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Implications of Embodied Cognition & Enactivism for Instructional Design


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Implications of Embodied Cognition & Enactivism for Instructional Design

  1. 1. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 1 AECT 2010AECT 2010 Implications of Embodied Cognition & Enactivism for Instructional Design Doug Holton Instructional Technology & Learning Sciences
  2. 2. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 2 Theory & Design TechniquesTheory & Design Techniques 1. Behaviorism 2. Cognitive Psy 3. Situated Cog 4. Social Psy Feedback Teaching Machines Problem-Based Learning Worked Examples Collaborative Learning CAI
  3. 3. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 3 Implications of Embodied Cog?Implications of Embodied Cog? 5. Embodied Cognition ??? Psychological Theory Instructional Design Techniques Activity Theory Phenomenology See also: Acting with Technology-Bonnie Nardi ETRD, Technics & Praxis – Don Ihde
  4. 4. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 4 Embodied Cog as SupplementEmbodied Cog as Supplement Not pushing embodied cognition & enactivism as a replacement for other theories or frameworks. That has caused problems before: cognitive psy threw the 'baby out with the bathwater' ( Byrne, 1994) in rejecting/minimizing the roles of the environment & the body, which later led to them being re-integrated via situated & embodied cognition. Embodied cognition as a source for more tools for instructional designers' toolboxes.
  5. 5. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 5 What are Embodied CognitionWhat are Embodied Cognition & Enactivism& Enactivism The idea that our cognitive processes are grounded in sensory behavior and motor actions. The mind and body and world are inseparable (Qing Li, 2010).
  6. 6. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 6 Embodied Cognition ExamplesEmbodied Cognition Examples • Hill looks steeper wearing a backpack • Holding a warm drink, people rate others as more warm and friendly than w/cold drink • Faster to respond 'yes' when pushing lever, faster to respond 'no' when pulling it • Right handed people view things more positively on the right side and vice versa • More likely to recall positive experiences when moving marbles up into box than when moving them down
  7. 7. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 7 Haptic AdvantageHaptic Advantage • Faster and more accurate mental transformations when performing an action congruent with the imagined transformation, and vice versa • Pulley & gear systems – pulling a rope blindfolded or imagining pulling a rope helps people mentally animate the behavior • We are better at judging the volume of shapes from haptic than from visual info • Haptics assist Piagetian conservation tasks
  8. 8. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 8 Other Embodiment ExamplesOther Embodiment Examples • Hundreds more published examples >20 yrs • You can probably come up with your own – pacing when working on a paper, gesturing when giving a presentation, etc. • Eventually you get to a point where it is hard to think of examples that are not embodied or do not involve embodiment in some manner • philosophy, colors, math abstractions (Lakoff, Johnson, Noe, Nunez...)
  9. 9. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 9 Summary of Embodied CogSummary of Embodied Cog For a summary see: Embodiment and Cognitive Science Raymond Gibbs, 2006 and see: http://embodiedcog.
  10. 10. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 10 Shorter intro to Embodied CogShorter intro to Embodied Cog
  11. 11. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 11 Applying to Instructional DesignApplying to Instructional Design • What's missing are comprehensive applications of embodied cognition to instruction/education • Despite the variety of research on embodied cognition, virtually all the examples I mentioned have little or no application to instruction. We're not going to: • give different exam response sheets for left and right handed students • serve students warm drinks • give teachers warm apple pies instead of cold apples
  12. 12. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 12 Applications to EducationApplications to Education • Children 'act out' a story w/figurines leads to better reading comprehension (Arthur Glenberg) • Improved math learning when teachers attend to the gestures they and their students use (Susan Goldin-Meadow) • Better understand molecular structures when allowed to haptically manipulate 3D models (Gail Jones) • Minogue & Jones (2006). Haptics in Education • Wolff-Michael Roth – Gestures • Hasn't been a more general review or book
  13. 13. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 13 My Own WorkMy Own Work • Animated circuit simulation • students “wiggle” a joystick/slider control to change the voltage in a circuit. • use embodied analogies to explain behav • Programming language design • incorporate embodied action terms such as “do” and “say” -no abstract/symbol • use concrete examples and resources • Online learning – Andy Anderson heart ex. • Use screencasts with gestures &
  14. 14. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 14 Gen. Principles of ApplicationGen. Principles of Application What are some general principles, tips, & guidelines for applying embodied cognition to instruction. And what is enactivism? One helpful way to understand both is to think of the analogy to constructivism.
  15. 15. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 15 Constructivism-->EnactivismConstructivism-->Enactivism Enactivism might be considered one flavor of constructivism, in addition to social constructivism, radical constructivism... (see Constructivist Foundations website) Knowledge isn't a structure you build or an object that can be passed around or purely linguistic: “it is not knowledge-as-object but knowledge- as-action” (Begg, 2000)
  16. 16. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 16 Adv. of ConstructivismAdv. of Constructivism There are criticisms of constructivism (next slide), but pragmatically, what are strengths? • More student-centered/learner-centered • Active participation is critical • Presenting information does not mean a student learned or understood it • Students aren't blank slates or machines to be programmed • Students aren't a homogenous group
  17. 17. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 17 Q's about ConstructivismQ's about Constructivism • How is knowledge constructed? • What is the nature of this knowledge and its relationship to the world? (epistemology) • How do we know what students understand? (assessment) hard Q for Ernst Von Glasersfeld • Why and when is guidance necessary? • Why do students have the “misconceptions” or alternative conceptions that they do?
  18. 18. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 18 EnactivismEnactivism • May help us better answer some of these Q's • May provide a better grounding for some concepts and techniques from constructivism and learning sciences • Humanizes students even more: empathy • Pay attention to the whole learning environment including gestures and the body (may supplement activity theory) • Provide some constraints on learning
  19. 19. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 19 Wolff-Michael RothWolff-Michael Roth “Learning environments that do not support students’ use of body and gesture can limit what and how they learn” (Roth & Lawless, 2001). “What is called teaching, therefore, involves not only the words and sentences a teacher utters and writes on the board during a lesson, but also all the hands/arms gestures, body movements, and facial expressions a teacher performs in the classroom” (Pozzer- Ardenghi & Roth, 2006, p.96)
  20. 20. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 20 Potential Implications ofPotential Implications of Embodied CognitionEmbodied Cognition Now let's discuss some historical non- embodied research findings that perhaps embodied cognition & enactivism could potentially better explain. • Animations vs. Diagrams • Microcomputer-based Labs (MBL) • Misconceptions / Conceptual Change • Contrasting Cases
  21. 21. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 21 Animations/Diagrams/SimsAnimations/Diagrams/Sims Diagrams let us take our time, mentally re- animate processes. Animations/videos may be too fast or too slow. The more realistic/complex the simulation, the more difficult for the learner to use. More effective alternative: User-controllable diagrams or animated, controllable simulations (Lowe, 2004; Chan & Black, 2006)
  22. 22. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 22 Example: Graph InterpretationExample: Graph Interpretation
  23. 23. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 23 MBL: Microcomp-Based LabsMBL: Microcomp-Based Labs Better understand success of MBL approach: connecting sensors with computers Ex: Drag a car back and forth along a track, and the computer graphs its position/speed/acceleration in real-time Within 20 minutes, students better understand how to interpret graphs of motion. Video not as successful, non-real- time also hurts perf
  24. 24. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 24 Controllable Circuit SimulationControllable Circuit Simulation • Move voltage “up” or “down” using a slider or joystick or steering wheel • “Enact” a voltage source: battery (constant voltage), AC (alternating current) • “Wiggle” the voltage and see the effects on electrical current flow (as represented by a moving chain of dots → speed=current) • Better understand the behavior and difference between capacitors and inductors, high/low pass filters...
  25. 25. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 25 Applying to Conceptual ChangeApplying to Conceptual Change “Naive notions like those derived from bodily metaphors may underpin misconceptions, such as the quasi-Aristotelian notions that Alternative Frameworks researchers in science education have documented extensively” (Ernst, 2006)
  26. 26. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 26 Conceptual ChangeConceptual Change See Cambridge Handbook of Concept.Change • Michelene Chi – conceiving of processes as objects or substances (like diffusion/current) • Andy diSessa – phenomenological primitives • force as mover • force as action • Are embodied actions central to core p-prims • Are actions coordinated, even theory-like • Is there an 'embodied physics'
  27. 27. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 27 Contrasting CasesContrasting Cases • Another highly successful instructional technique • In the next slides, ask yourself – what do you notice in the left box?
  28. 28. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 28 What do you see in left box?What do you see in left box?
  29. 29. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 29 What did you notice?What did you notice? A Circle Now try it again What do you notice in the left box?
  30. 30. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 30 What do you see in left box?What do you see in left box?
  31. 31. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 31 What did you notice?What did you notice? A Smaller Circle You noticed the size now And perhaps the white color too Try It Again
  32. 32. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 32 What do you see in left box?What do you see in left box?
  33. 33. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 33 What did you notice?What did you notice? A Circle in the Middle Now the position of the circle Is more salient
  34. 34. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 34 Contrasting CasesContrasting Cases Why does this strategy work? How does it work? Perhaps when we see 2 contrasting cases, we transform/manipulate one into the other. For example move or grow the circle. Similarity as [embodied] transformation (Hahn et al., 2003)
  35. 35. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 35 ConclusionConclusion Embodied cognition research and enactivism may serve as a new foundation for research on the design of learning environments and instruction. “Learning environments that do not support students’ use of body and gesture can limit what and how they learn” (Roth & Lawless, 2001). One should not ignore the the embodied nature of teaching and learning, even in online learning contexts (McWilliam &
  36. 36. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 36 Lessons LearnedLessons Learned • Embodying concepts helps for abstract, non- visualizable, non-physical concepts, as well. • There doesn't have to be a one-to-one spatially isomorphic congruence between the action and the thing being conceived. Temporal and causal congruence appear to be most important (see research on causal perception). • It is not the actions per se we attend to & learn, but the constraints on our actions (similar to Vygotsky's internalization concept)
  37. 37. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 37 Embodied & SituatedEmbodied & Situated ApproachesApproaches • Embodied and Situated approaches to learning and instruction appear to complement each other well • Situated learning (games, PBL) help students answer the why question – why am I learning/doing this • Embodied approaches help students answer how do I do this, how should I understand this concept...
  38. 38. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 38 Enactivism GotchasEnactivism Gotchas • Embodied cog/enactivism is not behaviorism • There are many diverse notions of embodiment, however, at many levels • Embodiment does not simply mean 'make it hands-on' or 'use avatars' or 'anthropomorphize things' (embodied interactivity plus constraints on activity) • Sometimes limited/constrained interactivity is more effective than full/unconstrained activity (Hegarty)
  39. 39. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 39 Future PublicationsFuture Publications Books in Progress: • Edited Book – Embodied Cognition & Education (~12 chapter authors) • Non-edited Book – Supporting the Embodied Learner Articles/Chapters in Progress: • Handbook of AECT chapter with Qing Li - “Embodied cognition and enactivism” • Journal article - “The body in design” • Journal article - “The message is the body”
  40. 40. AECT - Doug HoltonOct 30, 2010 40 Thank You Doug Holton Copies of slides will be at: