IS 2011 Advocacy and Influencing Skills How to promote the Green Economy
Aims and Objectives <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance your advocacy and influencing skills </li></ul><ul><li>To exp...
Indicative Content <ul><li>Nudge Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Why people find it hard to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Nud...
Indicative Content <ul><li>Weapons of Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocation </li></ul><u...
Ways of working <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Speak from “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Timekeeping...
What is Advocacy? <ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigning </li></ul><ul><li>Education  <...
What is Advocacy? <ul><li>Advocacy is … </li></ul><ul><li>about actively putting a problem on the political agenda </li></...
What is Advocacy? <ul><li>“  A systematic succession of actions designed to persuade those in power to bring a change to a...
Nudges & Choice Architecture <ul><li>What is a nudge? </li></ul><ul><li>A nudge is any factor which significantly alters t...
Exercise <ul><li>Get into groups of 3 people </li></ul><ul><li>person advocates </li></ul>
Nudges & Choice Architecture <ul><li>What is choice architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>The power of default options - can hav...
Power of default options <ul><li>“ Research shows that whatever the default choices are, many people stick with them, even...
Framing messages <ul><li>People hate losses  </li></ul><ul><li>Losing something makes you twice as miserable as gaining th...
More on Framing : conforming <ul><li>“ I saw some research last week from America’s Yellowstone Park. When they put up sig...
More on Framing : we don’t like it when someone tells us what to do <ul><li>Q  Is there a danger that we shove the green m...
Framing: Energy Conservation <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the two “nudges” below is likely to be most effec...
Framing: Energy conservation <ul><li>Answer </li></ul><ul><li>“ It turns out that information campaign (b), framed in term...
Don’t mention Climate Change <ul><li>In December 2009, “America’s Environmental Protection Agency declared that six greenh...
Conforming:  “Don’t mess with Texas”  <ul><li>Effort to reduce litter on Texas highways </li></ul><ul><li>First tried civi...
Don’t mess with Texas campaign <ul><li>What was the impact in terms of litter reduction? </li></ul><ul><li>Litter reduced ...
UK government campaigns: storytelling <ul><li>ACTONCO2 &quot;Bedtime Stories&quot; TV advertisement , October 2009 </li></...
Balancing Advocacy and Inquiry:  Self assessment exercise <ul><li>Get into groups of four and study the handout </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Comfort Zones and  </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Incompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning logs </li></ul>
Elevator Pitches <ul><li>Sign up! </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule on the wall </li></ul>
Six Weapons of Influence  Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Recipro...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Consistency ...is valued by others  </li></ul><ul><li>The more publicly we ...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Reciprocation...  Creates feelings of indebtedness, obligation </li></ul><u...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Social proof.. we view a behaviour as more correct in a given situation to ...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Tupperware parties: recommendation from a friend D...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Authority... is powerful, shortcut to decisions </li></ul><ul><li>People go...
Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>People are more motivated by the thought of losi...
Six Weapons of Influence <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>One the floor you will find island where the weapons are made ...
<ul><li>Lunch followed by “Elevator Pitches” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Boogli Fruit followed by Negotiation Theory </li></ul>
Positions  What you want Interests  Why you want it I I The PIN Model: Advocacy  works best when we try to understand each...
P-I-N model
Looking below the tip of the iceberg The 'map' The 'territory' POSITIONS INTERESTS NEEDS always negotiable can be negotiab...
Dialogues works best when we are aware of our assumptions... My beliefs, assumptions, and values affect the data I select ...
<ul><li>We are always adding meaning or drawing conclusions,  </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your communications by using the l...
How can the ladder of inference help us to become more effective at advocacy & influencing? <ul><li>If I don’t know fully ...
Applying the ladder of inference framework: Has this happened to you  before? <ul><li>Have you noticed a time when someone...
<ul><li>Why people find it hard to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Nudges not commands, choice architecture </li></ul><u...
Opportunities to influence decision-making <ul><li>Complexity means people find it difficult to make decisions which are i...
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Advocacy and influencing skills IS2011 Ottawa

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  • Can’t see carbon, put mirrors in a restraurant and people will lose weight, leave the air-conditioning on and you won’t see the social and environmental impacts
  • Don’t mess with Texas, electricity bill
  • Let’s look at each one
  • Energy publicity story/ knowing that people perceive us as generous makes us want to act consistently with their perceptions
  • 70% of people take their garbage home
  • Halo effect – one characteristic dominates the way that person is viewed
  • Can’t see carbon, put mirrors in a restraurant and people will lose weight, leave the air-conditioning on and you won’t see the social and environmental impacts
  • Advocacy and influencing skills IS2011 Ottawa

    1. 1. IS 2011 Advocacy and Influencing Skills How to promote the Green Economy
    2. 2. Aims and Objectives <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance your advocacy and influencing skills </li></ul><ul><li>To explore ways in which effective advocacy can promote the Green Economy . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your personal advocacy style </li></ul><ul><li>Define a ’Nudge’ </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the 6 ’Weapons of Influence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Apply some of the main advocacy and influencing tools to promote the Green Economy </li></ul>
    3. 3. Indicative Content <ul><li>Nudge Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Why people find it hard to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Nudges not commands </li></ul><ul><li>Choice architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the default option </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul>
    4. 4. Indicative Content <ul><li>Weapons of Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocation </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ways of working <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Speak from “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Timekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is Advocacy? <ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigning </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>And what is the difference? </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Advocacy? <ul><li>Advocacy is … </li></ul><ul><li>about actively putting a problem on the political agenda </li></ul><ul><li>solution focused </li></ul><ul><li>A process not an event, requiring patience, persistence and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the gap between policy and action </li></ul><ul><li>“ A systematic succession of actions designed to persuade those in power to bring a change to a </li></ul><ul><li>specified issue of public concern” </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TRUST (HDT), Tanzania </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Advocacy? <ul><li>“ A systematic succession of actions designed to persuade those in power to bring a change to a specified issue of public concern” </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TRUST (HDT), Tanzania </li></ul>
    9. 9. Nudges & Choice Architecture <ul><li>What is a nudge? </li></ul><ul><li>A nudge is any factor which significantly alters the behaviour of humans </li></ul><ul><li>Authors of “Nudge” favour nudges over commands = libertarian paternalism </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Exercise <ul><li>Get into groups of 3 people </li></ul><ul><li>person advocates </li></ul>
    11. 11. Nudges & Choice Architecture <ul><li>What is choice architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>The power of default options - can have huge effects on outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Putting fruit at eye level counts as a nudge, banning junk food does not </li></ul><ul><li>Other nudges: opportunity to donate money to charity every time you withdraw money from a cash machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Power of default options <ul><li>“ Research shows that whatever the default choices are, many people stick with them, even when the stakes are much higher than choosing the noise your phone makes when it rings” </li></ul><ul><li>Tick box options... </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Framing messages <ul><li>People hate losses </li></ul><ul><li>Losing something makes you twice as miserable as gaining the same thing makes you happy </li></ul><ul><li>People are loss averse, and loss aversion produces inertia. </li></ul><ul><li>Conforming </li></ul><ul><li>Following the herd </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    14. 14. More on Framing : conforming <ul><li>“ I saw some research last week from America’s Yellowstone Park. When they put up signs saying: ‘Please don’t litter’ littering went up. </li></ul><ul><li>Saying ‘Please don’t litter’ makes it acceptable that littering has taken place, whereas signs saying: ‘People who love the environment take their litter home’ saw people take it home.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Smit, Founder of the Eden Project, Interviewed in Metro 10 July 2009 </li></ul>
    15. 15. More on Framing : we don’t like it when someone tells us what to do <ul><li>Q Is there a danger that we shove the green message so far, people get sick of it? </li></ul><ul><li>A Irritating as it is, sometimes you have to repeat things until they get under the skin. Having said that, human beings are very weird when it comes to being told what to do . </li></ul><ul><li>I saw some research last week from America’s Yellowstone Park. When they put up signs saying: ‘Please don’t litter’ littering went up. Saying ‘Please don’t litter’ makes it acceptable that littering has taken place, whereas signs saying: ‘People who love the environment take their litter home’ saw people take it home. </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Smit, Founder of the Eden Project, Interviewed in Metro 10 July 2009 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Framing: Energy Conservation <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the two “nudges” below is likely to be most effective? </li></ul><ul><li>If you use energy conservation methods, you will save $350 per year </li></ul><ul><li>(b) If you do not use energy conservation methods, you will lose $350 per year </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    17. 17. Framing: Energy conservation <ul><li>Answer </li></ul><ul><li>“ It turns out that information campaign (b), framed in terms of losses, is far more effective than campaign (a). </li></ul><ul><li>If the government wants to encourage energy conservation, option (b) is the stronger nudge.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Framing works because people tend to be somewhat mindless, passive decision makers .” </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Don’t mention Climate Change <ul><li>In December 2009, “America’s Environmental Protection Agency declared that six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, ‘threaten the health and welfare of the American people’. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision could open the way for the Obama administration to impose its own curbs on emissions, although Congress may want the final say”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Economist 10 December 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Timing and Framing </li></ul><ul><li>What was happening around this time? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the message framed? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Conforming: “Don’t mess with Texas” <ul><li>Effort to reduce litter on Texas highways </li></ul><ul><li>First tried civic duty messages - failed </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted messages :m any of the litterers were men aged 18-24 </li></ul><ul><li>Officials decided they needed ‘a tough-talking slogan that would address the unique spirit of Texas pride’ </li></ul><ul><li>Enlisted Dallas Cowboys football players to participate in television ads in which they collected litter, smashed beer cans in their bare hands, and growled “Don’t mess with Texas!” </li></ul><ul><li>Main Website </li></ul><ul><li>ttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7TTOgaj9n8&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    20. 20. Don’t mess with Texas campaign <ul><li>What was the impact in terms of litter reduction? </li></ul><ul><li>Litter reduced by 29% in first year </li></ul><ul><li>72% reduction in first six years. </li></ul><ul><li>95% of Texans know this slogan </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 voted America’s favourite slogan </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Nudge, Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness Thaler and Sunstein 2008 </li></ul>
    21. 21. UK government campaigns: storytelling <ul><li>ACTONCO2 &quot;Bedtime Stories&quot; TV advertisement , October 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w62gsctP2gc </li></ul><ul><li>Cap and Trade Bedtime Story Parody </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BptZ7CXHziA </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle up for Cycle Fridays </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/cycling/11598.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>And excellent example of how to engage cyclists in London </li></ul><ul><li>HIV /AIDS communication </li></ul><ul><li>Tombstones </li></ul>
    22. 22. Balancing Advocacy and Inquiry: Self assessment exercise <ul><li>Get into groups of four and study the handout </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1 Ask each other: </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do most of? What is your default behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>What do other people say you do well or could do better? (this was part of your preparation for workshop) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Write down at least one thing you do well and one thing you want to do better a card (one thing per card) </li></ul><ul><li>3 Present each other </li></ul><ul><li>4 Put you paper on wall under either “do well” or “do better” </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Comfort Zones and </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Incompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning logs </li></ul>
    24. 24. Elevator Pitches <ul><li>Sign up! </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule on the wall </li></ul>
    25. 25. Six Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocation </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is hard </li></ul><ul><li>Short cut to good decision making </li></ul><ul><li>As world gets more complex we take more short cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Click whirr </li></ul>
    26. 26. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Consistency ...is valued by others </li></ul><ul><li>The more publicly we take a position on something the more reluctant we are to change our stand – can we think of any examples? (Pope) </li></ul><ul><li>Small commitments can manipulate a person’s self image </li></ul><ul><li>The act of signing a petition makes people more likely to take action later </li></ul><ul><li>People tend to honour written commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Start small and build (Korea) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Reciprocation... Creates feelings of indebtedness, obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia and Mexico: Invasion/earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Free samples </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reject then retreat”: realistic demand followed by smaller demand, creates feelings of responsibility, satisfaction, commitment to fulfil agreement, and maybe enter into future agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual contrasts (my flat) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Social proof.. we view a behaviour as more correct in a given situation to the degree that we see others performing it (e.g. Cars, motorway) </li></ul><ul><li>We are most influenced by the actions of others like us </li></ul><ul><li>In conditions of uncertainty we look to others to guide our actions </li></ul><ul><li>In urban environments 3 things make it difficult to decide what to do: Confusion, number of people, weak social ties – climate change responses? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Tupperware parties: recommendation from a friend Don’t underestimate power of relationships (sales) Naked wine ! </li></ul><ul><li>Halo effect: looks </li></ul><ul><li>Sales: Mirroring and matching behaviour, dress </li></ul><ul><li>Greater liking leads to great social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operative learning develops team spirit and like: educating the person you are trying to influence? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Authority... is powerful, shortcut to decisions </li></ul><ul><li>People go to almost any lengths on command of an authority: nuclear train, legs, no help offered </li></ul><ul><li>Authority may mean superior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of authority, titles, uniforms, Nestle </li></ul><ul><li>German politician? </li></ul><ul><li>Are credentials relevant – TV doctors, Ashridge, medication for mother </li></ul>
    31. 31. Weapons of Influence Robert B Cialdini <ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>People are more motivated by the thought of losing something than by thought of gaining something of equal value (you can save money if you use energy efficiently works less well than your electricity bill will increase by X if you do not...) </li></ul><ul><li>We value a piece of information more if we think we can’t get it elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity and competition leads to conflict </li></ul><ul><li>We hate to loose freedom e.g. censorship </li></ul>
    32. 32. Six Weapons of Influence <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>One the floor you will find island where the weapons are made </li></ul><ul><li>Go to an island that interests you and have conversation about each weapon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you ever used it in advocacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you ever had it used on you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could you use it to promote the Green Economy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reminder: The islands are </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Other? </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Lunch followed by “Elevator Pitches” </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Boogli Fruit followed by Negotiation Theory </li></ul>
    35. 35. Positions What you want Interests Why you want it I I The PIN Model: Advocacy works best when we try to understand each others’ positions, interests and needs. In order to understand other people’s positions we need to Inquire Needs Must have
    36. 36. P-I-N model
    37. 37. Looking below the tip of the iceberg The 'map' The 'territory' POSITIONS INTERESTS NEEDS always negotiable can be negotiable sometimes generally non-negotiable proposals aimed at settlement ambitions (goals and objectives) constraints aimed to prevent loss statement allows progress achievement of them gives pleasure absence of them causes pain expressions of what might be achievable perceptions of what could be acceptable fears of what would be a loss or failure
    38. 38. Dialogues works best when we are aware of our assumptions... My beliefs, assumptions, and values affect the data I select 2 - I select ‘data’ from what I observe 3 - I add meanings (cultural and personal) ‏ 4 - I draw conclusions 5 - I take action 1 - Observable ‘data’ and experience The Ladder of Inference* * William Isaac, The ladder of Influence, 1992 in “The Fifth Discipline Workbook”, pg 242
    39. 39. <ul><li>We are always adding meaning or drawing conclusions, </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your communications by using the ladder of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Being more aware of your thinking and reasoning (reflection) </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiring into others’ thinking and reasoning (inquiring) </li></ul><ul><li>Making your thinking and reasoning more visible to others (advocacy) </li></ul>* William Isaac, The ladder of Influence, 1992 in “The Fifth Discipline Workbook”, pg 242 The Ladder of Inference*
    40. 40. How can the ladder of inference help us to become more effective at advocacy & influencing? <ul><li>If I don’t know fully understand why a person is either for or against a policy or strategy, I will not be able to influence them. </li></ul><ul><li>Once I understand a person’s underlying needs I can select information and tailor my arguments to your interests needs </li></ul>
    41. 41. Applying the ladder of inference framework: Has this happened to you before? <ul><li>Have you noticed a time when someone you were trying influence has been on different rungs of the Ladder of Inference?   </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>How successful were you at using inquiry to identify the difference in perspective and changing your approach to advocacy? </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Why people find it hard to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Nudges not commands, choice architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the default option </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul>
    43. 43. Opportunities to influence decision-making <ul><li>Complexity means people find it difficult to make decisions which are in their best interests </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time, short-cuts, passivity </li></ul>

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