• this period in art history took place from about 800 B.C to 50 B.C• began in the Cycladic and Minoanprehistorical civilization and gave birthto Western classical art in the ancient period
• The Greeks believed in living the perfect life. They believed that a variety of different gods (as in Greek Mythology) controlled different aspects of every persons destiny on earth. They believed these gods acted in very human ways and had great respect and fear for them.• As a result, many buildings and works of art were created to please the different gods and give the Greek people places to worship.
The Acropolis• A sacred hill in Athens, Greece that rises some 500 feet above the surrounding city. It is covered with buildings, temples, and statues. It was intended to be a tribute to the Gods and placed at high on the land so they could be closer.• It was also intended to symbolize the glory and power of Athens to those that approached.
The Parthenon• One of the Greeks greatest contributions in architecture. An example of this would be the Parthenon. It took 10 years to build this massive structure that sits atop the Acropolis. Its purpose is that of a temple.
• Its appearance today is much different than how it originally looked. Inside there was a giant statue of Athena, a Greek goddess, along with other statues and embellishments. Centuries of war and environmental factors have left it just a shell of what it once was.• Oddly enough, there is a full scale replica in Nashville,TN.
• Over time, the Greeks developed three different styles of architecture. For the most part you can tell the difference in the decorative style by looking at the type of column and capital that is used in construction.• These three decorative styles have been used since being developed by the ancient Greeks and are still very popular today.
The Doric Style• A simple, heavy column without a base, topped by a plain capital that has no ornamentation.
The Ionic Style• Used an elaborate base and capitol in the form of scrolls.• It was the second of the three styles developed.
The Corinthian Style• The most elaborate of the three orders. It is elongated and decorated with leaves. It usually sits atop a plain column and has heavy detail.
The Archaic PeriodSculptors createdlarge, rigid,freestandingsculptures calledKouros. Originalintention of thesesculptures isunknown. Verysimilar to Egyptiansculpture.
The Classical PeriodGreek sculptorswere interested in tothe human formmoving in space.There was alsogreat care taken tocreate the idealproportions of thehuman form.Anatomicalperfection wasimportant.
The Hellenistic Period• Aesthetic beauty was less important to the sculptors of this time period. They were interested in showing emotion on the face and used realistic proportions as opposed to ideal proportions of the classical period.
Greek Painting• The ancient Greeks loved color…at one time most of the sculptures were painted in bright, vivid colors and layered in gold. Over time this has worn away, but there are some that are still found with traces of faded color.• Unfortunatly, most of the paintings and wall murals have been destroyed over the years.
Greek Vase Making• The Greek vase served the purpose of grave markers for the ancient Greeks. Although not urns for ashes, they marked the burial site. Early vases were decorated with simple, geometric patterns.
Greek Vase Decoration• Later vases used realism to construct a story on the outside of the vase about the deceased. Similar to the way the Egyptians before them would use hieroglyphs inside of the tombs.
rOMAnArt This period lasted from approx. 100 B.C. to 300 A.D.
Roman Architecture• One of the Romans biggest contributions was in architecture. The span of their empire was vast, and examples of their architectural style can be seen all over Eastern Europe.
Basilicas• Were large rectangular buildings constructed to hold large numbers of people. It was often used as a public forum and meeting place.
The Pantheon• Was a temple built for the Roman gods but eventually became a Christian church. Its main feature is a massive domed roof with a hole in the middle to allow for light. Of course, the rain gets in, but the Romans designed it so that the floor sloped down to the middle and they built a drainage system for the water collected .
The Colosseum• It was built to house all sorts of sporting events...chariot races and gladiator fights among them. The Colosseum is a great example of the use of arches. It’s design allowed it to fill up and empty out in just minutes.
A Triumphal Arch• A heavily decorated arch used by the Romans to celebrate a successful military campaign. Upon return from battle the victorious would march thru the arch in celebration.
The Aqueduct System• Was a system used by the Romans to bring water down out of the mountains to be used in the city. Gravitational flow and the use of arches in construction help make this system work. This was a major advancement for cities.
Roman Sculpture and Painting• Romans were very keen on Greek Art and followed their classical forms. Realism was an important factor in their artwork.
Portrait Sculptures• The public often commissioned portrait sculptures, and artists strived to create what the person actually looked like. This was in contrast to the Greeks who were more interested in the ideal forms.
Mural Paintings• Were used to decorate the often-elaborate homes of the Romans. These paintings were not hung on the wall, but painted on the wall for decor.
“The glory that was Greece, the Grandeur that was Rome” The traditional view of Roman artists is that they often borrowed from, and copied Greek precedents (much of the Greek sculpture known today is in theform of Roman marble copies), more recent analysis has indicated that Roman art is a highly creative relying heavily on Greek models. Pliny, Ancient Rome’s most important historian concerning the arts, recorded that nearly all theforms of art—sculpture, landscape, portrait painting, even genre painting — were advanced in Greek times, and in some cases, more advanced in Rome