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Detecting Speakers’ Violation of
Democratic Entitlements in Political Debates
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo
Knowledge Medi...
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
The Election Debate Visuali...
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
The Election Debate Visuali...
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Context and Motivation
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Dialogue Rule Compliance
and Fair Play
+
Manual An...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Dialogue Rule Compliance
and Fair Play
• Instances...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Dialogue Rule Compliance
and Fair Play
• Instances...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Dialogue Rule Compliance
and Fair Play
+
Manual An...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
Qualitative research: citi...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
Democratic entitlements
1....
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
• Not with t...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
• Not with t...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
• Not with t...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
• Static obl...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
• Static obl...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Democratic Entitlements
and Fair Play
Init-Inform
...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
A met...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
A met...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Evaluation through
Instant Audience Feedback
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Current and Future Work
• Annotation and visualisa...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Current and Future Work
• Annotation and visualisa...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Current and Future Work
• Annotation and visualisa...
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
Current and Future Work
• Annotation and visualisa...
Thank you!
Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo
Knowledge Media Institute
The Open University, UK
{brian.pluss, anna.deliddo}@ope...
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Detecting Speakers’ Violation of Democratic Entitlements in Political Debates

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Striving to increase citizen engagement with politics using technology, we describe a semi automatic technique for measuring the actions of politicians in televised election debates against the audience’s democratic expectations. The method helps viewers to assess the candidates’ performances by exposing, for instance, when speakers purposefully avoid questions, make 'soundbite' remarks or mislead viewers. We evaluate the technique by correlation with audience feedback involving flashcards through which viewers indicate when their expectations are being violated.

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Detecting Speakers’ Violation of Democratic Entitlements in Political Debates

  1. 1. Detecting Speakers’ Violation of Democratic Entitlements in Political Debates Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo Knowledge Media Institute The Open University, UK {brian.pluss, anna.deliddo}@open.ac.uk edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  2. 2. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June The Election Debate Visualisation project • Aim: to empower democratic citizenship by making political media events more accessible and engaging, and by giving viewers tools to make sense of complex political argumentation and debate. • How: Political Communication, Computational Linguistics, Collective Intelligence and Design brought together to provide enhanced, interactive online debate replays.
  3. 3. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June The Election Debate Visualisation project • Aim: to empower democratic citizenship by making political media events more accessible and engaging, and by giving viewers tools to make sense of complex political argumentation and debate. • How: Political Communication, Computational Linguistics, Collective Intelligence and Design brought together to provide enhanced, interactive online debate replays. Like YouTube, with fancy visualisations of complex analytics.
  4. 4. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  5. 5. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  6. 6. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  7. 7. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  8. 8. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  9. 9. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  10. 10. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  11. 11. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  12. 12. Context and Motivation Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June
  13. 13. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Dialogue Rule Compliance and Fair Play + Manual Annotation of Dialogue Act Functions and Content Features Rules of Engagement (76 in 2010; 28 in 2015)
  14. 14. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Dialogue Rule Compliance and Fair Play • Instances of violations of the rules Static: performance of forbidden dialogue acts Dynamic: failure to discharge discourse obligations • Aggregated normalised scores per speaker + Manual Annotation of Dialogue Act Functions and Content Features Rules of Engagement (76 in 2010; 28 in 2015)
  15. 15. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Dialogue Rule Compliance and Fair Play • Instances of violations of the rules Static: performance of forbidden dialogue acts Dynamic: failure to discharge discourse obligations • Aggregated normalised scores per speaker Fair Play Summary + Manual Annotation of Dialogue Act Functions and Content Features Rules of Engagement (76 in 2010; 28 in 2015)
  16. 16. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Dialogue Rule Compliance and Fair Play + Manual Annotation of Dialogue Act Functions and Content Features Rules of Engagement (76 in 2010; 28 in 2015) • Instances of violations of the rules Static: performance of forbidden dialogue acts Dynamic: failure to discharge discourse obligations • Aggregated normalised scores per speaker
  17. 17. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements Qualitative research: citizens’ perceptions of election debates 12 focus groups conducted at Leeds: • Disengaged Voters • Committed Party Supporters • Undecided Voters • First-time Voters • Active Users of the Internet • (Performers) Male/Female; 8~10 people per group
  18. 18. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements Democratic entitlements 1. Be respected as a rational and independent decision- maker 2. Be able to evaluate political claims and make an informed decision 3. Feel part of the debate as a democratic cultural event 4. Be able to communicate with and be recognised by the leaders who want to represent me 5. Be able to make a difference to what happens in the political world Qualitative research: citizens’ perceptions of election debates 12 focus groups conducted at Leeds: • Disengaged Voters • Committed Party Supporters • Undecided Voters • First-time Voters • Active Users of the Internet • (Performers) Male/Female; 8~10 people per group
  19. 19. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements
  20. 20. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements
  21. 21. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements
  22. 22. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play • Not with the rules of the broadcasters and political parties, but with the rules of the citizens. As before, only…
  23. 23. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play • Not with the rules of the broadcasters and political parties, but with the rules of the citizens. Examples: - Answer the question - Do not mislead - Do not insult the audience As before, only…
  24. 24. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play • Not with the rules of the broadcasters and political parties, but with the rules of the citizens. Examples: - Answer the question - Do not mislead - Do not insult the audience • Crucially, on the same coding scheme. As before, only…
  25. 25. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play • Static obligations: role-based allowed and disallowed dialogue acts. Example: - Speaker must not insult the audience Rules formalised to capture discourse obligations:
  26. 26. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play • Static obligations: role-based allowed and disallowed dialogue acts. Example: - Speaker must not insult the audience • Dynamic obligations (introduction and discharge): dialogue acts to be performed as a consequence of actions of self or others. Example: - When asked a valid question, addressee must provide a valid answer - Providing the information requested for by an question, discharges the obligation to provide an valid answer. Rules formalised to capture discourse obligations:
  27. 27. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Democratic Entitlements and Fair Play Init-Inform Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite On-Topic | Off-Topic Accurate | Inaccurate New | Repeated Init-InfoRequest Follows | Interrupt Polite | Impolite On-Topic | Off-Topic Neutral | Loaded Reasonable | Unreasonable New | Repeated Resp-Inform Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite Relevant | Irrelevant Accurate | Inaccurate New | Repeated Complete | Incomplete Coding scheme Resp-Accept Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite Resp-Reject Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite Init-Cue Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite Init-Greeting Follows | Interrupts Polite | Impolite Resp-Greeting Follow | Interrupts Polite | Impolite
  28. 28. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback A method for gauging audience responses to political media events in real-time • Controlled and nuanced • Engaging, voluntary and non-intrusive • Suitable for analytics and visualisations
  29. 29. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback A method for gauging audience responses to political media events in real-time • Controlled and nuanced • Engaging, voluntary and non-intrusive • Suitable for analytics and visualisations
  30. 30. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  31. 31. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  32. 32. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  33. 33. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  34. 34. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  35. 35. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Evaluation through Instant Audience Feedback
  36. 36. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Current and Future Work • Annotation and visualisation of the April UK election debates
  37. 37. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Current and Future Work • Annotation and visualisation of the April UK election debates
  38. 38. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Current and Future Work • Annotation and visualisation of the April UK election debates • Evaluation Reliability: inter-annotator agreement study Validity: correlation with instant audience feedback
  39. 39. Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June Current and Future Work • Annotation and visualisation of the April UK election debates • Evaluation Reliability: inter-annotator agreement study Validity: correlation with instant audience feedback • Explore automation of annotations
  40. 40. Thank you! Brian Plüss and Anna De Liddo Knowledge Media Institute The Open University, UK {brian.pluss, anna.deliddo}@open.ac.uk edv-project.netECA Lisbon 2015, 9-12 June

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