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Using Linked Data and the Internet of Things for Energy Management


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Invited Talk to Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology 13th March 2013 on Using Linked Data and the Internet of Things for Energy Management

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Using Linked Data and the Internet of Things for Energy Management

  1. 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute Using Linked Data and the Internet of Things for Energy Management Invited Talk to Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology 13th March 2013 Edward Curry, Green and Sustainable IT© Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rightsreserved. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  2. 2. The  Environment  is  on  Everyone’s  Agenda   2    
  3. 3. ICT’s  Mass  Produc:on  Carbon  Cost  ICT  Accounts  for   Approximately...   2%   …of  Global  CO2  Emissions.   3     Source  Gartner  
  4. 4. McKinsey  2020  Report  ICTs  could  deliver  approximately  7.8  GtCO2  of  emissions  savings  in  2020,  represenFng  a  15%  of  emissions  cut  in  2020  and  600  billion  ($946.5  billion)  of  cost  savings.  ICT  can  provide  business  soluFons  that  can  alleviate  at  least  five  Fmes  the  GHG  footprint  of  ICT  itself  
  5. 5. Sustainable  IT  •  Align  all  IT  processes  and   pracFces  with  the  core   Reduce IT principles  of  sustainability,   2%   which  are  to  reduce,  reuse,   and  recycle;  and  •  Find  innovaFve  ways  to  use   IT  in  business  processes  to   98%   deliver  sustainability   benefits  across  the   enterprise  and  beyond.   5     Improve Efficiency
  6. 6. Analytics OpportunityDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  2010 MIT Sloan / IBM report on Analytics ¨  Embedding business insight into day-to-day operations is critical to success ¨  Single greatest opportunity and challenge for the data- driven enterprise Enabling networked knowledge
  7. 7. Energy  InformaFcs   Energy  +  InformaFon  <  Energy    •  Analyzing,  designing,  and  implemenFng   informaFon  systems  to  increase  energy  efficiency  •  Adding  informaFon  to  the  energy  equaFon  to   reduce  energy  consumpFon    R.  T.  Watson,  M.-­‐C.  Boudreau,  and  A.  J.  Chen,  InformaFon  Systems  and  Environmentally  Sustainable  Development:   Energy  InformaFcs  and  New  DirecFons  for  the  IS  Community,€  MIS  Quarterly,  vol.  34,  no.  1,  pp.  23-­‐38,  2010.   7    
  8. 8. ChallengeDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  2010 survey of 600+ CIOs & IT Managers ¨  Paucity of sustainability information (i.e energy) ¨  Lost opportunity to leverage information to improve sustainability ¨  Significant challenges ahead Enabling Networked Knowledge
  9. 9. The  Smart  CityDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  10. 10. Digital Enterprise Research Institute  A  Smart  City  driver  of  change  will  be  Data. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  11. 11. Digital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  12. 12. Digital Enterprise Research Institute bstr acts aA Smart City removes silos movingtowards a connected digital layer. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  13. 13. Silos’ Value Untapped ValueDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  14. 14. New Engineering Building at NUI GalwayDigital Enterprise Research Institute Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000       Enabling Networked Knowledge 14  
  15. 15. Research Motivation A Real-World ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000       AirCon  8:30-­‐11:00  &  15:00-­‐16:00  Mon  to  Fri       CO2  levels   Occupancy  Pagern   Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday ASHRAE     08:00-­‐09:00 62.1-­‐2010   09:00-­‐10:00 237 237 200 237 10:00-­‐11:00 237 237 237 200 11:00-­‐12:00 237 180 180 145 237 12:00-­‐13:00 237 200 237 200 149 13:00-­‐14:00 145 14:00-­‐15:00 221 237 145 140 15:00-­‐16:00 221 120 160 140 16:00-­‐17:00 149 250 160 17:00-­‐18:00 200 160 Enabling Networked Knowledge 15  
  16. 16. Enterprise Energy ManagementDigital Enterprise Research Institute Energy Management Systems within an Enterprise will need to support four key requirements Enabling Networked Knowledge
  17. 17. Holistic Energy ConsumptionDigital Enterprise Research Institute FaciliFes   Data  Centre   Business  Travel     Office  IT   Daily  Commute     Holis:c   Energy   Management   Enabling Networked Knowledge
  18. 18. Business Context of Energy ConsumptionDigital Enterprise Research Institute Energy Finance Resource Allocation Human Asset Mgmt Resources Enabling Networked Knowledge
  19. 19. Multi-Level Energy AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute CIO Strategic Analysis CEO Example KPI: •  CIO needs high-level Energy used by business function power global IT department usage •  CSO real-time carbon Helpdesk emissions CSO Example KPI: PUE of the Tactical Analysis Data Center in Dublin •  Manager needs energy usage of business Maintenance Personnel processes, business line or Example KPI: group kWhs used by server Operational Analysis •  Technician needs equipment power usage Building •  Low-level monitoring Sensors, events Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 19 of XYZ
  20. 20. Energy Situational AwarenessDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Help users to: ¨  Understand energy data ¨  Make appropriate energy saving decisions ¨  Support energy performance objectives and other business performance objectives –  human resources (i.e. occupancy comfort) –  enterprise resource planning (i.e. room utilization). Enabling Networked Knowledge
  21. 21. Key ChallengesDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Technology and Data Interoperability ¨  Data scattered among different information systems ¨  Multiple incompatible technologies make it difficult to use n  Interpreting Dynamic and Static Data ¨  Sensors, ERP, BMS, assets databases, … ¨  Need to proactively identify efficiency opportunities n  Empowering Actions ¨  Understanding of direct and indirect impacts of activities ¨  Embedding impacts within business processes Enabling Networked Knowledge 21
  22. 22. InteroperabilityDigital Enterprise Research Institute ! D. Chen, et al. “Architectures for enterprise integration and interoperability: Past, present and future,” Computers in Industry 59(7) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  23. 23. BarriersDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ien  Conceptual barriers ¨  Syntactic differences (format) ¨  Semantic (interpretation of meaning)n  Technological barriers ¨  Incompatibility of protocols, encoding, platforms, infrastructures, etc.n  Organizational barriers ¨  Incompatibility of definitions of responsibility, authority, and organizational structures Enabling Networked Knowledge
  24. 24. Integration ApproachesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ien  Integrated approaches ¨  Common format for all models existsn  Unified approaches ¨  Uppermodel exists to facilitate mapping between modelsn  Federated approaches ¨  No common format exists but rather is done on the fly Enabling Networked Knowledge
  25. 25. Emerging TrendsDigital Enterprise Research Institute Everything is Connected and.. …Data is Shared on the Web with Linked Data Enabling networked knowledge
  26. 26. Proposed ApproachDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Leverage key trends in information management ¨  Dataspace approach to information management ¨  Linked data approach to sharing information on the web ¨  Internet of Things to interconnect devices n  Information Interoperability ¨  Overcome technical and conceptual barriers ¨  Supports overcoming organizational barriers ! Enabling Networked Knowledge
  27. 27. What is a Dataspace?Digital Enterprise Research Institute n  Emerging data management architecture n  Recognizes expense obtaining upfront unifying schema across all sources ¨  Co-existence of data without unifying schema ¨  Loosely integrated set of data sources n  Data integrated on “as needed” basis ¨  Tighter integration achieved in an incremental "pay-as-you-go" fashion Franklin, A. Halevy, and D. Maier From databases to dataspaces: a new abstraction for information management,” Sigmod Record, 34(4) 2005. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  28. 28. DBMS vs DataspaceDigital Enterprise Research Institute DBMS Dataspace Model Relational All Formats Homogenous Heterogeneous Control Complete Partial Query Precise Approximate Integration Explicit Implicit/ Incremental Enabling Networked Knowledge
  29. 29. The Web of DataDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  30. 30. The Linked Open Data cloudDigital Enterprise Research Institute 2008 2007 2008 2010 2009 2008 2009 2008 Enabling Networked Knowledge 30 30
  31. 31. Linked Open Data cloud - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute BestBuy Facebook US government UK government Media User-generated Government Publications BBC New York Times Cross-domain Geo Life sciences LinkedGeoData Over 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts, interlinked by 500 million typed links. Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Enabling Networked Knowledge 31
  32. 32. What is Linked Data?Digital Enterprise Research Institute 32 Enabling Networked Knowledge
  33. 33. Two Key IngredientsDigital Enterprise Research Institute 1.  RDF – Resource Description Framework Graph based Data – nodes and arcs ¨  Identifies objects (URIs) ¨  Interlink information (Relationships) 2.  Vocabularies (Ontologies) ¨  provide shared understanding of a domain ¨  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way ¨  give an exploitable meaning to the data Enabling Networked Knowledge 33 of 46
  34. 34. Why Graphs and Ontologies?Digital Enterprise Research Institute Cities:Dublin Geo:hasLargestCity 84421km2 Geo:IslandOfIreland Geo:hasCapital Geo:area Geo:locatedOn EU:RepublicOfIreland EU:RepublicOfIreland Gov:hasDepartment Gov:hasTaoiseach Person:EndaKenny IE:DepartmentOfFinance Enabling Networked Knowledge
  35. 35. Linked Data PrinciplesDigital Enterprise Research Institute 1.  Use URIs to identify the “things” in your data 2.  Use HTTP URIs so people (and machines) can look them up on the Web 3.  When a URI is looked up, return a description of the thing in a structured format (RDF) 4.  Include links to related things to provide context Enabling Networked Knowledge
  36. 36. Linked Data ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute Resource Description Framework (RDF) subject - predicate – object Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e Edward Curry is the Occupant of Room 202e Enabling Networked Knowledge 36
  37. 37. Linked DataspaceDigital Enterprise Research Institute Dataspace + Linked Data = Linked Dataspace Enabling Networked Knowledge 37
  38. 38. Linked DataspacesDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Complimentary technology for data sharing ¨  Minimal disruption to existing infrastructure ¨  Maintains loose coupling between systems n  Pay-as-you-go data integration ¨  Incremental enrichment of entity profiles (i.e. SameAs) ¨  Links relevant knowledge and contextual information from across all systems Enabling Networked Knowledge
  39. 39. Merging Entity Graphs the CloudDigital Enterprise Research Institute Linked Dataspace Corporate System “Edward Curry” “DGSIT” Corporate foaf:name   en:memberOf   Building hJp:// member/edward_curry#me   Office IT owl:sameAs owl:sameAs hJp:// hJp:// member/edward_curry#me   member/edward_curry#me   rm:occupant   en:has_a   hJp:// hJp://   2010/deri-­‐rooms#r202e   foaf:name   en:consumption   foaf:name   en:consumption   “MacBook Pro” 10kWh “202e” 50kWh Office IT System Building Management System Enabling Networked Knowledge
  40. 40. Dereferenceable URIDigital Enterprise Research Institute @prefix rdf: <> . @prefix rdfs: <> . @prefix owl: <> . @prefix rooms: <> . @prefix foaf: <> . @prefix deri-energy-ont: <> . @prefix deri-energy: <> . @prefix ssn: <> . @prefix deri-rooms: <> . deri-rooms:building rdf:type rooms:Building; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor. deri-rooms:1st-floor rdf:type rooms:Floor; rooms:contains deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing. deri-rooms:1st-floor-south-wing rdf:type rooms:Wing; rooms:contains deri-rooms:r202e. deri-rooms:r202e rdf:type rooms:Desk; rooms:occupant <>. <> rdf:type foaf:Person; deri-energy-ont:has_a deri-energy:macbook15698; deri-energy:macbook15698 rdf:type deri-energy-ont:Laptop; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:sensor123 rdf:type ssn:Sensor; ssn:observes deri-energy-ont:PowerConsumption. deri-energy:observation1236 rdf:type ssn:Observation; ssn:observationResult deri-energy:observationResult1236; ssn:featureOfInterest deri-energy:macbook15698; ssn:observedBy deri-energy:sensor123. deri-energy:observationResult1236 rdf:type ssn:SensorOutput; ssn:hasValue deri-energy:vale1236. deri-energy:vale1236 deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityValue 31.5; deri-energy-ont:hasQuantityUnitOfMeasurement deri-energy-ont:kWh. Enabling Networked Knowledge 40
  41. 41. CoAP = HTTP for sensorsDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  42. 42. CoAP ApplicationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute 42 Enabling Networked Knowledge
  43. 43. CoAP ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ien  Accessing sensors from we browser using HTTP-CoAP proxying – SPITFIRE Smart Service Proxy (SSP) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  44. 44. Energy IntelligenceDigital Enterprise Research Institute n  Linked Dataspace for Energy Intelligence ¨  Uses Linked Data and CoAP to manage energy ¨  Transforms raw data into meaningful energy information ¨  Enables effective strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making for energy mgmt ¨  Provides energy consumption of business activities so they can be understood and optimized Enabling Networked Knowledge
  45. 45. Linked dataspace for Energy IntelligenceDigital Enterprise Research Institute Organisation-level Business Process Personal-level Linked  dataspace  for   Energy  Intelligence   Office IT Corporate Building Logistics Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 45    
  46. 46. Linked dataspace forDigital Enterprise Research Institute Energy Intelligence Energy Saving Applications Applications n  Decision Support Energy Analysis Systems Model Energy and Sustainability Dashboards Situation Awareness Apps n  Energy Awareness Semantic Event Processing Complex Events n  Natural Language Interface Services Support Entity Complex Event Management Data Catalog Provenance Search & Query Processing n  Service Engine n  Collaborative Data Mgmt. n  Interlinked Cloud of Energy Linked Data Data n  Resource Description Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Framework (RDF) Sources n  Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN) n  CoAP = Constrained Application Protocol Enabling Networked Knowledge
  47. 47. Data SourcesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Information System Type Information Building Information Model ArchiCAD BIM Physical Dimensions of Building Building Resource Allocation Spreadsheet Assignment of building resources to people and groups within DERI Office IT Assets Database SharePoint Office IT equipment assignment Human Resource Employee SharePoint Person detail, group affiliations and current Database work assignments DC Resource Allocation Spreadsheet Assignment of DC resources to services DC Resource Monitoring Ganglia Real-time monitoring of hardware resources Monitoring within the data center such as CPU load System averages or network utilization) DC Assets Database SharePoint Repository of equipment within Data Centre Service Management Software Zabbix Real-time monitoring of network services and hardware Energy Sensor Network Enistic Sensor Real-time sensor reading from power meters Platform within building Enabling Networked Knowledge … … …
  48. 48. CoAP SensorsDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge 48 of 26
  49. 49. Energy Saving ApplicationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enterprise Energy Smart Buildings Green Cloud Observatory Computing Enabling Networked Knowledge Office IT Energy Mgmt. Personal Energy Mgmt.
  50. 50. Building EnergyDigital Enterprise Research Institute 1.  Data from Enterprise Linked Data Cloud 2.  Sensor Data 3.  Building Energy Situation Awareness Enabling Networked Knowledge 50 of 26
  51. 51. Linking Building DataDigital Enterprise Research Institute W3C SSN XG Ontology + DERI Rooms + CoAP Enabling Networked Knowledge
  52. 52. iEnergy – PersonalDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  53. 53. Example of Savings AchievedDigital Enterprise Research Institute Enabling Networked Knowledge
  54. 54. CreditsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieTeam Members The Partners Enabling Networked Knowledge
  55. 55. Selected ReferencesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Sustainability Use Cases n  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green Information Systems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011). n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In, Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons n  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers, 2012. n  Curry, E. et al, Building Optimisation using Scenario Modeling and Linked Data, in 1st Workshop Linked Data in Architecture and Construction 2012 n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  56. 56. Selected ReferencesDigital Enterprise Research Institute Information Management n  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the Semantic Sensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked Data Enrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks n  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events, in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems n  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012). IT Management n  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012. n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for Sustainable Information and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1). n  Curry E, et al, (2012) Sustainable IT: Challenges, Postures, and Outcomes, IEEE Computer 15(11) Enabling Networked Knowledge