Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

EMC/JOUR 3000 Lecture 1 - The Technical Dimension

902 views

Published on

Published in: Art & Photos, Business
  • Be the first to comment

EMC/JOUR 3000 Lecture 1 - The Technical Dimension

  1. 1. EMC / JOUR 3000 INTRO TO MOTION PICTURES Edward Bowen Lecture One - The Technical Dimension, Part 1
  2. 2. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul><ul><li>Take a big box into the sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Get inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut a small hole in one side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand clear. </li></ul><ul><li>On the side opposite the hole you will see an image (reversed and upside down) of what's outside. </li></ul><ul><li>You are in a camera obscura . </li></ul><ul><li>Put a piece of film where the image is and expose it. </li></ul><ul><li>You are now in a camera. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuJ_Jd6Qgyo
  6. 6. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Persistence of Vision </li></ul><ul><li>The concept that the eye retains one image just long enough to blend it with a following image. </li></ul><ul><li>This permits a sequence of still pictures to appear as one continuous action. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologists and neurologists have developed revised theories for how we perceive motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory of “ persistence of vision ” still retains popular acceptance. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Persistence of Vision </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3veFqnnob0A
  8. 8. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Apparent Motion </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ulQ_vaBM0Q
  9. 9. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film </li></ul><ul><li>One medium on which motion picture images are recorded </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film </li></ul><ul><li>One medium on which motion picture images are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Film is composed of many layers, two of which are </li></ul><ul><li>a base, and </li></ul><ul><li>emulsion. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Base – Cellulose, a synthetic plastic invented around 1870. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose Nitrate, or Nitrate Film </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose Acetate, or Safety Film </li></ul>
  12. 12. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Base </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose Nitrate, or Nitrate Film </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Highly flammable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Base </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose Nitrate, or Nitrate Film </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Highly flammable </li></ul><ul><li>Made illegal in 1949 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Base </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose Nitrate, or Nitrate Film </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Highly flammable </li></ul><ul><li>Made illegal in 1949 </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhiwKnZlW1c
  15. 15. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film is not a permanent medium. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of films made before 1920 no longer exist. </li></ul><ul><li>About 50% of films made before 1950 no longer exist. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film is not a permanent medium. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xVK_qhXkKE
  17. 17. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film is not a permanent medium. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oift1b_CwX4
  18. 18. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film is not a permanent medium. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN1_zEjOQ6o
  19. 19. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film is not a permanent medium. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Frankenstein” (1910) </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN1_zEjOQ6o
  20. 20. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>The layer of photo-sensitive chemicals that coats the film base </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>The layer of photo-sensitive chemicals that coats the film base </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9fvkbpaNA14
  22. 22. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>The layer of photo-sensitive chemicals (silver halide) that coats the film base </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJ5bf_GEW_o
  23. 23. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White – A single chemical layer renders only shades from black to white </li></ul>
  24. 24. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul>
  25. 25. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color – Comprised of three layers of emulsion: yellow, magenta, and cyan. Combined they render full color </li></ul>
  26. 26. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  28. 28. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>
  29. 29. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color – Hand Coloring </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkT54BetFBI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p94yQ8cvTHg
  30. 30. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color -Tinting </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoe7noZkLlI
  31. 31. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color – Two tone Technicolor </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  32. 32. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color – Two tone Technicolor </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seEchnfpdyc
  33. 33. <ul><li>Warm </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  34. 34. <ul><li>Warm </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  35. 35. <ul><li>Warm </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  36. 36. <ul><li>Warm </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  37. 37. <ul><li>Cool </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  38. 38. <ul><li>Cool </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  39. 39. <ul><li>Cool </li></ul>Color - Temperature
  40. 40. Color - Temperature
  41. 41. Color - Temperature
  42. 42. Color - Saturation
  43. 43. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Grain – Visibility of individual particles of chemical coating </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  44. 44. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  45. 45. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  46. 46. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast – The relationship of the brightest and darkest parts of an image. HIGH CONTRAST evidences extremes between bright and dark elements. LOW CONTRAST evidences little difference in brightness among the elements. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  47. 47. Light - Contrast Low High
  48. 48. Light - Contrast Low High
  49. 49. Light - Contrast Low High
  50. 50. Light - Contrast Low High
  51. 51. Light - Contrast Low High
  52. 52. Light - Contrast Low High
  53. 53. Light - Contrast Low High
  54. 54. Light - Contrast Low High
  55. 55. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Black and White </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Light Sensitivity - Each emulsion type has a different sensitivity to light. A fast film requires little light for proper exposure. A slow film (like early Technicolor) requires a great amount of light. Light sensitivity is referred to as the film speed or exposure index (abbreviated EI or ASA or ISO). </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  56. 56. <ul><li>Film Emulsion - “Pi” (1998) Darren Aronofsky </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aulRoQTK5HY
  57. 57. <ul><li>Film Emulsion - “Pi” (1998) Darren Aronofsky </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aulRoQTK5HY
  58. 58. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure. A measure of the amount of light admitted by the lens to create an image on the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper exposure. A picture that looks acceptably “normal” or the special effect desired. Exposure is controlled on a camera by “f” stops. </li></ul><ul><li>Underexposure. An underexposed image is dark. Purposeful underexposure can create day for night. </li></ul><ul><li>Overexposure. An overexposed image is washed out or transparent. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  59. 59. <ul><li>Film Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures Over Exposed Properly Exposed Under Exposed
  60. 60. <ul><li>Film Types </li></ul><ul><li>Film (raw) stock. A combination of a film base and an emulsion that has not been exposed. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  61. 61. <ul><li>Film Types </li></ul><ul><li>Negative. A film emulsion in which light values are reversed in order to permit positive prints to be made. Motion picture film, like most photographic film processes, uses a negative image that is then printed to form a positive image. The negative allows many good copies to be printed. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  62. 62. <ul><li>Film Types </li></ul><ul><li>Reversal. In reversal stock, the negative is physically joined to a positive. After the negative prints to the positive, the negative emulsion is removed, leaving a positive print (but no negative). This film type was used largely in amateur filmmaking in which it was assumed that there would be demand for only a single positive. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  63. 63. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video </li></ul><ul><li>Another medium on which motion picture images are recorded. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video </li></ul><ul><li>Another medium on which motion picture images are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cinematography cameras capture images using CMOS or CCD sensors. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video </li></ul><ul><li>Another medium on which motion picture images are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cinematography cameras capture images using CMOS or CCD sensors. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is stored on magnetic tape or as digital files onto random-access media like optical discs, hard disk drives or flash memory-based digital “magazines.” </li></ul>
  66. 66. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video </li></ul><ul><li>Another medium on which motion picture images are recorded. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video – “ Vidocq ” (2001) </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkUvp9JFMS8
  68. 68. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video – “Russian Ark” (2002) </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J--TDEHizVA
  69. 69. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>HD Digital Video – “Star Wars: Attack of the Clones” (2002) </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Byb2cHTMStg
  70. 70. Technology of Motion Pictures <ul><li>Frame. A single photograph in a series that comprise a motion image. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect ratio: T he relationship of the width of the image to the height of the image. Standard or Academy ratio (4 X 3 or 1.33:1). In adopting the 35 mm format early filmmakers established the standard aspect ratio as a classical rectangle with a ratio of four units of width to three units of height. Thus if the projected image is twenty feet wide it will be fifteen feet high.
  72. 72. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect ratio: The relationship of the width of the image to the height of the image. Widescreen (1.66:1;1.85:1; 2.35:1). Over the years many filmmakers (Lumière, Griffith, Gance, etc.) experimented with the widescreen. Gance’s system, for example, employed three regular-sized screens, producing an effective aspect ratio of 3.99:1. Efforts to introduce widescreen technology were not successful until the 1950s when cinema tried to counter program against television. Some of the 1950s widescreens had a ratio of as much as 2.66:1 (CinemaScope). An image 26.6 feet wide and ten feet tall made for some strange closeups! The American standard widescreen ratio was finally set at 1.85:1. (The European standard widescreen ratio is 1:66:1.) Wider ratios are available through the use of anamorphic lens systems (2:35:1) and 70 mm film (2.2:1). IMAX and movie rides are another matter, with domed and curved screens that defy the application of a simple aspect ratio.
  73. 73. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect Ratios
  74. 74. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect Ratios – 1.33:1 or 4 3 Academy Ratio
  75. 75. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect Ratios – 1.66:1 European and British Standard Widescreen
  76. 76. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect Ratios – 1.85:1 Standard Widescreen
  77. 77. Technology of Motion Pictures Aspect Ratios – 2:35:1 Anamorphic of Super 35mm Widescreen
  78. 79. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Inventor; Oversaw the photographic research and special effects department for Paramount Studios. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  79. 80. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Akwa Skees </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  80. 81. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Director </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  81. 82. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Director </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7653085842645884021#
  82. 83. <ul><li>Fred Waller – 360 Degree Still Camera </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  83. 84. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Waller Gunnery Trainer </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  84. 85. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Cinerama (2.60:1) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  85. 86. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Cinerama (2.60:1) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  86. 87. <ul><li>Fred Waller – Cinerama (2.60:1) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  87. 88. <ul><li>IMAX – 1.36:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard IMAX screen is 22 × 16.1 m (72 × 52.8 ft) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  88. 89. Technology of Motion Pictures HD TV – 16x9 or 1.77:1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqwCQQ4qIXw
  89. 90. <ul><li>3D - Creating the illusion of depth by photographing two images simultaneously, one for the viewer ’s right eye and one for the left, then projecting or displaying them in such a fashion that each eye sees only one of the images. The brain then “thinks” it sees three dimensions. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  90. 91. <ul><li>3D </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmuuThydmZQ
  91. 92. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>The number of frames that pass through the camera of projector or display device per second </li></ul><ul><li>Frames per second (FPS) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  92. 93. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>The number of frames that pass through the camera or projector or display device per second </li></ul><ul><li>Frames per second (FPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Normal speed – Both the camera and the projector or display device run at the same number of frames per second. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  93. 94. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Slow motion – The camera runs FASTER than the projector or display device. For example, the camera runs at 60 fps, but the projector runs at the standard 24 fps, making action slower. Also referred to as overcranking (production) and time stretching (post production). Time stretching is created by removing frames from already recorded footage. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJMxGFco57Y
  94. 95. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Slow motion – “Bonnie and Clyde” (1967) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5GDcs8i2ng
  95. 96. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Slow motion – “Reservoir Dogs” (1992) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qBWc8FCEEM
  96. 97. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Slow motion – “Face/Off” (1997) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d37lLPjr1fw
  97. 98. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Fast motion – The camera runs SLOWER than the projector or display device. For example, the camera runs at 16 fps, but the projector runs at the standard 24 fps, making action faster. Also referred to as undercranking (production) and time stretching (post production). Time stretching is created by removing frames from already recorded footage. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  98. 99. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Fast motion - “ Koyaanisqatsi ” (1982) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6pVLQAY1HM
  99. 100. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Ramping – Changing speeds rapidly within a single shot. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures
  100. 101. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Ramping – “Sherlock Holmes” (2009) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ug15jIs1nus
  101. 102. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Ramping – “Watchmen” (2009) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Afk_onUh_s
  102. 103. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse motion – The action moves backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spin” (2005) Jamin Winans </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oP59tQf_njc
  103. 104. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Time Lapse – Super fast motion created by taking single frames of an object over time, compressing minutes, hours, days, weeks or years. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnbMYzdjuBs
  104. 105. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – Single frame photography used to animate objects. Effect that makes the animation of drawings (cartoons) and inanimate objects (i.e. Claymation) possible. </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/12/31/50-incredible-stop-motion-videos/
  105. 106. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5QWUA17lwM
  106. 107. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – “Jason and the Argonauts” (1963) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NQ2GPoZ_j4
  107. 108. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – “Jason and the Argonauts” (1963) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.rayharryhausen.com/index.php Ray Harryhausen
  108. 109. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – “Neighbors” Norman McLaren (1952) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZt_d_4OV-Q
  109. 110. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – “Her Morning Elegance” Oren Lavie (2009) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_HXUhShhmY
  110. 111. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Motion – “End Love” OK Go (2010) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2fpgpanZAw
  111. 112. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet Time – Time is slowed or frozen selectively for the characters and the environment, but not for certain characters or the camera, which move through the environment in real time. First popularized in “The Matrix” (1999). </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/BulletTime
  112. 113. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet Time – “The Matrix” (1999). </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNrSNcaYiZg
  113. 114. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet Time – “The Matrix” (1999). </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KtghA0rkDY
  114. 115. <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet Time – CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (2010) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9qjdUlRs7Y
  115. 116. <ul><li>Time - “10 Minutes” (1994) </li></ul>Technology of Motion Pictures http://vimeo.com/2455660

×