procedure of    validation of laboratory report is addressed and    explored...
POST GRADUATE TRAINING IN LABORATORY MEDICINE!   According to ELEFTHERIOS DIAMANDIS, a laboratory    scientist is not exac...
The EC4 Register!   The EC4 Register came under the direction of the    European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and    L...
The EC4 Register!   According to the EC4, training must involve dedicated    postgraduate study of at least 4 years, follo...
The EC4 Register!   The main issues comprising this program include  !   knowledge of biochemistry, hematology, microbiolo...
POSTGRADAUTE EDUCATION IN THE  UNITED STATES!   In 1995, four major pathology organizations, the    Association of Patholo...
!   The task force concluded that after completing CP residency    training, the resident should have acquired enough skil...
!   The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical    Education (ACGME) has mandated the development of a    defined curri...
!   The Goals of Training in CP:  !   Capacity of communicating test results  !   Knowledge and understanding of methods o...
!  POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION IN  ITALY !  Involves dedicated postgraduate study of 5 years,    following a university educati...
!  Educational goals !  Interdisciplinary goals in the subarea of diagnostic    and therapeutic clinical services, includi...
!  Educational program: !  Participation in diagnostic run for at least 1000    patients; !  Attendance at the outpatient ...
!  Postgraduate Education in the  United Kingdom !  Curriculum encompasses a 5 year training but    entry is competitive a...
!   In stage A (12 months), the trainee gathers a comprehensive    understanding of the principles and practice of chemica...
!  Curriculum content !  Two aspects of good medical practice and core    chemical pathology which is developed through   ...
!   Minimum requirement is a BSc Honors degree!   4 years specialist postgraduate training is required for    registration...
!   Minimum requirement is a BSc Honors degree!   4 years specialist postgraduate training is required for    registration...
!   The detailed content of the discipline-specific    curriculum is determined by the Association for    Clinical Biochem...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other European   Countries !   Netherlands. They are enlisted in the Register of     Recogniz...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other European   Countries !  Spain. Clinical biochemistry was first established as    indepe...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other European   Countries !  Croatia. The model, an undergraduate education in    clinical c...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other European   Countries !   Macedonia. The specialization in medical biochemistry/     cli...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other Non-   European Countries !  Canada. The training of medical biochemists is    regulate...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other Non-   European Countries !  Australia. Education of clinical biochemists occurs    aft...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other Non-   European Countries !  Taiwan. The Taiwan Society of Clinical Pathologists    dev...
!  Postgraduate Education in Other Non-   European Countries !  Japan. The program encompasses emergency tests,    blood t...
!  Conclusions !   The field of laboratory diagnostics is undergoing remarkable     changes in organization and complexity...
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Education and training in the changing environment of laboratory medicine pdf

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clinical laboratory science programs across international settings.

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Education and training in the changing environment of laboratory medicine pdf

  1. 1. ment of g Environ hangin ng in the C n and Traini E ducatio y M e di ci ne or and L aborat y PathologREFERENCE: Quality Assurance in the Pathology Laboratory by MJ Bogusz, 2011 edwineiou
  2. 2. !  Laboratory Medicine is a canonical field of study for degree courses in medicine as well as for other courses directed at healthcare professionals.!  In the past several years, there has been a tremendous upheaval in medical curricula due to series of boosts coming from either the great scientific advancements or the new healthcare organization and management edwineiou
  3. 3. !  Being a pervasive discipline, ML represents a elevant field of study of either pre- or postgraduation curricula.!  Instrumental or methodological laboratory technologies have widely exploited the exponential progress of informatics and chemometrics with a huge gain in terms of analytic quality.!  Incessant translation of relevant research results into clinical advantage to patients, mainly by the increasing availability of predictive and diagnostic procedures. edwineiou
  4. 4. !  The more recent integrated concept of medical pedagogy where instruction in clinical disciplines starts early and gradually forms the bulk of the basic sciences and then progressively gains importance during the last year. This approach is believed to be highly effective and is able to optimize the learning abilities of the students. edwineiou
  5. 5. !  From an academic point of view, LM represents an area of teaching that comprises disciplines such as clinical biochemistry, clinical microbiology, clinical pathology, and, more recently and increasingly, molecular biology, particularly for aspects of pathological and clinical relevance. edwineiou
  6. 6. Course of Laboratory Medicine forUndergraduate Students!  Test Ordering! Preanalytical Issues!  Analytical Issues!  Test Interpretation edwineiou
  7. 7. Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLTs)!   Also known as BIOMEDICAL TECHNICIANS.!   The main work of MLTs is directed at examining and analyzing biological samples.!   In particular, MLTs analyze the physicochemical composition of organic fluids; test for drug levels in the blood, in order to assess the best therapeutic regimen, and to ascertain how a patient is responding to treatment; match and prepare blood for transfusions; and look for bacteria, parasites, and other microorganisms. edwineiou
  8. 8. Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLTs)!   MLTs prepare specimens for histology examination, perform cell counts, and evaluate possible cell abnormalities in blood and other body fluids.!   The work of MLTs is mainly performed with automated and computerized instruments, cell counters, and other sophisticated laboratory equipment, including the more recent instruments capable of performing arrays of tests mainly directed at investigating alterations at genetic and molecular levels. edwineiou
  9. 9. The Profession of Laboratory Technologist/ Technicians in the United States!   There are two levels of clinical laboratory personnel with technical qualifications: technologist (higher) and technicians (lower).!   The technologists are entitled to perform more complex examinations, such as evaluating test results, developing and modifying procedures, establishing and monitoring programs, and ensuring the accuracy of tests.!   Technologists can supervise one or more clinical laboratory technicians. edwineiou
  10. 10. The Profession of Laboratory Technologist/ Technicians in the United States!  The usual requirement for an entry-level position as a clinical laboratory technologist is a bachelor’s degree, with a major in medical technology or one of the life sciences.!  Medical and clinical laboratory technicians have either an associate degree from community college or certificate from hospital, technical school or armed forces. edwineiou
  11. 11. !  Agencies that accredit specific areas for clinical laboratory workers include: !  The National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences !  The Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs !  The Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools. edwineiou
  12. 12. !   Some states require laboratory personnel to be licensed or certified.!   Licensure of technologists often requires a bachelor’s degree and the passing of an examination, but requirements may vary by state and specialty. Moreover, many employers prefer applicants who are certified by a recognized professional association.!   Associations offering certification include the Board of Registry of the American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Medical Technologists, the National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel, and the Board of Registry of the American Association of Bioanalysts. edwineiou
  13. 13. !   Technicians can advance and become chief medical technologists or clinical laboratory technologists or laboratory managers.!   Manufacturers also seek experienced technologists to work in product development, marketing and sales. CL technologists and technicians held about 319,000 jobs in 2009.!   A doctorate degree is usually needed to become a laboratory director.!   Federal regulation requires directors of moderately complex laboratories to have either a master’s degree or a bachelor’s degree, combined with appropriate amount of training and experience. edwineiou
  14. 14. The Profession of Laboratory Technician in Europe!   Medical/Biomedical laboratory technician is the one main recognized level of clinical laboratory personnel with technical qualification which is listed among the professions covered by Directive 2005/36/EC.!   Laboratory technician falls under the “general system” and a regulated profession, meaning that access to and exercise of the profession are subordinate to the possession of a specific qualification. edwineiou
  15. 15. !   Curricula:!   Training at the post-secondary level, of at least 1 year, or of an equivalent duration on a part-time basis, with the condition of the successful completion of the secondary course required to obtain entry to university or!   The professional training with special structure equivalent to the level of training that provides a comparable level of responsibilities and functions.!   The alternative is training at higher or university level, of a duration of at least 3 years and not exceeding 4 years. edwineiou
  16. 16. Main Tasks, Attribution, and Duties of Laboratory Technicians!   Tasks include sampling, preparing, processing, testing, measuring, recording and analyzing results in a series of biological samples, including blood, urine, feces, CSF, etc.!   They also provide all the required technical support to enable the laboratory to function effectively, with constant observance of the correct procedures of health and safety guidelines. edwineiou
  17. 17. !   Responsible for actions under their competence, conduct laboratory analysis and research pertaining to biomedical and biotechnology analysis, and, in particular, biochemistry, microbiology and virology, pharmacology/toxicology, immunology, CP, hematology, and cytology and histopathology.!   Responsible for the correct fulfillment of the analytical procedures and of their work, in application of the working protocols defined by the lab director/manager; they will assess that the services supplied correspond to the indicators and standards predefined by the lab director/manager. edwineiou
  18. 18. !   They control and verify the correct operation of the equipment employed and provide for its day-to-day maintenance and the elimination of any small inconveniences!   They participate in programming and organizing the work within the lab!   They will contribute to the training of support personnel and to the updating of their professional profiles and to research. edwineiou
  19. 19. Activities performed in clinical laboratories by technicians!   Performing laboratory tests in order to produce reliable and precise data in support of patients, physicians, and scientific investigations;!   Carrying out routine tasks accurately, and following strict methodologies to perform analyses, fulfilling the total quality system adopted by the laboratory, in order to meet the regulatory and accreditation requirements;!   Preparing specimens and samples for analysis; edwineiou
  20. 20. !   Constructing, maintaining, and operating standard laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges, titrators, pipetting machines, and pH meters;!   Operating and maintaining automated laboratory equipment, such as blood counters, clinical chemistry analyzers, and immunometric analyzers;!   Operating and maintaining advanced laboratory instruments, such as gas and liquid chromatography analyzers and mass spectrometers;!   Operating and maintaining instruments for molecular biology and cytogenic studies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocyclers, denaturing high- performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) analyzers, and microarray equipment; edwineiou
  21. 21. !   Ensuring the laboratory is well stocked and resourced;!   Recording and sometimes interpreting, results to be shown to senior colleagues;!   Using computers and performing mathematical calculations for the preparation of graphs;!   Keeping up to date with technical developments, especially those that can save time and improve reliability;!   Demonstrating practical procedures, if working in education; edwineiou
  22. 22. !   Conducting searches on identified topics relevant to the research;!   Following and ensuring strict safety procedures and safety checks. edwineiou
  23. 23. Training of Laboratory Technicians!   When starting with university-based courses, the student lab technician should learn some preliminary concepts and practices dealing with pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic phases of laboratory testing, along with other important aspects of specimen collection, handling, and transportation.!   Preliminary phase dedicated to teaching some general prerequisites for laboratories, safety regulations, general and specific precautions. edwineiou
  24. 24. !   When starting with university-based courses, the student lab technician should learn some preliminary concepts and practices dealing with pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic phases of laboratory testing, along with other important aspects of specimen collection, handling, and transportation.!   Preliminary phase dedicated to teaching some general prerequisites for laboratories, safety regulations, general and specific precautions. As such, instructions regard the following: safety, pre-analytic phase, sample pre-processing and processing, analytic phase and post analytic phase. edwineiou
  25. 25. !   Before end of training, competence in the procedure of validation of laboratory report is addressed and explored in both analytical and clinical sides. In this context, the MLT is trained to be (1)responsible for completing/providing all the documents that are prepared in his or her area of autonomy/responsibility and that part of the analytical processes which the MLT is responsible for; (2) cooperative in compliance with standard indicators and predefined procedures as established by the laboratory.!   Also, bioinformatics are incorporated in the training since the compelling tasks that laboratory medicine will face in the coming years need strong support from informatics. edwineiou
  26. 26. POST GRADUATE TRAINING IN LABORATORY MEDICINE!   According to ELEFTHERIOS DIAMANDIS, a laboratory scientist is not exactly a researcher or a teacher or a manager or a medical consultant or an administrator or a physician, but is supposed to be all these, altogether. Therefore, he should be able to demonstrate knowledge and skill regarding the specific scientific, technical, clinical, organizational, and management aspects of this field.!   Despite the heterogenous definitions of postgraduate courses, the main aim is to develop a common formative curriculum for all laboratory professionals, regardless of their graduate backgrounds, to allow them to work efficiently and profitably in a clinical laboratory. edwineiou
  27. 27. The EC4 Register!   The EC4 Register came under the direction of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC) in 2007, when EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form EFCC.!   The title EC4 solely relates to the EC4 European Rigester and the Register Commission and only applies to countries within the EU.!   The EC4 syllabus for postgraduate training is the basis for the European register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. edwineiou
  28. 28. The EC4 Register!   According to the EC4, training must involve dedicated postgraduate study of at least 4 years, following a comprehensive and appropriate university education of at least 5 years. Postgraduate education should also provide comprehensive knowledge of the biology of diseases and the procedures and analytical techniques used in a medical laboratory. It is important that there should be a commitment to research and development. edwineiou
  29. 29. The EC4 Register!   The main issues comprising this program include !   knowledge of biochemistry, hematology, microbiology, parasitology and immunology, genetics and the biology of reproductive medicine !   Pre-analytical conditions !   Evaluation of results !   Interpretation !   laboratory management !   Quality assurance management edwineiou
  30. 30. POSTGRADAUTE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES!   In 1995, four major pathology organizations, the Association of Pathology Chairs, the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists (ACLPS), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) formed a conjoint committee to examine issues related to optimal CP training, which culminated in the publication of the GRAYLYN CONFERENCE REPORT. edwineiou
  31. 31. !   The task force concluded that after completing CP residency training, the resident should have acquired enough skills to direct and manage clinical laboratory services and be able to: !   Serve as a consultant to physicians on cost-effective test strategies and interpretation of results; !   Select, evaluate, and apply laboratory instruments and procedures appropriate to the screening, diagnostic, and monitoring needs of clinical decision making !   Plan, organize, staff and direct laboratory resources !   Use the techniques of medical informatics to acquire and manage data, translate data to clinically useful information, and communicate that information in support of patient care and educational programs !   Play an influential role in medical staff and healthcare delivery activities that reach beyond the confines of the laboratory edwineiou
  32. 32. !   The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has mandated the development of a defined curriculum for trainees in all medical specialties, focused on six main areas of competency, which include patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and system-based practice.!   In 2006, a curriculum in CP was further developed under the auspices of the Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists (ACLPS) taking into account newly designated and revised areas of residency core competency edwineiou
  33. 33. !   The Goals of Training in CP: !   Capacity of communicating test results !   Knowledge and understanding of methods of diagnostic test development, test utilization and assay interpretation !   Understanding of methods and implementation of clinical laboratory-based therapeutics, including minimally manipulated and engineered cellular therapy !   Skills to consult in these areas at the broader systems level, and in the various extant healthcare delivery models !   Understanding the role of research, in its broader definition, in clinical decision making, test development, knowledge generation, and continuing education. edwineiou
  34. 34. !  POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION IN ITALY !  Involves dedicated postgraduate study of 5 years, following a university education of 6 years in medicine, and 5 years in life sciences, chemistry, or biotechnology. edwineiou
  35. 35. !  Educational goals !  Interdisciplinary goals in the subarea of diagnostic and therapeutic clinical services, including knowledge of molecular pathology, physiopathology, general pathology, immunology, and immunopathology; !  Basic goals in clinical biochemistry, including knowledge in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, and medical statistics; and !  Specific goals in clinical biochemistry, including knowledge about the fundamental major organ and system diseases, and their monitoring and prevention. edwineiou
  36. 36. !  Educational program: !  Participation in diagnostic run for at least 1000 patients; !  Attendance at the outpatient clinic(1 month), emergency lab(1 month), hematology lab(3 months), clinical cytology(2 months), protein lab (1 month), clinical biochemistry separation lab (1 month), clinical pharmacology and toxicology lab (2 weeks), cell biology lab (1 month), microbiology and virology labs (2 months), biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics labs(11 months), attendance at analytical chemistry lab (1 month); !  Presentation of 1 seminar on lab medicine each year; !  Participation in at least 3 clinical experimental projects comparing inter-laboratory analytical methods or Quality Assurance programs. edwineiou
  37. 37. !  Postgraduate Education in the United Kingdom !  Curriculum encompasses a 5 year training but entry is competitive and requires a medical degree, plus 2 years of foundation training, or its equivalent. !  Curriculum is divided into four stages, and progression through those stages is dependent on successful annual assessment and completion of the relevant stage of the MRCPath examination. edwineiou
  38. 38. !   In stage A (12 months), the trainee gathers a comprehensive understanding of the principles and practice of chemical pathology, under direct supervision.!   In stage B (12-24 months), the trainee applies knowledge and understanding to most of the day-to-day issues, but still requires consultant input for complex management and clinical aspects.!   In stage C (12-24 months), the trainee undertakes specialized training, and is largely responsible for his or her practice.!   In stage D (12 months), the trainee demonstrates a level of clinical and professional judgment commensurate with independent practice at the consultant level. edwineiou
  39. 39. !  Curriculum content !  Two aspects of good medical practice and core chemical pathology which is developed through demonstration of compliance with several standards of good clinical care, maintenance of good medical practice, teaching and training, appraising and assessing, relationship with patients, working with colleagues, health, and probity. !  Also contains hundreds of standards that describe the scope of practice of the modern profession of clinical biochemistry, encompassing the knowledge required, the skills developed from application of the knowledge, and the attitudes developed as a result. edwineiou
  40. 40. !   Minimum requirement is a BSc Honors degree!   4 years specialist postgraduate training is required for registration as a clinical scientist with the Health Professions Council.!   In clinical biochemistry, 3-4 years required for the completion of `Grade A Training.!   Registration as a clinical scientist requires the Certificate of Attainment of the Association of Clinical Scientists.!   Standard for certification include the requirement to demonstrate the following competencies: scientific knowledge, clinical proficiency, technical training, research and development, communication, problem solving, and management. edwineiou
  41. 41. !   Minimum requirement is a BSc Honors degree!   4 years specialist postgraduate training is required for registration as a clinical scientist with the Health Professions Council.!   In clinical biochemistry, 3-4 years required for the completion of `Grade A Training.!   Registration as a clinical scientist requires the Certificate of Attainment of the Association of Clinical Scientists.!   Standard for certification include the requirement to demonstrate the following competencies: scientific knowledge, clinical proficiency, technical training, research and development, communication, problem solving, and management. edwineiou
  42. 42. !   The detailed content of the discipline-specific curriculum is determined by the Association for Clinical Biochemistry, and is completed by Grade A trainees in a 3 year program.!   The MRCPath examination is the professional qualification that virtually concludes the training in clinical biochemistry in the United Kingdom.!   Study for the MRCPath examination takes place during a period of approximately 5 years of higher specialist training, which commences following the completion of Grade A training.!   Overall, the normal period of training for a clinical scientist to complete their MRCPath is 8 years. edwineiou
  43. 43. !  Postgraduate Education in Other European Countries !   Netherlands. They are enlisted in the Register of Recognized Clinical Biochemists, supervised by the Netherlands Society of Clinical Chemistry. Training as a clinical biochemist consists of a 4 year period in a hospital laboratory; it is not a specific university education. !   France. Clinical biochemistry is taught in both the regular medical and pharmacy curricula, but medical teaching is more oriented toward the interpretation of laboratory findings than toward test performance. The practice of this profession is only open to physicians and pharmacists, provided they have graduated in medical biology after 4 years of specialized training through a particular type of residency called the “internat.” edwineiou
  44. 44. !  Postgraduate Education in Other European Countries !  Spain. Clinical biochemistry was first established as independent specialty in 1978. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with hematology, microbiology, immunology, and general laboratory science. Graduates in medicine, pharmacy, chemistry, and biological sciences can enter postgraduate training in clinical chemistry after a nationwide examination. Training in an accredited clinical chemistry is for a duration of 4 years. A continuing education program is organized by the Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology. edwineiou
  45. 45. !  Postgraduate Education in Other European Countries !  Croatia. The model, an undergraduate education in clinical chemistry, consisting of 4 years of specific university education, which provides for all requirements to maintain the high quality of the profession. Postgraduate education is regulated by the laws issued by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology. There is a compulsory program of lifelong continuing education, recognized by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. edwineiou
  46. 46. !  Postgraduate Education in Other European Countries !   Macedonia. The specialization in medical biochemistry/ clinical chemistry is only for physicians and pharmacists. !   Russia. Specialized education of clinical laboratory physicians who work as medical technologists, heads of laboratories, or heads of laboratory divisions is conducted during various forms of postgraduate training, namely, internship, primary specialization courses, advanced study courses, graduate clinical studies, and postgraduate fellowship. Such education is offered at departments for clinical laboratory diagnostics, which are located within the institutes for advanced medical studies in medical institutes. edwineiou
  47. 47. !  Postgraduate Education in Other Non- European Countries !  Canada. The training of medical biochemists is regulated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, by means of a residency program of 4 years duration, following graduation from medical school and completion of the required internship. The training of clinical biochemists is regulated by the Canadian Academy of Clinical Biochemistry through certification process incorporating written and oral examinations, approximately 1 year apart. Training programs are 2 or 3 years duration and entry to these programs requires a PhD and some postgraduate research experience. edwineiou
  48. 48. !  Postgraduate Education in Other Non- European Countries !  Australia. Education of clinical biochemists occurs after the student has attained a basic degree in science and is employed in the clinical laboratory. In the case of medical graduates, professional education is carried on under the auspices of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia. Recognition is conferred by the membership and fellowship examinations of the Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists. Currently, there are no formal recognition requirements for laboratory scientists within Australia. edwineiou
  49. 49. !  Postgraduate Education in Other Non- European Countries !  Taiwan. The Taiwan Society of Clinical Pathologists developed guidelines for postgraduate education and certification of laboratory medicine. Curriculum for CP includes clin chem, clin microscopy, parasitology, clin hematology, clin microbiology, clin virology, immunohematology and blood banking, clinical serology and immunology and issues on lab management. In recent years, the board examination has also emphasized the subjects of molecular biology and laboratory informatics. Recertification requires at least 100 credit hours of continuing education. edwineiou
  50. 50. !  Postgraduate Education in Other Non- European Countries !  Japan. The program encompasses emergency tests, blood transfusion, and microbiology. Along with these, it is also required to acquire knowledge on how to reply to consultations from physicians, on laboratory workflow, and on interpretation of laboratory data at reverse clinical laboratory conferences. edwineiou
  51. 51. !  Conclusions !   The field of laboratory diagnostics is undergoing remarkable changes in organization and complexity, providing a variety of new opportunities and risks. The education, skill, and expertise required for laboratory professionals to stay abreast of this continuously evolving scenario now embrace a variety of technical, scientific, and organizational issues. Translating into practice the new insights from basic and innovative sciences requires the construction of a new and complex core curriculum for laboratory professionals, where the integration of different areas of diagnostics within the same laboratory service is ultimately aimed at improving quality, efficiency, efficacy, and safety throughout the entire testing process. Laboratory professionals are expected to include several technical and consultative capacities that would fall within rather different diagnostic areas. edwineiou

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