Influences on the design andviability of large offshore windfarms and their connection toshoreEE576 Power system economics...
Introduction• European Union is the world`s leader inoffshore wind power• Contributes to Europe`s goal of beingcompetitive...
Advantages•Reduces the issuesof visual impact•Wind energy yield40% greater offshoreOffshore WindDisadvantages•High costs a...
• Sites are movingfurther from shore intodeeper waters• Longer submarinecables and designconstraints• Large turbine sizeCh...
• Onshore wind is an established technology,offshore wind still at development stage• Why inflated offshore capital expend...
• Offshore: 15 - 30% investmentOnshore: 2 - 9% investment• What affects the connectioncosts?– Distance to seabed from hold...
• Increased competition from turbine manufacturers in newmarkets, India and China, will quicken rate of cost reductions:– ...
• UK – 18 GW by 2020• Europe – 40 GW by 2020• China – 5 GW by 2015• China – 30 GW by 2020• Japan – four plannedoffshore pr...
• Bottom Mounted• Semi-SubmersibleWindFloat• Floating Turbines• Hywind Spar BuoyTypes of Offshore TurbineSources: Opti-OWE...
• Lack of coordination between stateadministrations• Fishing and anchoring pose threats to cables• Power output of the win...
Maintenance- Planning ActivitiesRelated downtime of major wind turbine componentsSource: Condition Monitoring of Wind Turb...
• Logistics of transport and accommodation• Consideration must be given to high-seasenvironmental factors:– Powerful storm...
Areas of learning from Oil & Gas• Replacement ofEquipment• Personnel Transfer• Offshore substations• O&M PortsSource: Lond...
• N-1 Security– Failure of one component– Demand met satisfactorily• How?– Network power flowstudies– Carried out prior to...
• Tee-in solutions– Wind farm or hub teeconnection• Hub-to-hub connections– Connection between hubs to– form transmission ...
• Onshore wind currently presents the most valuablerenewable generation source to distribution operators• Offshore wind ha...
• [1] The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in our Sails; The coming of Europe’soffshore wind energy industry ...
• [8] T. B. W. E. A. (BWEA), PROSPECTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY, [Online]. Available:http://www.offshorewindenergy.org/rep...
• [15] Turner, Iain. Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines, Sinclair Knight Merz. Glasgow, UK.2006.• [16] BVG Associates. ...
Any questions?Source: Energy Technology Institute (March 2013)
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Influences on the Design and Viability of Large Offshore Wind Farms and their Connection to Shore

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European Union is the world`s leader in offshore wind power.

Contributes to Europe`s goal of being competitive in the energy sector.

Electricity network are the bone structure of the electricity sector.

PS. That's not the full presentation, futher material can be access by email if necessary ny other information, due Slideshare do not upload the file notes.

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Influences on the Design and Viability of Large Offshore Wind Farms and their Connection to Shore

  1. 1. Influences on the design andviability of large offshore windfarms and their connection toshoreEE576 Power system economics, markets and asset managementSource: Energy Technology Institute (March 2013)Eduardo E.F BarbosaAurora B. FossScott P. LinkieSteven NixonCorinne M. Shand
  2. 2. Introduction• European Union is the world`s leader inoffshore wind power• Contributes to Europe`s goal of beingcompetitive in the energy sector• Electricity network are the bone structure ofthe electricity sector
  3. 3. Advantages•Reduces the issuesof visual impact•Wind energy yield40% greater offshoreOffshore WindDisadvantages•High costs and greaterinvestment risk•Disturb underwater life•Hard to forecast
  4. 4. • Sites are movingfurther from shore intodeeper waters• Longer submarinecables and designconstraints• Large turbine sizeChallengesSource: Subsea World News (June 2012)
  5. 5. • Onshore wind is an established technology,offshore wind still at development stage• Why inflated offshore capital expenditure(CAPEX)?– High initial capital (up to 30-50% greater)– Increased complexity in design due to challengingconditions– Operation and maintenance– Transportation and installationOffshore vs. Onshore Cost Analysis
  6. 6. • Offshore: 15 - 30% investmentOnshore: 2 - 9% investment• What affects the connectioncosts?– Distance to seabed from holding port– Sea depth– Extreme weather conditions– Specialist offshore expertise– Distance to onshore grid connection• Onshore wind farms generatedelectricity at a ‘levelised’ cost of£83-90/MWh, in contrast tooffshore wind at £169/MWhGrid Connection CostsSource: The Crown Estate (May 2012)
  7. 7. • Increased competition from turbine manufacturers in newmarkets, India and China, will quicken rate of cost reductions:– Cost reductions by 2020 are projected at around 10% for onshore and30% for offshore• Scale for future cost reductions in offshore wind technologylarger as onshore wind is matured technology• Substantial offshore cost reductions achieved through :– Larger wind farms create opportunities for economies of scale– Switch to HVDC connections as cable costs reduced– Improvements in foundation design e.g. replace steel with concreteFuture Cost Reduction
  8. 8. • UK – 18 GW by 2020• Europe – 40 GW by 2020• China – 5 GW by 2015• China – 30 GW by 2020• Japan – four plannedoffshore projectsProspects
  9. 9. • Bottom Mounted• Semi-SubmersibleWindFloat• Floating Turbines• Hywind Spar BuoyTypes of Offshore TurbineSources: Opti-OWECS 1997, WindFloat 2011, DeepWind 2012, Siemens 2008
  10. 10. • Lack of coordination between stateadministrations• Fishing and anchoring pose threats to cables• Power output of the wind farm and strength of thelocal grid• Availability of reactive power• Additional reserve may be requiredRegulatory & Technical Issues
  11. 11. Maintenance- Planning ActivitiesRelated downtime of major wind turbine componentsSource: Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines – SKM, 2006
  12. 12. • Logistics of transport and accommodation• Consideration must be given to high-seasenvironmental factors:– Powerful storms– Heavy swells– Highly corrosive salt water– Health & Safety– Adaptations in design which reduce component stressOperation - Challenges andCollaboration
  13. 13. Areas of learning from Oil & Gas• Replacement ofEquipment• Personnel Transfer• Offshore substations• O&M PortsSource: London Array (2013)
  14. 14. • N-1 Security– Failure of one component– Demand met satisfactorily• How?– Network power flowstudies– Carried out prior to everyconnectionNetwork Security RulesL1 L2 L3 L4CB2CB1 CB3L1 L2 L3 L4CB2CB1 CB3What is N-1 security?
  15. 15. • Tee-in solutions– Wind farm or hub teeconnection• Hub-to-hub connections– Connection between hubs to– form transmission corridors• Intermeshed designs– Offshore grid to split wind– farms between countriesMethods to increase securitySource: EWEA (2013)
  16. 16. • Onshore wind currently presents the most valuablerenewable generation source to distribution operators• Offshore wind has the potential to rival onshore in thenext few years through significant forecasted costreductions• Deployment further from shore leads to greater energyyield but this is offset with challenging a O & Menvironment• It is imperative that the connection does not unbalancethe networkSummary
  17. 17. • [1] The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Wind in our Sails; The coming of Europe’soffshore wind energy industry (2011) [Online]. Available:http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/reports/Offshore_Report.pdf Accessed:09.03.2013• [2] Ocean Energy Council, Offshore Wind Energy [Online]. Available:http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/index.php/Offshore-Wind/Offshore-Wind-Energy.htmlAccessed: 26.02.2013• [3] N. Haluzan, Renewable Energy article; Offshore wind power- Advantages and disadvantages(16 February 2011) [Online]. Available at:http://www.renewables-info.com/drawbacks_and_benefits/offshore_wind_power_%E2%80%93_advantagAccessed: 26.03.2013• [4] Renewable UK, The Economics of Wind Power: written evidence, Energy and Climate ChangeCommitee, United Kingdom, June 2012.• [5] M. MacDonald, Costs of low-carbon generation technologies, Committee on Climate Change,London, 2011.• [6] European Environment Agency, Competitiveness of wind energy, Europes onshore andoffshore wind energy potential: An assessment of environmental and economic constraints, EEA,Copenhagen, 2009.• [7] Global Wind Energy Council , Global Offshore: Current Status and Future Prospects, [Online].Available: http://www.gwec.net/global-offshore-current-status-future-prospects/. Accessed:13.03.13References (1)
  18. 18. • [8] T. B. W. E. A. (BWEA), PROSPECTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY, [Online]. Available:http://www.offshorewindenergy.org/reports/report_026.pdf Accessed:13.03.2013• [9] Opti-OWECS, Structural and Economic Optimisation of Bottom-Mounted Offshore WindEnergy Converters, 1997. [Online]. Available:http://www.offshorewindenergy.org/reports/report_013.pdf. Accessed : 14.03.13• [10] P. P. Inc., WindFloat 2011, [Online]. Available:http://www.principlepowerinc.com/products/windfloat.html. Accessed 14 March 2013• [11] R. D. N. L. f. S. Energy, Future wind turbines go offshore – deep and floating, 2010. [Online].Available: http://www.risoe.dtu.dk/News_archives/News/2010/1115_DeepWind.aspx?sc_lang=en.Accessed : 14.03.13• [12] D. Søren Stig Frederiksen, DeepWind, 2012. [Online]. Available:http://www.risoecampus.dtu.dk/Research/sustainable_energy/wind_energy/projects/VEA_DeepWind.aspxAccessed : 14.03.13• [13] Siemens, Principle of the Drilling Rig for Offshore Wind Stations,2008. [Online]. Available:http://www.siemens.com/press/en/presspicture/?press=/en/presspicture/pictures-photonews/2008/pn2008Accessed : 14.03.13• [14] E. W. E. Association, Wind Directions exclusive: Floating turbines by 2020, says Siemens’Stiesdal, [Online]. Available:http://www.ewea.org/articles/detail/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1777&cHash=ec0b6b4b5075989e544fd3d8125aAccessed : 14.03.13References (2)
  19. 19. • [15] Turner, Iain. Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines, Sinclair Knight Merz. Glasgow, UK.2006.• [16] BVG Associates. Swindon, UK. 2009. Towards Round 3: Building the Offshore Wind SupplyChain.• [17] Delay, Tom. Jennings, Tom, Offshore wind power: big challenge, big opportunity: Maximisingthe environmental, economic and security benefits, Carbon Trust. London, UK. 2008.• [18] Gillespie, Adrian., A Guide to Offshore Wind and Oil&Gas Capability, Scottish Enterprise.Glasgow, UK. 2011.• [19] Energy Technology Institute, Picture [Online]. Available at:http://eti.co.uk/img/uploads/homepage_slideshow/offshore-wind.jpg Accessed: 26.03.2013• [20] Subsea World News (June 2012), Picture [Online] Available at:http://subseaworldnews.com/2013/03/21/video-nkt-cables-delivered-biggest-submarine-cable-for-anholt-offshore-wind-project/ Accessed: 14.04.2013• [21] London Array(2013), Picture [Online] Available at: http://www.londonarray.com/the-project/offshore/substations/:Accessed: 14.04.2013• [22] S. Davies, Plugging in offshore wind power, 21 May 2012. [Online]. Available:http://eandt.theiet.org/magazine/2012/05/but-where-do-you-plug.cfm Accessed: 21.03.13• [23] Offshoregrid.eu, Grid Design Options (hub vs radial, tee-in, hub-to-hub) , 5 October 2011.[Online]. Available at:http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/events/Project_workshops/5._Jan_de_decker_offshoregrid_finalworkshop_griddesignoptions.pdf Accessed: 16.04.13• [24] The European Wind Energy Association, Picture [Online]. Available at: http://www.ewea.org/References (3)
  20. 20. Any questions?Source: Energy Technology Institute (March 2013)

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