University of Puerto Rico at CayeyWritten Proposal: Does the excessive use of cell phones cause glioma tumors and ipsilateral exposure here in Puerto Rico? Eduardo E. Rivera Cintrón Biol- 3009 Dr. Edwin Vázquez Ph. D July 12, 2011
Abstract:The objective is to determine whether the excessively use of cell phones causes gliomatumor and ipsilateral exposure and establish that the tumor and the ipsilateral exposurecould also be cancerous here in Puerto Rico. Based on the Interphone study done in 13countries (all outside the United States) their was a dramatically increase of risk ofobtaining brain cancer and formation of numerous tumors. The method will mainly focuson two groups. The first group consists of patients having glioma tumors and patientswithout glioma tumors. Another groups consist of people that talk excessively throughthe cell phone and people that use the cell phone when needed and doesn’t talkexcessively. Each person in the group will continue living their normal lives but will bemonitored. There will be specific dates in which the people will pass by a controllingcenter. In this controlling center the people will receive a handed survey with formulatedquestions. In other occasions the people will go through an interview to determine thatwhat they are saying matches our records. The possible results in Puerto Rico are notgoing to be the same compared to the ones obtained by the interphone study. In PuertoRico there would be several factors that could influence in the results obtained. Inconclusion there is an association with cell phones and tumors or brain cancer. Furtherstudies are required to know to what extent could this go and determine whether the useof cell phone is the only thing that causes brain cancer or tumors.
IntroductionThrough the past few years we have seen a significantly increase in the use of cell phonesand even a higher increase in the users and the time spent on them. As result of theexcessive use there has been a concern on whether the electromagnetic radiofrequencyfields show possible carcinogenic effect on the user. There have been numerous studieson this issue. The majority didn’t find a link between the excessive use of cell phone andformation of tumors. However, most studies found that there is a possible link betweenthe use of cell phone and formation of brain tumor in a period to ten or more years. Ourobjective is to determine whether it’s true that the excessive use of cell phones couldcause glioma tumors and ipsilateral exposure in a period of ten to fifteen years. Based onthe results that are obtained it will be establish that they can also be cancerous. Duringthe period of ten years there will be a higher risk of the formation of glioma tumors. Theipsilateral exposure will show a significantly increase of risk in the period of ten or moreyears.
BackgroundThere were recent studies done in 13 countries (all outside the United States) called theInterphone study. These countries are: Canada, Australia, Denmark, Finland, France,Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden and the UK. With thesestudies you can see how the potential risk of obtaining glioma tumors, ipsilateralexposure and brain cancer are significantly high with the use of several phones (analogcell phones, digital cell phones and cordless phones). Next you will find a series ofgraphs explaining how the use of cell phones shows a high risk. A. Analysis by cumulative hours of use: The following graph show the increase of brain cancer based on the number of hours talked, despite the kind of wireless phone used.
B. Analysis by years of use: This graph show the increase of brain cancer in a short time, then increases noticeably for longer periods of time.
C. Analysis by use of wireless phone on the same side of the head: The side of the head where you use your wireless phone is where the brain absorbs most of the radiation.D. Analysis for type of combinations of wireless phones used:
Ever phone shows an increase of risk of obtaining cancer. But combining themwith other wireless phones show even a higher risk. With this graph you could seethat no wireless phones are safe now in days.
E. In this graph show the risk of 66% of obtaining glioma tumor based on years and onabsorbed energy at the location of the tumor:
MethodologyThe study is mainly based on two groups choosing the people that fit perfectly in thestudy groups. The first groups consist of patients with glioma tumors and patients withoutglioma tumors. The second groups consist of people that talk excessively through the cellphone and people that don’t talk that much through the cell phone. These two groupswill be living their normal lives but will be monitored. There will be specific dates inwhich we will ask them a serious of questions related to their cell phone activity and seeif it matches our records. The participants will be ask to identify the number of callsmade and received, duration of the calls, if there was a change of pattern of use over aperiod of more than 6 months, if they use any headsets or hands- free devices, which sideof the head the cell phone was predominantly held, and main area of usage (urban/ rural/both). As time passes the team working with the research will divide the results in thegroups mentioned earlier and perform a diagnostic of the research in graphs or tables.They will be given specific cell phones that emit high radiation to the brain.
Possible resultsThe possible outcome of this study will vary compared to the Interphone study done in the 13 countries. In Puerto Rico is expected that there will be a high risk in obtaining glioma tumors and ipsilateral exposure. Also is expected within the tumors that the majority will be cancerous. The people that talk excessively will have a dramatically risk of obtaining brain cancer due to moderate time dedicated to the phone. As we go further in the study we may encounter numerous factors in which changes the results of Puerto Rico compare to the outside countries. These factors could be: population, environment, cultural influence, health conditions, and economical. The participants in the study may vary due to the population in Puerto Rico is enormously different from Europe and other countries that participated in the Interphone study. Due to rural and urban areas the risk may change because in Puerto Rico there is a lot of urban areas and because of the antennas that may be closer to each other and that will emit more radiofrequency. The cultural influence in our point of view is the one that has the most effect. Puerto Rican people need to have everything and they like to be up to date in the technology. Due to this fact, the uses of cellular phones are an important device in their lives. The health condition may vary because the people here in Puerto Rico don’t have the same health conditions as in the countries where they performed the other studies. The economical aspect the people need to have the best phone doesn’t matter if they are upper class or lower class. By considering the cellular phones an essential device for their daily lives, they don’t realize that maybe the phones that they are buying may have a lot of radio frequency. We can conclude that the use of cell phones can cause
the formation of tumors and brain cancer but in a higher risk due to the factors mentioned earlier. We questioned ourselves how can we detect this in an early stage of formation or prevent it. We would need to do further studies on how to detect the tumor or cancer earlier. We will be open to do further studies to research what really causes brain cancers if its not the use of cell phone. In addition you willfind a few explanatory graphs of the expected results of Puerto Rico compared to theInterphone Studies.A. Risk of brain cancer due to hours of usage: 300 1 to 1,000 1,001-‐2,000 250 2,001-‐3,000 200 150 100 50 0 Digital cell phone PR Cordless phone PR Digital cell phone Cordless phone Inter Inter study study
B. Risk of Brain cancer due to Years of usage:200 180 1 to 5 years 160 6 to 10 years 140 11 to more 120 years 100 80 60 40 20 0 Digital cell phone PR Cordless phone PR Digital cell phone Cordless phone Inter Inter study study
C. Risk of ipsilateral exposure in a period of ten years or more100 90 80 70 60 50 40 10 or more years 30 20 10 0 Digital cell Cordless phone Digital cell Cordless phone phone PR PR phone Inter Inter study study
D. Risk of obtaining glioma tumors in a period of ten years: Glioma Tumors 90 80 70 60 50 40 Glioma Tumors 30 20 10 0 Puerto Rico Interphone study
References • Martin Mittelstaedt; Heavy use of cell phones may increase tumour risk: study; Published may 17, 2010. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health/heavy-use-of-cell-phones-may-increase-tumour-risk-study/article1571108/ • Joachim Schüz, Eva Böhler, Gabriele Berg, and others; 2006; Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones, and the Risks of Glioma and Meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany); American Journal of Epidemiology; Volume 163, issue; pages 512-520. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/163/6/512.full • Christian Nordqvist; 2006; Extensive Cell Phone Use Linked To Brain Tumors, Swedish Study; Medical News Today; unkwnown, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/40764.php • Christian Nordqvist; 2011; Cellphones Possibly Linked To Cancer Risk In Humans, World Health Organization; Medical News Today; unknown http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/227011.php
• Natalie Wolchover; Cellphone Radiation and Brain Cancer; June 1, 2011 http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/faq-cellphone-radiation-and-brain-cancer-1734/ • Lloyd Morgan, The latest study on the risk of brain cancer from wireless phone use, August 17, 2006 http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/columns/morgan/20060817_wireless_tumours.asp • Lloyd Morgan, Mobile phone causes brain tumors- more evidence, June 10, 2011 http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20110610-mobile-phone-tumours-evidence.asp