What do living things get from their environments?</li></li></ul><li>What do living things get from their environment?<br />What makes up my environment?<br />My home<br />The town where I live<br />Lots of different plants<br />Lots of different animals<br />Sunlight<br />Rain<br />People<br />Food<br />Water<br />Air<br />Space<br />Shelter<br />Protection<br />Everything they need<br />
Vocabulary<br />Ecosystem: An ecosystem is made up of living and non living things that interact in the same place. An ecosystem is a community of animals, plants and micro-organisms, together with the habitat where they live.<br />Georgia has many different ecosystems, such as the Okefenokee Swamp and a forest ecosystem.<br />In an ecosystem, things interact (when things in the environment have a relationship).<br />Okefenokee Swamp<br />Jekyll Island Beach<br />Cumberland Island<br />
What do you see interacting, or relating, in this pond ecosystem?<br />Birds hunt for fish and frogs near the pond’s edge.<br />Water lilies float on the surface of the pond. Frogs often rest on their leaves.<br />Turtles resting on a log. They are faster in water than on land. They eat small fish, worms, and plants.<br />Ladybugs crawl on the plants that live in the shallow water near the pond’s edge.<br />Fish live in the water. They may reach up to eat insects just above the surface.<br />
Vocabulary<br />Habitat: A habitat is a specific place inside of the ecosystem where organisms live, such as a home or a shelter, or the general area, such as your neighborhood. <br />An example is fish…they live in the water. A duck lives in the same pond, but it doesn’t live underwater with the fish. It lives on top of the water.<br />Which is larger? A turtle’s habitat or a pond ecosystem?<br />
What does a habitat provide…<br />…for you? Your habitat provides you all the things you need to survive. It provides a shelter (house), food (stores/gardens), air, temperature control (air conditioning or heat).<br />…for a living thing? A living thing has a habitat that provides everything it needs to live there and to survive. <br />Which habitat do these living things find all that they need?<br />
What happens when the habitat changes?<br /><ul><li>When a beaver cuts down a tree to make his dam, what happens to the birds and bugs in that tree?
What happens to the animals who live in or by flowing streams where the dam has stopped the flow of water?
What about the living things that are affected when people cut down trees or drain wetlands?</li></li></ul><li>The 5 Regions of Georgia<br />Swamps and marshes<br />Atlantic Ocean<br />
Non living characteristics<br />The mountains cover the northern part of Georgia. The Blue Ridge and Appalachian Mountains combine to form the mountain habitat in north Georgia. Here there are mountains, valleys and ravines along with many waterfalls. The elevation gets much higher than the rest of Georgia which causes changes in the plants. <br /><ul><li>are made of land that rises to a high peak.
get more rain and snow than any other part of the state.
are warm in the summer and below freezing in winter.
are made of rocky and shallow soils.</li></ul>Living characteristics<br /><ul><li>are full of evergreen trees and broad leafed trees.
have plants like rhododendrons, azaleas, and mountain laurel.
provide shelter for red squirrels, smoky shrews.
are home to bobcats, skunks, bats, snakes, turtles.
have birds and other animals that can’t survive the winters and migrate south every winter.</li></ul>Habitats in Georgia: Mountains<br />
Habitats in Georgia: Piedmont<br /><ul><li>The piedmont is an area of rolling hills. Piedmont means "foot of the mountain." The piedmont has forests, lakes and rivers. Red clay gives the ground its color.
Birds, chipmunks, deer, fox, squirrels, and white-footed mice are some of the animals.
Some water animals are shoal bass, sunfish, and catfish.
You will also see spotted salamanders, beavers, butterflies, foxes, and coyotes. This is the area just south of the mountains.
It has rolling hills, red clay soil, streams and rivers, and different kinds of trees.
It used to be mostly oak and hickory trees, but settlers cut down the trees to make farms. The trees that have grown back are mostly pine.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>This is the region where the coastal plain meets the ocean. It has salty spray from the ocean.
The coastal plain is the southern part of Georgia that used to be covered by oceans millions of years ago.
The land is flat and sandy. It has mild winters and hot summers. Sweet gum, magnolia, bay, and hickory trees grow along the streams.
There are Flatwoods that have pine, oak, wax myrtle, and wiregrasses.
You will find deer, bobcats, diamondback rattle snakes, skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and songbirds.
You will also see woodpeckers, gopher tortoises and gopher frogs.
Many crops are grown in this area including peanuts, pecans, peaches, watermelons, and even Vidalia onions.
The fall line separates the piedmont from the coastal plain and has many waterfalls located along it.</li></ul>Habitats in Georgia: The Coastal Plain<br />
Habitats in Georgia: Swamps and Marshes<br /><ul><li>A wetland is an area of land that is wet all or most of the time.
Georgia's coastal plain is a low flat region of sandy, well drained, gently rolling hills and poorly drained flatlands.
Examples in Georgia are mountain bogs, piedmont marshes, and swamps in the coastal plain.
Soil is wet and spongy. Lots of water lilies grow there.
In marshes, fresh water from rain, streams, and rivers mixes with the salty ocean water, so it is not as salty.
A swamp is like a lake, but shallower. A marsh has lots of grasses and reeds instead of trees.
You will see frogs, turtles, birdlife, alligators, snakes, butterflies, crocodiles, dragonflies, beetles, fish, armadillos, wild boar, deer, and rattlesnakes.</li></li></ul><li>Habitats in Georgia: The Atlantic Ocean<br />This is a very large body of salt water found along the coast of the United States.<br />It is full of many animals, like bottlenose dolphins, fish, shrimp, crabs, brown pelicans, tarpon, redfish, flounder, and sea trout. Sea turtles make their homes there also. <br /> The Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary is a living coral reef with sea stars and sand dollars. Seaweed, sea grass, and algae also grow in the ocean.<br />
The Okefenokee Swamp<br /><ul><li>This is one of Georgia’s best-known wetlands.
Muddy soil is called “peat”. If you tried to walk through the swamp, your legs would sink deeper and deeper with every step!
It is made up of lakes, islands, marshes, and forests.
More than 600 kinds of plants live there, such as saw palmettos, cypresses, black gums, and red maples.
Prairies are covered with several inches of water and have water lilies, golden club, sedges, and grasses growing on them.
You will find sandhill cranes, alligators, ducks, white ibises, egrets, and herons. There are also songbirds, hawks, wild turkeys, black bears, and more than a dozen kinds of frogs.
Some plants capture insects, like the pitcher plants, sundews, and bladderworts to get their nutrients.</li></li></ul><li>How do changes in habitats affect living things?<br /><ul><li>When a habitat changes, some plants and animals may no longer be able to get the things they need to survive.
They must move to a new habitat or they may die.
A drought is a long period of time with very little rain. Plants that live in a place where it usually rains may not survive a drought.
In deserts, very few animals live there because it is so dry and hot, and there is very little water. The animals that do live there have adaptations to help them survive. When it rains in a desert, plants grow very quickly and make seeds before they die in the dry climate.
Fires can help and harm. They can help because a burning tree might fall down, allowing sunlight to come in and make more room for plants to grow. Some plants have adaptations to help them survive where there are a lot of fires. In grassland environments, grasses have many roots and grow back quickly after a fire.
Also ashes can provide nutrients for new plants. Fires can harm because they kill animals and their habitats.</li></li></ul><li>Balance….<br />An environment is balanced when there are not too many and not too few of any kind of living thing.<br />An environment needs the right amount of plants or the animals will not have food. Also, the animals would have to find new places to live if there aren’t enough plants, or they might die.<br />How would the owl be affected if you took away half of the grasses?<br />
Some plants have thorns that keep animals from eating them.
Roots and stems help hold the plant up in the ground.
Sunflowers turn slowly during the day to keep facing the sun. This helps them survive so they get enough sun.</li></li></ul><li>Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Adaptation: A feature that helps a living thing survive.
Adaptations may be on the inside or outside of a plant or animal.
Adaptations help plants and animals survive, grow, and reproduce.
Plants need nutrients, water, sunlight, and air to grow. Adaptations help get these things so they can grow and survive.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Wood is an adaptation that helps trees grow tall. The tallest trees get the most sunlight. The tree trunks, made of wood, help support the tree as it grows upward. A woody tree supports itself.
Vines have an adaptation for growth too. They have stems that wrap around other plants and help them grow up towards the sunlight. A vine is supported by other plants.
Roots are used for getting water and nutrients. Some roots are fat and store food. Some roots of desert plants grow deep into the soil and reach water that is far underground. Other desert plants have roots that are along the surface so they can get water quickly.
Some roots that store food are some you may have eaten before! Carrots, radishes, turnips, and sweet potatoes are examples.</li></li></ul><li>Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Reproduce: “re” means again. So reproduce means to make itself again.
Smell: a plant might smell fragrant to attract insects to carry the pollen or seeds to other places.
Color: a plant might have a bright color to attract insects to it so that seeds or pollen can be spread.
Taste: bees are attracted to sweet tasting nectar and help plants reproduce when they land on them.</li></li></ul><li>Which one of these, the corn or the peas, stands out? Color is an adaptation that helps a plant survive.<br />Ways plants reproduce:<br />Seeds stick to animals. The animals spread the seeds as they move about.<br />Wind carries seeds.<br />Seeds can float on water, like the coconut.<br />The seeds move far away from the parent plant so that the two plants don’t compete for sunlight, water, and nutrients in the same space.<br />
How Do Animal Features Help Animals?<br />Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Hibernate: to spend the winter in a deep sleep.</li></ul> Animals hibernate through the winter because the winter climate doesn’t meet their needs.<br />Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Migrate: to travel from one place to another and back again. </li></ul> Animals change from one climate to another one that better meets their needs.<br />
Adaptations for survival<br /><ul><li>Eagles have adaptations for flying and for catching food.
They use their tail and fins to move through the water, like an eagle uses its wings for flying.</li></ul> Tuck your thumb into the palm of your hand Without moving your thumb, try to pick up an object. Now try to write your name. How is the thumb a useful adaptation for humans??<br />
BehaviorsWhat do you do in the winter if you are cold?What do you do when you are hungry?How fast does your heart beat when you sleep compared to when you are awake?<br /><ul><li>Hibernating is a way for animals to survive the winter.
An animal doesn’t need food when hibernating because it stored up enough fat from eating over the other months.
When animals hibernate, their heart rate slows down because they aren’t moving.
They eat less and grow thicker fur because their bodies will get colder.
Animals are born knowing how to hibernate and do not have to learn this.</li></li></ul><li>Migration<br /><ul><li>Migrate means to travel from one place to another and then back again.
Gray whales that live near Alaska swim South in the cold winters. They migrate to warm waters near California. Then in spring, they swim North again.
Animals do not need to learn how to migrate. They are adaptations and the animals are born knowing how to do this.
Some animals migrate because they cannot find enough food.
Some animals migrate because the weather is too cold for them, like monarch butterflies and whales.</li></li></ul><li>Other adaptations for survival…<br /><ul><li>Some animals can hide well.
Stonefish look like rocks so smaller fish swim close and get eaten!
A green anole can change its colors to match its background so other animals don’t see it.
The Arctic hare has brown fur in the summer so it matches the rocks and the ground. The hare turns white in the winter to blend in with the snow.
Some animals survive by looking like other animals.
The milk snake is not deadly, but the coral snake is. These snakes look very much alike and animals that eat snakes cannot tell them apart.
Some animals don’t take care of their eggs. So they lay hundreds of eggs so that enough will survive.</li>