Naming Phasmids

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Naming Phasmids

  1. 1. Phasmid Names Where they come from, who was first, and how to tell who came next. by Phil Bragg.
  2. 2. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) <ul><li>Carl Linnaeus founded the systems of scientific names that are used for naming plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The rules are similar, although the two systems are separate. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The beginning – 1758. <ul><li>The system for naming animals dates from 1758. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the publication date of Linnaeus’ tenth edition of </li></ul><ul><li>Systema Naturae . </li></ul><ul><li>The plant system uses 1753 as the starting date. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The phasmids <ul><li>Systema Naturae included three phasmids. </li></ul><ul><li>All were placed in the genus Gryllus. </li></ul><ul><li>They are now called </li></ul><ul><li>Phasma gigas </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudophasma phthisicum </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllium siccifolium </li></ul>
  5. 5. Knowing what they look like is a problem. <ul><li>The descriptions are very brief. </li></ul><ul><li>They are in Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no illustrations. </li></ul>Phasma gigas The description translates as: Thorax cylindrical, rough, fore wings short, legs spiny. Hind wings large. So… what does it look like ?
  6. 6. Phasma gigas Left = Male Right = Female
  7. 7. Phyllium siccifolium (Linnaeus, 1758)
  8. 8. How the names work <ul><li>The system is binomial . </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, there are two names. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of it in terms of a phone book entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Surname first, then personal name. </li></ul><ul><li>The generic name comes first, then the specific name. </li></ul>You need both. There are lots of people called Phil. There are quite a few called Bragg. There is only one Phil Bragg. I see him in the mirror every morning - and he’s so good looking!
  9. 9. Some quick rules <ul><li>The binomial name is also called the scientific name. </li></ul><ul><li>The name should be in italics . </li></ul><ul><li>The first letter of the Generic name is a capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific name is all lower case letters. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Heteropteryx dilatata. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diesbachia sophiae
  11. 11. Genus species Author(s), Date
  12. 12. Diesbachia sophiae Redtenbacher, 1908
  13. 13. Asceles margaritatus Redtenbacher, 1908
  14. 14. More quick rules <ul><li>The person who first describes and names a species is the Author of that name. </li></ul><ul><li>The author’s name is put after the scientific name – not in italics. </li></ul><ul><li>The year it was first described goes after the author’s name – with a comma in between. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Heteropteryx dilatata Parkinson, 1798. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lonchodes thami Bragg, 2001
  16. 16. Phenacephorus sepilokensis Bragg, 1994
  17. 17. When the name changes – use brackets
  18. 18. Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher, 1906)
  19. 19. Haaniella echinata (Redtenbacher, 1906)
  20. 20. sp., spp., ssp., and sspp. <ul><li>sp. = Species (singular). Used when you know the genus but the species is not known. </li></ul><ul><li>spp. = Species (plural). Used when you have more than one species. </li></ul><ul><li>ssp. = Subspecies. Sometimes a species occurs in two (or more) different forms; they are not quite different enough to be considered a different species, but heading that way. They are given a trinomial name (genus, species, subspecies). </li></ul><ul><li>sspp. = You are talking about a mixture of more than one subspecies. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Phenocephorus spp. There are three different species here.
  22. 22. Pylaemenes borneensis sepilokensis (Bragg, 1998)
  23. 23. Pylaemenes borneensis ssp. There are three subspecies of Pylaemenes borneensis shown here <ul><li>Pylaemenes borneensis sepilokensis (Bragg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Pylaemenes borneensis borneensis (Bragg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Pylaemenes borneensis waterstradti (Bragg, 1998) </li></ul>Female abdomens from left to right:
  24. 24. Rhamphosipyloidea sp. <ul><li>I know this belongs in the genus Rhamphosipyloidea but I do not know which species it is. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Yet more rules <ul><li>Use brackets around the author and date if the species is moved to another genus. </li></ul><ul><li>Use sp. if the species is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Use spp. if there is more than one species. </li></ul><ul><li>Use ssp. for an unknown subspecies. </li></ul>
  26. 26. What can you tell about these names? <ul><li>Haaniella echinata </li></ul><ul><li>(Redtenbacher, 1908) </li></ul><ul><li>Orthonecroscia pulcherrima </li></ul><ul><li>Kirby, 1904 </li></ul>
  27. 27. If you still don’t know why the brackets are there, or how to tell who the author is, check out the new PSG website at: <ul><li>http://phasmid-study-group.org/ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Phasmid Identification An introduction to getting started, and a discussion of some of the difficulties. by Phil Bragg.
  29. 29. Identification - getting started <ul><li>Be clear about your aims. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to identify the species? </li></ul><ul><li>Or just the genus? </li></ul><ul><li>Or only the family or subfamily? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Family and subfamily <ul><li>These are relatively easy to do. </li></ul><ul><li>There are keys easily available. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some complications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some names have changed recently so most keys will probably have some out-dated names (e.g. the old Heteronemiidae are now called Diapheromeridae). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There may be different views about which are families and which are subfamilies. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What you need <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Keys </li></ul>
  32. 32. Some keys will become available on the new PSG website in the near future. <ul><li>http://phasmid-study-group.org/ </li></ul>

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