EMX 2410 Lecture 8 War of the Worlds

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  • The Invasion From Mars, Hadley Cantril.
  • Artie-Shaw---Jeepers-Creepers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25EgFXCmWCY
  • spe_1938_0624_roosevelt
  • Bergin McCarthy Fields
  • Me-and-Orson-Welles-US-Official-Trailer--2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQvq7eulfWc
  • Orson-Welles---Voodoo--Macbeth http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZLrqJka-EU
  • Shadow
  • Treasure Island Edit_1-2
  • Dracula Edit Climax
  • Chase Sandborn.mp3
  • War of the Worlds 001
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 002
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 003
  • Chase and Sandborn 815
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 004
  • Hindenburg-disaster http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F54rqDh2mWA
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 005
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 006
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 007A
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 008
  • Audio: War of the Worlds 009
  • Audio: War of the WORLDS END
  • Video: Attack-By-Mars--Panic--Orson-Wells-Speaks-1938-10-31.mov http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ho_9XTnlJKM
  • Video: Our World 003A
  • Video: Our World 004
  • Video: Our World 005
  • EMX 2410 Lecture 8 War of the Worlds

    1. 1. <ul><li>EMC 2410 </li></ul><ul><li>Intro to Electronic Media </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Bowen </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture Eight </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Orson Welles and “The War of the Worlds” </li></ul><ul><li>A Cautionary Tale </li></ul>
    2. 2. 1938 The population of the United States is 129,824,939.
    3. 3. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” is released to movie theaters. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” is released to movie theaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul>
    8. 8. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” is released to movie theaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Superman debuts in “Action Comics.” </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” is released to movie theaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Superman debuts in “Action Comics.” </li></ul><ul><li>The New England Hurricane of 1938 kills over 600. It is extensively covered on radio. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 1938 <ul><li>The president of the United States is Franklin Delano Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese occupy large portions of China and continue to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler assumes command of the German military and occupies Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” is released to movie theaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Superman debuts in “Action Comics.” </li></ul><ul><li>The New England Hurricane of 1938 kills over 600. It is extensively covered on radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany invades Czechoslovakia. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 1938 <ul><li>June 16: Several buildings are hit by meteorites in Pantar, Philippians. </li></ul><ul><li>June 29: A 450-ton meteorite explodes about 12 miles above the earth near Chicora, Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>September 29: a meteorite crashes through the roof of a garage and through a parked car in Benld, IL. </li></ul>
    12. 12. If you were 18 in 1938
    13. 13. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul>
    14. 14. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not remember a time without radio. Your parents can. You probably have had a radio in your home for most of your life. </li></ul>
    15. 15. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not remember a time without radio. Your parents can. You probably have had a radio in your home for most of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>You have lived through the worst of the Great Depression, with 25% unemployment, industrial production decreased by 46% and wholesale prices down 32%. </li></ul>
    16. 16. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not remember a time without radio. Your parents can. You probably have had a radio in your home for most of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>You have lived through the worst of the Great Depression, with 25% unemployment, industrial production decreased by 46% and wholesale prices down 32%. </li></ul><ul><li>Even through these tough times, if you could, you probably kept your radio. </li></ul>
    17. 17. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not remember a time without radio. Your parents can. You probably have had a radio in your home for most of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>You have lived through the worst of the Great Depression, with 25% unemployment, industrial production decreased by 46% and wholesale prices down 32%. </li></ul><ul><li>Even through these tough times, if you could, you probably kept your radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Your favorite musician is probably Artie Shaw. </li></ul>
    18. 18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25EgFXCmWCY
    19. 19. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>You were born in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not remember a time without radio. Your parents can. You probably have had a radio in your home for most of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>You have lived through the worst of the Great Depression, with 25% unemployment, industrial production decreased by 46% and wholesale prices down 32%. </li></ul><ul><li>Even through these tough times, if you could, you probably kept your radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Your favorite musician is probably Artie Shaw. </li></ul><ul><li>You hear daily reports of escalating tensions in Europe and Asia and Africa, but you have no idea that within three years the U.S. will be embroiled in a second World War. If you ’re male, chances are you will be fighting in this war. </li></ul>
    20. 20. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>And you are well aware of the sound of your president ’s voice. </li></ul>
    21. 21. If you were 18 in 1938 <ul><li>And you live in a largely segregated society. </li></ul>
    22. 22. In 1938 <ul><li>The most popular radio show is, improbably, one featuring a ventriloquist and his wooden dummy - “The Chase and Sandborn Hour” with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy. </li></ul>
    23. 23. In 1938 <ul><li>The most popular radio show is, improbably, one featuring a ventriloquist act - “The Chase and Sandborn Hour” with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy. </li></ul>
    24. 24. By 1938 <ul><li>Orson Welles has taken Broadway by storm with a series of innovative and imaginative theater productions. </li></ul>
    25. 25. By 1938 <ul><li>Orson Welles has taken Broadway by storm with a series of innovative and imaginative theater productions. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQvq7eulfWc
    26. 26. By 1938 <ul><li>Orson Welles has taken Broadway by storm with a series of innovative and imaginative theater productions. </li></ul><ul><li>And has been featured on the cover of “Time” magazine. </li></ul>
    27. 27. By 1938 <ul><li>His theatrical achievements include a modern dress “Julius Caesar” set in Fascist Italy, and a federally sponsored production of “MacBeth,” set in Haiti, and with an all African-American cast. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZLrqJka-EU
    28. 28. By 1938 <ul><li>He is also one of radio ’s busiest performers … </li></ul>
    29. 29. By 1938 <ul><li>And directs his acting company in weekly literary adaptations for CBS radio, beginning as “First Person Singular,” then as “The Mercury Theatre on the Air,” named for his theatrical company. </li></ul>
    30. 30. In 1938 <ul><li>He is 23 years of age. </li></ul>
    31. 31. In 1938 <ul><li>“ The Mercury Theatre on the Air” was a critical if not a ratings success. Welles was a master of radio as a dramatic medium. He conducted his programs from a podium, as if the show were a symphony, and his actors and technicians an orchestra. He used the medium with as no one before or since. </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>The Mercury Theatre on the Air </li></ul><ul><li>“ Treasure Island” </li></ul><ul><li>July 18, 1938 </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>The Mercury Theatre on the Air </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dracula” </li></ul><ul><li>July 30, 1938 </li></ul>
    34. 34. In 1938 <ul><li>Welles is approached by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Paul F. Lazarsfeld, a pioneer in social research </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Stanton, psychologist later a consultant to the Department of War Information and head of CBS Radio and Television) and </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Hadley Cantril, psychologist, pioneer in public opinion research and chairman of the Princeton University Department of Psychology … </li></ul>
    35. 35. In 1938 <ul><li>… of the Princeton Radio Project, a social research venture examining the effects of mass media on society, in particular radio … </li></ul>
    36. 36. In 1938 <ul><li>… and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the preeminent privately held philanthropic organization in the country, with assets from the Rockefeller’s oil interests, … </li></ul>
    37. 37. In 1938 <ul><li>… under the supervision of the Council on Foreign Relations, the nation’s most influential foreign policy and international affairs think tank </li></ul>
    38. 38. In 1938 <ul><li>Their concern is over the influence of radio on society, </li></ul><ul><li>Its ability to manipulate and misinform, </li></ul><ul><li>And the American people’s susceptibility to the new medium. </li></ul><ul><li>So they propose an experiment . to study the ability of the mass media to create panic and the behavior of citizens under panic conditions. </li></ul>
    39. 39. In 1938 <ul><li>That experiment became Orson Welles’ 1938 broadcast of “The War of the Worlds,” in which an invasion from Mars is depicted through news bulletins, convincing and panicking a number of listeners, thus instigating the first ever psychological warfare operation (psyop). </li></ul>
    40. 40. In 1938 <ul><li>It has been reported that Welles even received death threats from the Rockefellers should he ever reveal that the unforeseen reaction to this broadcast was precisely what is perpetrators had hoped to achieve and analyze, demographically, psycho-graphically and statistically. </li></ul>
    41. 41. In 1938 http://youtu.be/DXfNLPIneBE
    42. 42. In 1938 NOT
    43. 43. In 1938 <ul><li>For the Halloween show, Welles instructed writer Howard Koch to adapt H.G. Well ’s classic “The War of the Worlds,” about an invasion of the earth by Martians. Welles thought it might be enlivened were it updated and told as a series of news bulletins. </li></ul>
    44. 44. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, “The Chase and Sandborn Show with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy” began on NBC, and “The Mercury Theatre on the Air” began on CBS. </li></ul>
    45. 45. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, “The Chase and Sandborn Show with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy began on NBC, and “The Mercury Theatre on the Air” began on CBS. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chase and Sandborn” had an average listenership of 34.7%; “The Mercury” 3.6%. </li></ul>
    46. 46. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, “The Chase and Sandborn Show with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy began on NBC, and “The Mercury Theatre on the Air” began on CBS. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chase and Sandborn” had an average listernship of 34.7%; “The Mercury” 3.6%. </li></ul><ul><li>So, a lot of listeners were hearing this … </li></ul>Don Ameche
    47. 47. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, “The Chase and Sandborn Show with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy began on NBC, and “The Mercury Theatre on the Air” began on CBS. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chase and Sandborn” had an average listenership of 34.7%; “The Mercury” 3.6%. </li></ul><ul><li>A perhaps more discriminating audience was listening to this … </li></ul>
    48. 48. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:09 PM, following musical performances interrupted by an interview by reporter Carl Phillips of noted Princeton astronomer Professor Pierson regarding the Martian explosions, the program returned to music. </li></ul>
    49. 49. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>By 8:11 PM, reporter Carl Phillips and Professor Pierson reach Grover ’s Mill, New Jersey. It’s been less than two minutes of air time; Phillips mentions that they have made the trip in 10 minutes, exemplifying the dramatic time compression of the program. </li></ul>
    50. 50. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>At 8:15, on NBC, Edgar Bergen was ending a comic segment and Dorothy Lamour was being introduced for a song … </li></ul>
    51. 51. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>Were a listener to decide at this point to scan the dial for something more interesting, they would have entered “The War of the Worlds” at this point. </li></ul>
    52. 52. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>Listeners could not be blamed for perhaps remembering another tragedy described over radio only the year before. After all, the actor portraying Carl Phillips had listened to a recording of the broadcast dozens of times preparing for his role. </li></ul>The Hindenburg Disaster http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F54rqDh2mWA
    53. 53. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>After another musical pause, the bulletins continue at 8:19. By now, it has been estimated that the Mercury ’s audience has doubled to six million listeners. </li></ul>
    54. 54. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>After another musical pause, the bulletins continue at 8:19. </li></ul><ul><li>Following an interview with Professor Pierson, bulletins continue at 8:22. </li></ul>
    55. 55. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>After another musical pause, the bulletins continue at 8:19. </li></ul><ul><li>Following an interview with Professor Pierson, bulletins continue at 8:22. </li></ul><ul><li>At 8:25, the unbelievable is reported as fact. </li></ul>
    56. 56. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>After another musical pause, the bulletins continue at 8:19. </li></ul><ul><li>Following an interview with Professor Pierson, bulletins continue at 8:22. </li></ul><ul><li>At 8:25, the unbelievable is reported as fact. </li></ul><ul><li>At 8:26, a familiar voice is heard. </li></ul>
    57. 57. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>By 8:36, the military has been utterly defeated, and the Martian machines are advancing on New York City. </li></ul>
    58. 58. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>The program continues in a more standard format, with the rest of the story told in the first person singular by Professor Pierson. </li></ul>
    59. 59. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>It is estimated that 6 million people listened to some part of the broadcast, and that 1.2 million believed the broadcast and reacted according to their natures and personalities. </li></ul>
    60. 60. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>Harlem: An church congregation falls to its knees. </li></ul><ul><li>Indianapolis: A woman runs into a church service screaming that New York has been destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Newark: Neighbors leave their homes with improvised gas masks - wet towels wrapped around their heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Grover ’s Mill: A water tower is mistaken for a Martian war machine and fired upon. </li></ul><ul><li>Premature births, falls, attempted suicides, traffic jams and communication breakdowns are blamed on the broadcast. </li></ul>
    61. 61. October 30, 1938 <ul><li>DISCLAIMER </li></ul>
    62. 62. October 31, 1938 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ho_9XTnlJKM
    63. 63. October 31, 1938
    64. 67. November 12, 1944 A widespread panic is triggered following a broadcast of the Welles play by a Santiago, Chile radio station. Upon hearing the broadcast, many fled into the streets or barricaded themselves in their homes. In one province, troops and artillery were briefly mobilized by the governor in a bid to repel the invading Martians. The broadcast included references to such organizations as the Red Cross and used an actor to impersonate the interior minister.
    65. 68. February 12, 1949 Another radio version of “ The War of the Worlds, ” broadcast in Quito, Ecuador, results in tens of thousands of panic-stricken residents running into the streets to escape Martian gas raids. The event makes headlines around the world, including the front page of The New York Times (&quot;Mars Raiders Caused Quito Panic; Mob Burns Radio Plant, Kills 15 ” ). The drama described strange Martian creatures heading toward the city after landing and destroying the neighboring community of Latacunga. The program included impersonations of well-known local politicians and journalists. A riot broke out and an enraged mob set fire to the radio station, killing fifteen people.
    66. 69. 1954 The media were instrumental in triggering a widespread delusion about the existence of imaginary pit marks on windshields in the state of Washington, erroneously attributed to atomic fallout. They were perfectly normal imperfections.
    67. 70. 1977 Alternative 3 is a television programme, broadcast once only in the United Kingdom in 1977, and later broadcast in Australia and New Zealand , as a fictional hoax , an heir to Orson Welles ' radio production of The War of the Worlds . Purporting to be an investigation into the UK's contemporary &quot; brain drain &quot;, Alternative 3 uncovered a plan to make the moon and Mars habitable in the event of climate change and a terminal environmental catastrophe on Earth.The programme was originally meant to be broadcast on April Fools Day , 1977. While its broadcast was delayed until June by industrial action, the credits explicitly date the film to April 1. Alternative 3 ended with credits for the actors involved in the production and featured interviews with a fictitious American astronaut.
    68. 71. 1974 WPRO-FM in Rhode Island recreates “ The War of the Worlds. ” The program is promoted as a spoof throughout the day. During the actual broadcast, however, 45 minutes elapse before the first public disclaimer. 140 listeners call the radio station. The FCC admonish WPRO on the basis of its 1966 statement concerning broadcast of scare announcements.
    69. 72. 1990s A spate of media hoaxes perpetrated across the country prompt the Federal Communications Commission to impose fines of up to $250,000 for TV stations knowingly broadcasting false information. KSLX-FM, Scottsdale, Arizona fakes a hostage takeover of the station by terrorists. WCCC-AM/FM, Hartford, Connecticut, reports a nearby volcanic eruption. KSHE, St. Louis morning personality John Ulett stages a mock nuclear alert during the morning drive time, complete with a simulated Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) tone and an authentic-sounding civil defense warning. There was no disclaimer until 2 hours after the broadcast. 400 listeners called the station. KROQ, Los Angeles morning team stages a false confession from an anonymous caller who claims to have brutally murdered his girlfriend. Police spent nearly 150 hours investigating the case. WALE, Rhode Island news director announces that the overnight on-air personality had been shot in the head. Police and media rushed to investigate the incident. The program director shuts off the transmitter to stop the hoax.
    70. 73. 1990s 1992 FCC Anti-Hoax Rule No licensee or permittee of any broadcast station shall broadcast false information concerning a crime or catastrophe if (a) the licensee knows this information is false, (b) it is foreseeable that broadcasting the information will cause substantial public harm. Any programming accompanied by a disclaimer will be presumed not to pose foreseeable harm if the disclaimer clearly characterizes the program as fiction and is presented in a way that is reasonable under the circumstances (amendment to Part 73 Regarding Broadcast Hoaxes, Communications Act, Report and Order, 7FCCRcd4106 [1992]).
    71. 74. 1990s The Commission's prohibition against the broadcast of hoaxes is set forth at Section 73.1217 of the Commission's rules, 47 C.F.R. ァ 73.1217. 

This rule prohibits broadcast licensees or permittees from broadcasting false information concerning a crime or a catastrophe if: (1) the licensee knows this information is false; (2) it is foreseeable that broadcast of the information will cause substantial public harm; and (3) broadcast of the information does in fact directly cause substantial public harm.

Any programming accompanied by a disclaimer will be presumed not to pose foreseeable harm if the disclaimer clearly characterizes the program as a fiction and is presented in a way that is reasonable under the circumstances.

For purposes of this rule, ``public harm'' must begin immediately, and cause direct and actual damage to property or to the health or safety of the general public, or diversion of law enforcement or other public health and safety authorities from their duties.

The public harm will be deemed foreseeable if the licensee could expect with a significant degree of certainty that public harm would occur.

A ``crime'' is any act or omission that makes the offender subject to criminal punishment by law.

A ``catastrophe'' is a disaster or imminent disaster involving a violent or sudden event affecting the public.

Complaints alleging violation of this rule should be sent to the Federal Communications Commission, Enforcement Bureau, Investigations & Hearings Division, 445 12 th Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20554. Complaints should include the call sign and community of license of the station, the date and time of the broadcast(s) in question, and a detailed description of the public harm caused as a result of the broadcast. In addition, if possible, complaints should include a transcript or recording of the broadcast in question. FCC Website
    72. 75. 1990s Ghostwatch, 1992 BBC1's Ghostwatch, presented by Michael Parkinson and broadcast on Halloween, was so convincing in its depiction of ghouls that it was later reported that two children had been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and one teenager had committed suicide. Sarah Greene and Craig Charles reported from a reputedly haunted London house for the broadcast, resembling Crimewatch in format. A series of eerie events grew more sinister until viewers were left to believe that Greene had been disposed of and Parkinson possessed by a ghost called Pipes.
    73. 76. 2000s Flemish independence, 2006 Belgian politicians were furious after it was reported the country had split in two and the Flemish part had declared independence. The French-speaking channel RTBF interrupted programming with a spoof report showing &quot;live&quot; pictures of crowds with Flemish flags, trams being stopped at the new border and the royal family seeming to flee the country.&quot;It's irresponsible for a public television channel to announce the end of Belgium as a reality,&quot; said a spokesman for the then Belgian prime minister, Guy Verhofstadt.
    74. 77. March, 1993 “ The Morning Times ” of Laredo, Texas publishes a hoax account of a giant 300-pound earthworm undulating across Interstate 35. Many citizens in the vicinity of Laredo believed the story despite claims that the worm was an incredible seventy-nine feet long!
    75. 78. January 31, 2007 Chicago - A passenger on the city subway alerts authorities to a &quot;suspicious device&quot; near the Interstate 93 highway. Soon, other people start spotting more around the city. After subway station closings, transportation delays, a halt to bridge and river traffic, and anxious mayoral press conferences, officials start to realize the threat is actually a marketing campaign for the cartoon show Aqua Teen Hunger Force , and the &quot;suspicious devices&quot; in question are light-up images of the program's “ Mooninite&quot; characters .
    76. 79. March 14, 2010 Russian invasion scare sweeps Georgia after TV hoax. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/14/russia-georgia-fake-invasion-report
    77. 80. March 14, 2010 Russian invasion scare sweeps Georgia after TV hoax. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/14/russia-georgia-fake-invasion-report

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