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Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                     www.deri.ie




                 Sustainable IT for Energy Management:
                  Approaches, Challenges and Trends

                                Invited Talk to Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology
                                                  13th March 2013

                                Edward Curry, Green and Sustainable IT



© Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights
reserved.




                                                                     Enabling Networked Knowledge
The	
  Environment	
  is	
  on	
  Everyone’s	
  Agenda	
  




                                                             2	
  	
  
ICT’s	
  Mass	
  Produc:on	
  Carbon	
  Cost	
  




ICT	
  Accounts	
  for	
  
 Approximately...	
  

         2%	
  
                     …of	
  Global	
  CO2	
  Emissions.	
  
                     3	
  	
  
                                                    Source	
  Gartner	
  
McKinsey	
  2020	
  Report	
  




ICTs	
  could	
  deliver	
  approximately	
  7.8	
  GtCO2	
  of	
  emissions	
  savings	
  in	
  2020,	
  represenFng	
  a	
  
15%	
  of	
  emissions	
  cut	
  in	
  2020	
  and	
  600	
  billion	
  ($946.5	
  billion)	
  of	
  cost	
  savings.	
  ICT	
  can	
  
provide	
  business	
  soluFons	
  that	
  can	
  alleviate	
  at	
  least	
  five	
  Fmes	
  the	
  GHG	
  footprint	
  of	
  ICT	
  
itself	
  
Sustainable	
  IT	
  
•  Align	
  all	
  IT	
  processes	
  and	
  
   pracFces	
  with	
  the	
  core	
             Reduce IT (1.0)
   principles	
  of	
  sustainability,	
               2%	
  
   which	
  are	
  to	
  reduce,	
  reuse,	
  
   and	
  recycle;	
  and	
  

•  Find	
  innovaFve	
  ways	
  to	
  use	
  
   IT	
  in	
  business	
  processes	
  to	
           98%	
  
   deliver	
  sustainability	
  
   benefits	
  across	
  the	
  
   enterprise	
  and	
  beyond.	
  
                   5	
  	
  
                                               Improve Efficiency (2.0)
The	
  Two	
  Faces	
  of	
  Sustainable	
  IT	
  
	
  
IT	
  For	
  Green	
                                                     Smart	
  Buildings	
  

              Data	
  Collec:on	
  and	
        Collabora:on	
  
                                                                        De-­‐materializa:on	
  
                   Repor:ng	
                   Technologies	
  
                     Energy	
  
                                                e-­‐Procurement	
             e-­‐Waste	
  
                   Management	
  


    Green	
  for	
  IT	
  
                                                                           Power	
  
          Data	
  Centre	
  Design	
     Virtualiza:on,	
  Cloud	
  
                                                                       Management,	
  PC	
  
            and	
  Opera:on	
                 Compu:ng	
  
                                                                        Refresh	
  Cycle	
  
Sustainability	
  1.0	
  Case	
  Study	
  	
  
Intel	
  IT	
  Vital	
  Stats	
  2012	
  
                        100,100	
  Intel	
  employees	
  
                         150	
  sites,	
  62	
  countries	
  
                                           	
  
                          6,400	
  IT	
  employees	
  
                               56	
  global	
  sites	
  
                                           	
  
                            87	
  Data	
  Centers	
  
                            ~75,000	
  servers;	
  	
  
                          458,694	
  square	
  feet	
  
                                           	
  
                           >110,000	
  Devices	
  
                        >90K	
  PCs	
  (80%+	
  mobile),	
  
                          >20,000	
  Handhelds	
  
Energy
                       Management Software

      Employee-led                           Reduced
         Activities                          Business Travel


   Employee                                           Telepresence
     Bonus                Energy                      Rooms
                       Efficiency at
          LED             Intel IT                   “LEED Gold”
Light Fixtures                                       building design

     Small Office IT                         High efficiency
          Footprint                          Data Centers



                              Solar
                             Panels
Understanding	
  the	
  IT	
  Footprint	
  
Understanding	
  the	
  IT	
  Footprint	
  
Data	
  Centres:	
  An	
  Inefficient	
  Truth	
  

            Data	
  Center	
                                                                Server	
                                                  Processor	
  
                                                     45	
  Wabs	
  supplied	
  
                                                     to	
  IT	
  equipment	
  


                                                                                                                                   14	
  Wabs	
  supplied	
  
                                                                                    Peripheral Slots 20%
                                                                                                                                   to	
  CPU	
                               80%	
  
                                                                                                                                                            20%
                                                                                                                                                            Idle
                                                                                                                                                                             U:lised	
  
55%	
                               45%	
                                         PSU 15%                      32%	
  
Power,	
  Cooling	
                 IT	
  Load	
                                                               Processor	
  	
  
&	
  Ligh:ng	
  




                                                                                                   Drives 5%

                                                                                                                                                      11.2	
  Wabs	
  used	
  for	
  
          100	
  Wabs	
                    Up	
  to	
  88.8%	
  of	
  the	
  power	
  consumed	
  by	
  a	
                                           computa:on	
  
          Supplied	
  
                                            data	
  centre	
  is	
  used	
  before	
  computa8on	
  

     *	
  Source:	
  EPA	
  Report	
  to	
  Congress	
  on	
  Server	
  and	
  Data	
  Center	
  Energy	
  Efficiency,	
  August	
  2007	
  

                                  13	
  	
  
Server	
  Refresh	
  
•  Moore’s	
  Law:	
  Doubling	
  of	
  chip	
  performance	
  
   every	
  18	
  months	
  
•  Energy	
  consumed	
  by	
  the	
  chip	
  does	
  not	
  double	
  
•  Moore’s	
  Law	
  drives	
  conFnuous	
  chip-­‐level	
  energy	
  
   efficiency	
  	
  
Telepresence	
  and	
  Video	
  Conferencing	
  




•  435,000	
  employee	
  travel	
  hours	
  
•  $73	
  million	
  in	
  travel	
  expenses	
  
•  65,000	
  metric	
  tons	
  of	
  CO2	
  emissions	
  
Impacts	
  of	
  Sustainable	
  IT	
  @	
  Intel	
  




•  Total	
  cost	
  savings	
  of	
  over	
  $114	
  million	
  
•  Avoidance	
  of	
  more	
  than	
  87,500	
  metric	
  tons	
  of	
  
   CO2	
  emissions	
  
•  Intel	
  was	
  named	
  to	
  Computerworld’s	
  2010	
  and	
  
   2011	
  lists	
  of	
  “Top	
  Green-­‐IT	
  OrganizaFons”	
  
Sustainable	
  IT	
  
•  Align	
  all	
  IT	
  processes	
  and	
  
   pracFces	
  with	
  the	
  core	
             Reduce IT (1.0)
   principles	
  of	
  sustainability,	
               2%	
  
   which	
  are	
  to	
  reduce,	
  reuse,	
  
   and	
  recycle;	
  and	
  

•  Find	
  innovaFve	
  ways	
  to	
  use	
  
   IT	
  in	
  business	
  processes	
  to	
           98%	
  
   deliver	
  sustainability	
  
   benefits	
  across	
  the	
  
   enterprise	
  and	
  beyond.	
  
                  17	
  	
  
                                               Improve Efficiency (2.0)
Opportunity	
  
•  2010	
  MIT	
  Sloan	
  /	
  IBM	
  report	
  on	
  AnalyFcs	
  
       –  Embedding	
  business	
  insight	
  into	
  day-­‐to-­‐day	
  
          operaFons	
  is	
  criFcal	
  to	
  success	
  	
  
       –  Single	
  greatest	
  opportunity	
  and	
  challenge	
  for	
  the	
  
          data-­‐driven	
  enterprise	
  	
  
	
  
Energy	
  InformaFcs	
  




                              Energy	
  +	
  InformaFon	
  <	
  Energy	
  
                                                                                         	
  
•  Analyzing,	
  designing,	
  and	
  implemenFng	
  
       informaFon	
  systems	
  to	
  increase	
  energy	
  efficiency	
  
•  Adding	
  informaFon	
  to	
  the	
  energy	
  equaFon	
  to	
  
       reduce	
  energy	
  consumpFon	
  
   	
  R.	
  T.	
  Watson,	
  M.-­‐C.	
  Boudreau,	
  and	
  A.	
  J.	
  Chen,	
  InformaFon	
  Systems	
  and	
  Environmentally	
  Sustainable	
  Development:	
  
       Energy	
  InformaFcs	
  and	
  New	
  DirecFons	
  for	
  the	
  IS	
  Community,€	
  MIS	
  Quarterly,	
  vol.	
  34,	
  no.	
  1,	
  pp.	
  23-­‐38,	
  2010.	
  
                                                                                                                                                                      19	
  	
  
The	
  Smart	
  City	
  
 
A	
  Smart	
  City	
  driver	
  of	
  change	
  will	
  be	
  Data.
Challenge
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



  n    2010 MIT Sloan / IBM report on Analytics
         ¨    Embedding business insight into day-to-day
               operations is critical to success
         ¨    Single greatest opportunity and challenge for
               the data-driven enterprise


  n    2010 survey of 600+ CIOs & IT Managers
         ¨    Paucity of sustainability information (i.e energy)
         ¨    Lost opportunity to leverage information to
               improve sustainability
         ¨    Significant challenges ahead



                                                      Enabling Networked Knowledge
Case Study: DERI Building
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie

                                             n    DERI Building
                                                   ¨    No BMS or BEMS
                                                   ¨    160 person Office space
                                                   ¨    Café
                                                   ¨    Data centre
                                                   ¨    3 Kitchens
                                                   ¨    80 person Conference
                                                         room
                                                   ¨    4 Meeting rooms
                                                   ¨    Computing museum
                                                   ¨    Sensor Lab




                                                   Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                        24
Energy Management
                                System Brochure
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie




                                             Enabling Networked Knowledge
Sensors
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




                                                     Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                          26 of 26
Energy Management
                                Software
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie




                                             Enabling Networked Knowledge
New Engineering Building at
                           NUI Galway
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                           www.deri.ie


                                        Cost	
  -­‐	
  €	
  40,000,000	
  	
  	
  




                                                                           Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                                                                        28	
  
Research Motivation
                                   A Real-World Example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                                                      www.deri.ie


                  Cost	
  -­‐	
  €	
  40,000,000	
  	
  	
     AirCon	
  8:30-­‐11:00	
  &	
  15:00-­‐16:00	
  Mon	
  to	
  Fri	
  	
  	
  




                           CO2	
  levels	
  
                                                                                                          Occupancy	
  Parern	
  
                                                                                                  Time          Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
       ASHRAE	
  	
  
                                                                                                  08:00-­‐09:00
       62.1-­‐2010	
                                                                              09:00-­‐10:00 237               237      200      237
                                                                                                  10:00-­‐11:00          237      237      237      200
                                                                                                  11:00-­‐12:00 237      180      180      145      237
                                                                                                  12:00-­‐13:00 237      200      237      200      149
                                                                                                  13:00-­‐14:00                   145
                                                                                                  14:00-­‐15:00 221      237      145               140
                                                                                                  15:00-­‐16:00 221               120      160      140
                                                                                                  16:00-­‐17:00 149               250      160
                                                                                                  17:00-­‐18:00 200                        160

                                                                                        Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                                                                                     29	
  
Enterprise Energy Management
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                              www.deri.ie




  Energy Management Systems within an Enterprise will
         need to support four key requirements




                                              Enabling Networked Knowledge
Holistic Energy Consumption
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie


                                         FaciliFes	
  

                    Data	
  Centre	
                         Business	
  Travel	
  


                                                                    	
  
          Office	
  IT	
                                            Daily	
  Commute	
  

                                                                            	
  
                                           Holis:c	
  
                                           Energy	
  
                                         Management	
  
                                                          Enabling Networked Knowledge
Business Context of
                             Energy Consumption
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                   www.deri.ie



                                                     Energy




                             Finance                                      Resource
                                                                          Allocation




                                                               Human
                                        Asset Mgmt            Resources




                                                                   Enabling Networked Knowledge
Multi-Level Energy Analysis
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie
                                                                          CIO
   Strategic Analysis                         CEO
                                                                                  Example KPI:
   •    CIO needs high-level                                                      Energy used by
        business function power                                             global IT department
        usage
   •    CSO real-time carbon                                             Helpdesk
        emissions                       CSO                                      Example KPI:
                                                                                 PUE of the
   Tactical Analysis                                                        Data Center in Dublin

   •    Manager needs energy
        usage of business                                                Maintenance Personnel
        processes, business line or
                                                                                   Example KPI:
        group                                                                      kWhs used by
                                                                             server 172.16.0.8

   Operational Analysis
   •    Technician needs
        equipment power usage                                                   Building
   •    Low-level monitoring
        Sensors, events                                               Data Center



                                                           Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                               33 of XYZ
Energy Situational
                                Awareness
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                           www.deri.ie




       n    Help users to:
              ¨  Understand            energy data
              ¨  Make          appropriate energy saving decisions
              ¨  Support energy performance objectives and
                  other business performance objectives
                     –  human resources (i.e. occupancy comfort)
                     –  enterprise resource planning (i.e. room utilization).




                                                        Enabling Networked Knowledge
Key Challenges
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie



    n    Technology and Data Interoperability
           ¨    Data scattered among different information systems
           ¨    Multiple incompatible technologies make it difficult to use


    n    Interpreting Dynamic and Static Data
           ¨    Sensors, ERP, BMS, assets databases, …
           ¨    Need to proactively identify efficiency opportunities


    n    Empowering Actions
           ¨    Understanding of direct and indirect impacts of activities
           ¨    Embedding impacts within business processes


                                                      Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                          35
Future Trends for
                                Energy Management
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




         Everything is Connected
                  and..




                                            …Data is Shared on the
                                            Web with Linked Data


                                              Enabling networked knowledge
The Web of Data
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie




                                                  Enabling networked knowledge
The Web of Data…
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie




                                                2008
                                             2007        2008           2010
                                                                        2009
                                                   2008      2009
                                                     2008




                                                    Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                                                              38
                                        38
Linked Open Data cloud
                                 - domains
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                       www.deri.ie
                                                                                                    BestBuy
http://lod-cloud.net/                                                                               Overstock.com
                                                                                                    Facebook
                                                                                                    US government
                                                                                                    UK government
                                        Media



                                                                   User-generated


            Government                                                              Publications
                                                                                                    BBC
                                                                                                    New York Times

                                            Cross-domain
                           Geo
                                                                             Life sciences


                                                                                                   LinkedGeoData
 Over 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts,
 interlinked by 500 million typed links.
   Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.



                                                                                    Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                                                  39
CoAP = HTTP for sensors
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




                                               Enabling Networked Knowledge
CoAP Applications
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




  41
                                                 Enabling Networked Knowledge
CoAP Example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie


n    Accessing sensors from we browser using HTTP-CoAP
      proxying – SPITFIRE Smart Service Proxy (SSP)




                                               Enabling Networked Knowledge
Energy Intelligence
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie




   n    Linked Dataspace for Energy Intelligence
           ¨  Uses        Linked Data and CoAP to manage energy
           ¨  Transforms               raw data into meaningful energy
               information
           ¨  Enables effective strategic, tactical, and operational
               decision-making for energy mgmt
           ¨  Provides energy consumption of business activities
               so they can be understood and optimized




                                                         Enabling Networked Knowledge
Linked dataspace for
                                Energy Intelligence
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                         www.deri.ie

                                            Organisation-level
                     Business Process                                     Personal-level




                                          Linked	
  dataspace	
  for	
  
                                           Energy	
  Intelligence	
  



                          Office IT                                          Corporate
                                        Building            Logistics
                                                Data Center

                                                                         Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                                            44	
  	
  
Linked dataspace for
Digital Enterprise Research Institute
                                          Energy Intelligence                                                                            www.deri.ie


                                                                                                                  Energy Saving Applications
      Applications




                                                                                                            n 
                     Decision Support Energy Analysis
                         Systems          Model
                                                             Energy and
                                                      Sustainability Dashboards
                                                                               Situation Awareness
                                                                                       Apps
                                                                                                            n    Energy Awareness

                                                                                                                  Semantic Event Processing
                                                                                          Complex Events
                                                                                                           n 
                                                                                                                  Natural Language Interface
    Services
    Support




                        Entity                                                          Complex Event
                     Management
                                          Data
                                         Catalog
                                                        Provenance       Search &
                                                                          Query
                                                                                          Processing       n 
                       Service                                                              Engine

                                                                                                           n     Collaborative Data Mgmt.

                                                                                                            n    Interlinked Cloud of Energy
     Linked Data




                                                                                                                  Data


                                                                                                           n     Resource Description
                       Adapter          Adapter           Adapter           Adapter           Adapter
                                                                                                                  Framework (RDF)
      Sources




                                                                                                           n     Semantic Sensor Network
                                                                                                                  Ontology (SSN)
                                                                                                           n     CoAP = Constrained Application
                                                                                                                  Protocol


                                                                                                                  Enabling Networked Knowledge
Energy Saving Applications
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




    Enterprise Energy                   Smart Buildings               Green Cloud
       Observatory                                                     Computing




                                                          Enabling Networked Knowledge
               Office IT Energy Mgmt.              Personal Energy Mgmt.
Building Energy
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie



                                                           1.    Data from
                                                                 Enterprise
                                                                 Linked Data
                                                                 Cloud
                                                           2.    Sensor Data
                                                           3.    Building
                                                                 Energy
                                                                 Situation
                                                                 Awareness




                                                   Enabling Networked Knowledge
                                        47 of 26
Linking Building Data
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie



                W3C SSN XG Ontology + DERI Rooms + CoAP




                                             Enabling Networked Knowledge
iEnergy – Personal
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie




                                                Enabling Networked Knowledge
Example of Savings
                                Achieved
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




                                               Enabling Networked Knowledge
Selected References
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie


  Sustainability Use Cases
  n  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green Information
      Systems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011).
  n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In,
      Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons
  n  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud
      Computing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient
      Data Centers, 2012.
  n  Curry, E. et al, Building Optimisation using Scenario Modeling and Linked
      Data, in 1st Workshop Linked Data in Architecture and Construction 2012
  n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace for
      Energy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internet
      and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012.




                                                     Enabling Networked Knowledge
Selected References
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie

 Information Management
 n  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the Semantic
     Sensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked Data
     Enrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks
 n  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events,
     in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems
 n  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using a
     Linked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of
     Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012).
 IT Management
 n  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From
     Intel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012.
 n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for Sustainable
     Information and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1).
 n  Curry E, et al, (2012) Sustainable IT: Challenges, Postures, and Outcomes,
     IEEE Computer 15(11)

                                                     Enabling Networked Knowledge

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Sustainable IT for Energy Management: Approaches, Challenges, and Trends

  • 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Sustainable IT for Energy Management: Approaches, Challenges and Trends Invited Talk to Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology 13th March 2013 Edward Curry, Green and Sustainable IT © Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 2. The  Environment  is  on  Everyone’s  Agenda   2    
  • 3. ICT’s  Mass  Produc:on  Carbon  Cost   ICT  Accounts  for   Approximately...   2%   …of  Global  CO2  Emissions.   3     Source  Gartner  
  • 4. McKinsey  2020  Report   ICTs  could  deliver  approximately  7.8  GtCO2  of  emissions  savings  in  2020,  represenFng  a   15%  of  emissions  cut  in  2020  and  600  billion  ($946.5  billion)  of  cost  savings.  ICT  can   provide  business  soluFons  that  can  alleviate  at  least  five  Fmes  the  GHG  footprint  of  ICT   itself  
  • 5. Sustainable  IT   •  Align  all  IT  processes  and   pracFces  with  the  core   Reduce IT (1.0) principles  of  sustainability,   2%   which  are  to  reduce,  reuse,   and  recycle;  and   •  Find  innovaFve  ways  to  use   IT  in  business  processes  to   98%   deliver  sustainability   benefits  across  the   enterprise  and  beyond.   5     Improve Efficiency (2.0)
  • 6. The  Two  Faces  of  Sustainable  IT     IT  For  Green   Smart  Buildings   Data  Collec:on  and   Collabora:on   De-­‐materializa:on   Repor:ng   Technologies   Energy   e-­‐Procurement   e-­‐Waste   Management   Green  for  IT   Power   Data  Centre  Design   Virtualiza:on,  Cloud   Management,  PC   and  Opera:on   Compu:ng   Refresh  Cycle  
  • 8. Intel  IT  Vital  Stats  2012   100,100  Intel  employees   150  sites,  62  countries     6,400  IT  employees   56  global  sites     87  Data  Centers   ~75,000  servers;     458,694  square  feet     >110,000  Devices   >90K  PCs  (80%+  mobile),   >20,000  Handhelds  
  • 9. Energy Management Software Employee-led Reduced Activities Business Travel Employee Telepresence Bonus Energy Rooms Efficiency at LED Intel IT “LEED Gold” Light Fixtures building design Small Office IT High efficiency Footprint Data Centers Solar Panels
  • 10. Understanding  the  IT  Footprint  
  • 11. Understanding  the  IT  Footprint  
  • 12.
  • 13. Data  Centres:  An  Inefficient  Truth   Data  Center   Server   Processor   45  Wabs  supplied   to  IT  equipment   14  Wabs  supplied   Peripheral Slots 20% to  CPU   80%   20% Idle U:lised   55%   45%   PSU 15% 32%   Power,  Cooling   IT  Load   Processor     &  Ligh:ng   Drives 5% 11.2  Wabs  used  for   100  Wabs   Up  to  88.8%  of  the  power  consumed  by  a   computa:on   Supplied   data  centre  is  used  before  computa8on   *  Source:  EPA  Report  to  Congress  on  Server  and  Data  Center  Energy  Efficiency,  August  2007   13    
  • 14. Server  Refresh   •  Moore’s  Law:  Doubling  of  chip  performance   every  18  months   •  Energy  consumed  by  the  chip  does  not  double   •  Moore’s  Law  drives  conFnuous  chip-­‐level  energy   efficiency    
  • 15. Telepresence  and  Video  Conferencing   •  435,000  employee  travel  hours   •  $73  million  in  travel  expenses   •  65,000  metric  tons  of  CO2  emissions  
  • 16. Impacts  of  Sustainable  IT  @  Intel   •  Total  cost  savings  of  over  $114  million   •  Avoidance  of  more  than  87,500  metric  tons  of   CO2  emissions   •  Intel  was  named  to  Computerworld’s  2010  and   2011  lists  of  “Top  Green-­‐IT  OrganizaFons”  
  • 17. Sustainable  IT   •  Align  all  IT  processes  and   pracFces  with  the  core   Reduce IT (1.0) principles  of  sustainability,   2%   which  are  to  reduce,  reuse,   and  recycle;  and   •  Find  innovaFve  ways  to  use   IT  in  business  processes  to   98%   deliver  sustainability   benefits  across  the   enterprise  and  beyond.   17     Improve Efficiency (2.0)
  • 18. Opportunity   •  2010  MIT  Sloan  /  IBM  report  on  AnalyFcs   –  Embedding  business  insight  into  day-­‐to-­‐day   operaFons  is  criFcal  to  success     –  Single  greatest  opportunity  and  challenge  for  the   data-­‐driven  enterprise      
  • 19. Energy  InformaFcs   Energy  +  InformaFon  <  Energy     •  Analyzing,  designing,  and  implemenFng   informaFon  systems  to  increase  energy  efficiency   •  Adding  informaFon  to  the  energy  equaFon  to   reduce  energy  consumpFon    R.  T.  Watson,  M.-­‐C.  Boudreau,  and  A.  J.  Chen,  InformaFon  Systems  and  Environmentally  Sustainable  Development:   Energy  InformaFcs  and  New  DirecFons  for  the  IS  Community,€  MIS  Quarterly,  vol.  34,  no.  1,  pp.  23-­‐38,  2010.   19    
  • 21.   A  Smart  City  driver  of  change  will  be  Data.
  • 22.
  • 23. Challenge Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  2010 MIT Sloan / IBM report on Analytics ¨  Embedding business insight into day-to-day operations is critical to success ¨  Single greatest opportunity and challenge for the data-driven enterprise n  2010 survey of 600+ CIOs & IT Managers ¨  Paucity of sustainability information (i.e energy) ¨  Lost opportunity to leverage information to improve sustainability ¨  Significant challenges ahead Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 24. Case Study: DERI Building Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  DERI Building ¨  No BMS or BEMS ¨  160 person Office space ¨  Café ¨  Data centre ¨  3 Kitchens ¨  80 person Conference room ¨  4 Meeting rooms ¨  Computing museum ¨  Sensor Lab Enabling Networked Knowledge 24
  • 25. Energy Management System Brochure Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 26. Sensors Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 26 of 26
  • 27. Energy Management Software Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 28. New Engineering Building at NUI Galway Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000       Enabling Networked Knowledge 28  
  • 29. Research Motivation A Real-World Example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Cost  -­‐  €  40,000,000       AirCon  8:30-­‐11:00  &  15:00-­‐16:00  Mon  to  Fri       CO2  levels   Occupancy  Parern   Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday ASHRAE     08:00-­‐09:00 62.1-­‐2010   09:00-­‐10:00 237 237 200 237 10:00-­‐11:00 237 237 237 200 11:00-­‐12:00 237 180 180 145 237 12:00-­‐13:00 237 200 237 200 149 13:00-­‐14:00 145 14:00-­‐15:00 221 237 145 140 15:00-­‐16:00 221 120 160 140 16:00-­‐17:00 149 250 160 17:00-­‐18:00 200 160 Enabling Networked Knowledge 29  
  • 30. Enterprise Energy Management Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Energy Management Systems within an Enterprise will need to support four key requirements Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 31. Holistic Energy Consumption Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie FaciliFes   Data  Centre   Business  Travel     Office  IT   Daily  Commute     Holis:c   Energy   Management   Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 32. Business Context of Energy Consumption Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Energy Finance Resource Allocation Human Asset Mgmt Resources Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 33. Multi-Level Energy Analysis Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CIO Strategic Analysis CEO Example KPI: •  CIO needs high-level Energy used by business function power global IT department usage •  CSO real-time carbon Helpdesk emissions CSO Example KPI: PUE of the Tactical Analysis Data Center in Dublin •  Manager needs energy usage of business Maintenance Personnel processes, business line or Example KPI: group kWhs used by server 172.16.0.8 Operational Analysis •  Technician needs equipment power usage Building •  Low-level monitoring Sensors, events Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 33 of XYZ
  • 34. Energy Situational Awareness Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  Help users to: ¨  Understand energy data ¨  Make appropriate energy saving decisions ¨  Support energy performance objectives and other business performance objectives –  human resources (i.e. occupancy comfort) –  enterprise resource planning (i.e. room utilization). Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 35. Key Challenges Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  Technology and Data Interoperability ¨  Data scattered among different information systems ¨  Multiple incompatible technologies make it difficult to use n  Interpreting Dynamic and Static Data ¨  Sensors, ERP, BMS, assets databases, … ¨  Need to proactively identify efficiency opportunities n  Empowering Actions ¨  Understanding of direct and indirect impacts of activities ¨  Embedding impacts within business processes Enabling Networked Knowledge 35
  • 36. Future Trends for Energy Management Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Everything is Connected and.. …Data is Shared on the Web with Linked Data Enabling networked knowledge
  • 37. The Web of Data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling networked knowledge
  • 38. The Web of Data… Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2008 2007 2008 2010 2009 2008 2009 2008 Enabling Networked Knowledge 38 38
  • 39. Linked Open Data cloud - domains Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie BestBuy http://lod-cloud.net/ Overstock.com Facebook US government UK government Media User-generated Government Publications BBC New York Times Cross-domain Geo Life sciences LinkedGeoData Over 300 open data sets with more than 35 billion facts, interlinked by 500 million typed links. Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Enabling Networked Knowledge 39
  • 40. CoAP = HTTP for sensors Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 41. CoAP Applications Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 41 Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 42. CoAP Example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  Accessing sensors from we browser using HTTP-CoAP proxying – SPITFIRE Smart Service Proxy (SSP) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 43. Energy Intelligence Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n  Linked Dataspace for Energy Intelligence ¨  Uses Linked Data and CoAP to manage energy ¨  Transforms raw data into meaningful energy information ¨  Enables effective strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making for energy mgmt ¨  Provides energy consumption of business activities so they can be understood and optimized Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 44. Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Organisation-level Business Process Personal-level Linked  dataspace  for   Energy  Intelligence   Office IT Corporate Building Logistics Data Center Enabling Networked Knowledge 44    
  • 45. Linked dataspace for Digital Enterprise Research Institute Energy Intelligence www.deri.ie Energy Saving Applications Applications n  Decision Support Energy Analysis Systems Model Energy and Sustainability Dashboards Situation Awareness Apps n  Energy Awareness Semantic Event Processing Complex Events n  Natural Language Interface Services Support Entity Complex Event Management Data Catalog Provenance Search & Query Processing n  Service Engine n  Collaborative Data Mgmt. n  Interlinked Cloud of Energy Linked Data Data n  Resource Description Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Framework (RDF) Sources n  Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN) n  CoAP = Constrained Application Protocol Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 46. Energy Saving Applications Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enterprise Energy Smart Buildings Green Cloud Observatory Computing Enabling Networked Knowledge Office IT Energy Mgmt. Personal Energy Mgmt.
  • 47. Building Energy Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1.  Data from Enterprise Linked Data Cloud 2.  Sensor Data 3.  Building Energy Situation Awareness Enabling Networked Knowledge 47 of 26
  • 48. Linking Building Data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie W3C SSN XG Ontology + DERI Rooms + CoAP Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 49. iEnergy – Personal Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 50. Example of Savings Achieved Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 51. Selected References Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Sustainability Use Cases n  Curry, E., et al . (2011). An Entity-Centric Approach To Green Information Systems. 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2011). n  Curry, E., & Donnellan, B. (2012). Green and Sustainable Informatics. In, Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons n  Curry, E. et al. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers, in First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers, 2012. n  Curry, E. et al, Building Optimisation using Scenario Modeling and Linked Data, in 1st Workshop Linked Data in Architecture and Construction 2012 n  Curry E. et al, Enterprise Energy Management using a Linked dataspace for Energy Intelligence. In: The Second IFIP Conference on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT) 2012. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • 52. Selected References Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Information Management n  Hasan, S. et al. (2011). Toward Situation Awareness for the Semantic Sensor Web: Complex Event Processing with Dynamic Linked Data Enrichment. 4th International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks n  Hasan, S. et al, Approximate Semantic Matching of Heterogeneous Events, in 6th ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems n  Curry E. (2012) System of Systems Information Interoperability using a Linked Dataspace In: IEEE 7th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SOSE 2012). IT Management n  Curry, E. et al. Developing an Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61-74, 2012. n  Donnellan B. et al, (2011) A Capability Maturity Framework for Sustainable Information and Communication Technology. IEEE IT Professional 13(1). n  Curry E, et al, (2012) Sustainable IT: Challenges, Postures, and Outcomes, IEEE Computer 15(11) Enabling Networked Knowledge