2 premedical viruses_a


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  • Spherical virus
  • A virus which, upon infection of a host , does not necessarily cause lysis but whose genome may replicate in synchrony with that of the host
  • Germen measles Group: Group IV ( (+)ssRNA ) Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Enterovirus Species: Poliovirus Group: Group IV ( (+)ssRNA ) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus : Rhinovirus Group: Group V ( (-)ssRNA ) Family: Orthomyxoviridae Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Group: Group IV ( (+)ssRNA ) Family: Flaviviridae Genus: Flavivirus Species: Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus Group: Group IV ( (+)ssRNA ) Family: Togaviridae Genus: Rubivirus Species: Rubella virus Group: Group V ( (-)ssRNA ) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Paramyxoviridae Genus: Rubulavirus Type species Mumps virus Group: Group V ( (-)ssRNA ) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Paramyxoviridae Genera Subfamily Paramyxovirinae   Avulavirus Henipavirus   Morbillivirus    Respirovirus    Rubulavirus Subfamily Pneumovirinae    Pneumovirus     Metapneumovirus Group: Group V ( (-)ssRNA ) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Rhabdoviridae Genus: Lyssavirus Species: Rabies Group: Group VI ( ssRNA-RT ) Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2
  • Group: Group I ( dsDNA ) Family: Adenoviridae Genera Atadenovirus Aviadenovirus Ichtadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Group: Group I ( dsDNA ) Family: Herpesviridae Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae Genus: Simplexvirus Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2) Group: Group I (dsDNA) Family: Herpesviridae Subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae Genus: Lymphocryptovirus Species: Human herpesvirus 4 Variola virus (Smallpox) Virus classification Group: Group I (dsDNA) Family: Poxviridae Genus: Orthopoxvirus S pecies: Variola vera Group: Group I (dsDNA) Order: Unranked Family: Papillomaviridae
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  • 2 premedical viruses_a

    1. 1. VirusesNon-cellular organisms Premedical - biology
    2. 2. Non-cellular: viruses - Infectious particles plant, animal, bacterial = bacteriophages• virion = nucleic acid + protein coat (capsid) and another envelope similar to membrane (enveloped viruses)• bacteriophage = icosahedra head + tail, base plate, fibers
    3. 3. Enterobacteria phage T4 infects Escherichia coli viral DNA injection
    4. 4. Icosahedral models, left to right: fivefold, threefold, and twofold axes
    5. 5. CAPSID CONFIGURATION IN NAKED AND ENVELOPED VIRUSES.Capsid - protein shellsubunits - Capsomers
    6. 6. CapsidsHelical Polyhedral
    7. 7. Tobacco mosaic virus
    8. 8. virus classification• host specification: plant, animal, bacteria• DNA a RNA virus: ds DNA, ss DNA, ds RNA, pos ss RNA, neg ss RNA, rev trans diploid ss RNA, rev trans circular dsDNA• structure: symmetry helical, complex, icosahedral, capsid, envelope, number of capsomer
    9. 9. ds DNA, ss DNA, ds RNA, ss RNA, rev trans diploid ss RNA, rev trans circular dsDNA
    10. 10. Reverse transcriptase = enzyme overwriting RNA to DNA transcriptionreplication reverse transcription translation RNA Protein DNA
    11. 11. Retrovirus, Lentivirus, pos ssRNA-RT, encapsulated: HIV-1, HIV-2
    12. 12. Viruses can reproduce only within a host cell• Obligate intracellular parasites• lack enzymes and ribosomes …• only a limited range of host cells– host specificity• eukaryotic virusesare tissue specific• Lytic cycle – virulent viruses
    13. 13. Lytic cycle of virus reproduction• adsorption virus to cell• penetration virus or viral NA into cell• replication, transcription and translation•assembling new virus particles (self-assembly)• transfer to daughter cells: effect on the cell:death of the cell – lyses (hundreds or thousand) cytopathy effect (exocytose)
    14. 14. Lysogenic - virogenic cycle= integration of the viral nucleic acid into the host genome as provirus (prophage)• replication with the DNA of the host cell• latent viruses – the cell is not damaged• virus is transferred to daughter cells• viruses as vectors of oncogeny
    15. 15. Temperate phages Latent viruses
    16. 16. Tumor viruses - transformation of eukaryotic cellsto cancer cellsDNA viruses – oncogeneRNA viruses= retroviruses
    17. 17. Prions• degeneration brain disease• infectious particles• contain proteins, NA wasn‘t proved• abnormal prion = product of mutated genes
    18. 18. Prion protein- occurrence in two isoforms: normal PrPC (C=cellular) abnormal PrPSC (SC=scrapie)– PrPC – prevalence of alpha helix a little beta structure– PrPSC – prevalence of beta structure– presence of PrPSC induces PrPC change = normal protein to abnormal - runs as chain
    19. 19. • hereditary disease= gene mutation → abnormal protein• transfer between species is rare, but might be possible with a long period of latency• transfer from human to human: by growth hormone, brain electrodes
    20. 20. DiseaseThey cause an infection in sheepcalled scrapie and cattlebovine spongiform encephalopathy("mad cow" disease).
    21. 21. Human diseases– Creutzfeld-Jacob disease: affection of the grey brain cortex, severe neurological symptoms with quickly proceeded dementia)– kuru: Papua-New Guinea: disability of movement coordination, paralysis, dementia – disease is extension by ritual cannibalism
    22. 22. Neural degeneration in aprion infection.a slice from the brain of aperson who died of kuruThe large fluid-filled holesare places where neuronshave died.
    23. 23. RNA virusesPoliomyelitis - polioRhinitis – coldInfluenza – fluEncefalitisRubella – measles Ger.Parotitis - mumpsMorbilli – measlesRabiesHIV-AIDS
    24. 24. DNA viry:Adenoviruses - respiratory disease conjunctivitis gastroenteritisOral herpes - herpes simplex virusinfectious mononucleosis - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)Smallpox - Variola major and minorHuman Papilomavirus - warts (verrucae), cancers of
    25. 25. Papillomavirus
    26. 26. Campbell, Neil A., Reece, Jane B., Cain Michael L., Jackson,Robert B., Minorsky, Peter V., Biology, Benjamin-CummingsPublishing Company, 1996 –2010.