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The impacts of strategic spatial planning on land change in European urban regions

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From plans to land change: how strategic spatial planning contributes to the development of urban regions (CONCUR) http://www.wsl.ch/fe/landschaftsdynamik/projekte/CONCUR/index_EN
Oliveira & Hersperger (2016)

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The impacts of strategic spatial planning on land change in European urban regions

  1. 1. :::Prepared by Eduardo Oliveira & Anna M. Hersperger::: The impacts of strategic spatial planning on land change in European urban regions Oslo ViennaLyon LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY GROUP MEETING, 03.11.2016
  2. 2. SPATIAL PLANNING has been thought as a driver of land use and land cover change. However… Methods to analyse spatial planning goals and the degree of implementation in more territorial-based governance remains under-researched. In addition… Setting the scene Little attention has been paid to the role of governance in strategic spatial plan-making & plan-implementation. Moreover…
  3. 3. Gap Spatial planning Governance Land system science The literature has also been unsuccessful in unveiling the conceptual & practical linkage between… CONSEQUENTLY…
  4. 4. This is where we stand
  5. 5. The purpose of this study is to examine How do spatial planning - specifically strategic spatial plans - IMPACT land-use and land-cover change in urban regions. BEARING IN MIND THAT…
  6. 6. Spatial planning… “Is seen to be something that goes further than traditional planning in its aspirations to serve as a mechanism: THEREFORE… • for collaborative visioning • for overseeing implementation of development by a diverse range of actors, and • for ensuring that all this is delivered in ways that meet the diverse expectations of society.” (Haughton, Allmendinger, Counsell and Vigar, 2010).
  7. 7. Is important to understand more territorial-based governance arrangements … Coordination | Commitment towards strategic plans Interested groups | Key players | Role of NGOs Leadership | Accountability | Regional capacity Because governance arrangements IMPACT…
  8. 8. Impact strategic spatial planning processes
  9. 9. Challenges posed to urban regions • Environmental (e.g. floods, energy supply); • Demographical (e.g. ageing, migration); • Rise of new technologies (e.g. “mobility” apps; self-driving); • Housing market (e.g. short term rentals; affordability); • Changes in production and the economy (e.g. smart cities); • Changes in governance settings (e.g. regional authorities); IN ADDITION…
  10. 10. Strategic spatial planning has been assuming a primary role in coping with these challenges, AND e.g. Van Well & Schmitt, 2016; Davoudi et al. (2008); Albrechts, Balducci & Hillier (2017) Territorial governance - is the formulation and implementation of public policies, programmes and projects for the development of urban regions (e.g.) BUT, LET ME HIGHLIGHT
  11. 11. “In order to assess their role, legitimacy and efficacy, strategic planning processes must be described on the basis of an in-depth analysis and evaluation of the local context in which they have been implemented”. Context sensitivity of S.S.Plans (Fedeli, 2017, p. 181) SO
  12. 12. The 14 European urban regions = 14 planning cultures = 14 territorial governance settings
  13. 13. In-depth semi-structured interviews What about Governance in plan-making ? CONCUR WSL Urban & regional planners, academics
  14. 14. A set of territorial governance elements*A set of territorial governance elements* *e.g. Schmitt & Van Well, 2016; Jessop, 2016; Beunen, Assche & Duineveld, 2015; Foster and Barnes, 2012; Albrechts, Healey & Kunzmann, 2003. Coordination of interests Interested groups & players Joint working agendas Civic participation Expert & tacit knowledge Adaptive capacity Leadership
  15. 15. Multiplicity of challenges Dublin Housing availability & affordability Dealing with rural-urban disparities Population growth
  16. 16. Oslo More public spaces & green areas Attractiveness, competitiveness, positionality, liveability Multiplicity of challenges Improving Commuting & mobility
  17. 17. Dublin Oslo + housing land + employment land + regenerate brown field areas + deal with scarce resources + improve quality of live + preservation of green infra. Stockholm Copenhagen Urban regions need… Need to think regionally, ultimately prepare strategic regional plans…
  18. 18. For example… Strong cooperation Strong commitment towards regional land use plan People in the Stuttgart Region live their lives with a regional approach Dealing with cross border planning issues
  19. 19. The 1st example: Regional plan for Greater Stuttgart Region (Germany) “People in the Stuttgart Region live their lives with a regional approach” Baden-Württemberg
  20. 20. The 1st example: Regional plan for Greater Stuttgart Region How do “Region Stuttgart plan” IMPACT land change in Urban Region of Stuttgart? Coordination Interested groups Working agendas Civic participation Knowledge Adaptive capacity Leadership • Effective coordination between regional entity (VRS) and local authorities (179); • Municipalities provide inputs to the regional plan suggesting development areas, green infrastructures, S-Bahn (e.g.); • Balance local knowledge & regional goals; • Local leaders take regional plan at heart; • Project-sensitive negotiations (e.g.funding) • +/- 5000 written notes from citizens, representing their ideas, perspectives - often on micro-scale (i.e. neighbourhood);
  21. 21. The 2nd example: Strategic Development Plan For Edinburgh & South East Scotland (UK, Scotland) • Dealing with cross boundary planning issues – Housing – economic growth – green networks – infrastructure – long term vision for the region. • SESPLAN - 6 member authorities working together The Strategic Development Plan is used to inform Local Development Plans
  22. 22. How do SESplan IMPACT land change in Edinburgh urban region? The 2nd example: Strategic Development Plan For Edinburgh & South East Scotland • Weak coordination between SESplan authority and local tiers of government (e.g. Edinburgh city council) • Interested groups do what they have to do - weak voluntary cooperation; • The SESplan provides general guidelines; • Local development plans are more effective regarding land use; Coordination Interested groups Working agendas Civic participation Knowledge Adaptive capacity Leadership
  23. 23. The 3rd example: Regional Land Use Plan for Helsinki-Uusimaa (Finland) The tasks of the Helsinki-Uusimaa Regional Council include regional and land use planning Strong cooperation & Strong commitment towards regional land use plan supports plan-implementation
  24. 24. How do Helsinki-Uusimaa regional plan IMPACT land change in Helsinki-Uusimaa urban region? The 3rd example: Regional Land Use Plan for Helsinki-Uusimaa • Regional Council works in close cooperation with member municipalities, the central government, the business sector, universities / research institutions, as well as with civic organizations. • GIS-oriented civic participation tools; • Interested groups are taken in consideration during plan- making/implementation - e.g. new housing developments, the extension of a tram line or primary infra-structure. Coordination Interested groups Working agendas Civic participation Knowledge Adaptive capacity Leadership
  25. 25. Key findings • Directly elected regional authority; • Strong sense of regional belonging / identify; • Effective territorial governance arrangements; • Funding schemes support plan-implementation; • Regional authority more as an advisor; • Regional authority and Edinburgh city planning remain doubtful regarding SESplan; • Planning permissions likely to be granted by local authorities if well elaborated / justified; • Intense negotiation between public/private; • Intense coordination / consensus building between regional and local entities; • Common regional development priorities; • Optimization of regional strengths and assets; • Territorial governance changes (2017+) strengthen regional planning, reg. land use plan;
  26. 26. Impacts of strategic plans on land change A clearer regional leadership, an unified regional vision lead to an effective strategic regional plan and more predictable impacts on land use. Hypothesis A A loose and fuzzy regional tier of government as well as weak territorial coordination and involvement, lead to a less effective strategic regional plan and uncertain impacts on land use. A strong tradition of territorial coordination and consensus building, strengthen the regional tier of government and the strategic regional plan, bringing certainty to the impacts on land use. Hypothesis B Hypothesis C
  27. 27. Anna M. Hersperger, Sofia Pagliarin, Eduardo Oliveira, Simona Grădinaru http://www.wsl.ch/fe/landschaftsdynamik/projekte/CONCUR Funded by ERC SNSF TBS Thank you Eduardo Oliveira and Anna M. Hersperger eduardo.oliveira@wsl.ch | anna.hersperger@wsl.ch Swiss Federal Research InstituteSwiss Federal Research Institute CopenhagenHamburg Vienna

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