A generalization of the true-falsetest, the multiple choice type oftest offers the student with morethan two options per item to choosefrom. Each item in a multiple choicetest consists of two parts: a) thestem, and b) the options. In the setof options, there is a “correct” or“best” option while all the othersare considered “distracters”.
Advantages Can cover broad range of content Easily scored and graded Measures a variety of levels of learning When well-constructed, has proven to be an effective assessment tool Minimum of writing for students
Disadvantages Difficult to come up with plausible distracters/alternative responses Tend to focus on low level learning objectives Construction of good items is time consuming Measuring ability to organize and express ideas is not possible
Skills Mastered Application, synthesis, analysis, and evaluation levels of learning such as: Discrimination between fact and opinion Interpret cause-and-effect relationships or even charts and graphs Make inferences from given data
Rules in constructing Multiple Choice Test1) Do not use unfamiliar words, terms and phrases. Keep the vocabulary consistent with the examinee’s level of understanding.2) Do not use modifiers that are vague and whose meanings can differ from one person to the next such as much, often, always, and usually.
3) Distracters should be equally plausible and attractive.4) All multiple choice options should be grammatically consistent with the stem.5) Avoid alternatives that are synonymous with others or those that include or overlap others.
6) Avoid presenting sequenced items min the same order as in the text.7) Avoid use of assumed qualifiers that many examinees may not be aware of.8) Test knowledge comprehension, not just recall.
9) Use simple sentences structure and precise wording. Use good grammar, punctuation and spelling consistently.10) Place most of the words in the question stem.11) Keep all answer choices the same length.
12) Avoid double negatives.13) Mix up the order of the correct answers.14) Keep the number of options consistent.15) Avoid tricking test-takers.16)Avoid “all of the above” and “none of the above” options.
17) Format the item vertically, not horizontally.18) Avoid textbook, verbatim phrasing when developing the items.19) Avoid items based on opinions.20) Avoid trivial material.
Each item in a multiplechoice test consists of twoparts:a) the stem, and b) the options.
AVOID DO USEIn the stem: In the stem: Long/complex Your own sentences words, not Trivial statements statements straight out of the textbook
Negatives and Single, clearlydouble formulatednegatives problemsIndefinite Question formterms, and or completionbroad formgeneralization
Extraneous materialItem characteristics that provide aclue to the answer misconceptionsWhen using the completion format,don’t leave a blank for completion inthe beginning or middle of the stemof the question.
AVOID DO USEIn the options: In the options: Statements too Plausible and close to the homogeneous correct answer. distracters Completely implausible Short options responses and all same length
Overlapping Correctresponses options evenly distributed At least 3 or 4 alternatives