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The Future is Open

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An overview of open cultural content for American Alliance of Museums / Center for the Future of Museums "Trendswatch" webinar, hosted by Blackbaud.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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The Future is Open

  1. 1. The Future is Open July 21, 2015 Michael Peter Edson @mpedson
  2. 2. Original image: SMK/@missmillemaria (Instagram) The painting is Seated Female Nude, 1940, by Vilhelm Lundstrom
  3. 3. The law locks up the man or woman Who steals the goose from off the common But leaves the greater villain loose Who steals the common from off the goose -Anonymous England, 1800s Via James Boyle, The second enclosure movement and the construction of the public domain, 2003, http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?articl e=1273&context=lcp
  4. 4. The AAM says that the Open Economy is one of six trends to watch in 2015 Why? http://www.aam-us.org/resources/center-for-the-future-of-museums/projects-and-reports/trendswatch
  5. 5. Why?
  6. 6. Because the world she lives in is different than the world most museums were created for.
  7. 7. “In the early days of the British Museum, prospective visitors had to make a written application and undergo a brief interview to determine if they were fit to be admitted at all.” Museums used to be open only to the elite Bill Bryson A Short History of Nearly Everything Image: Central Hall, July 1902, Natural History Museum, London http://www.preservedproject.co.uk/albino-wallaby-natural-history-museum-london/
  8. 8. We now live in a world with 3.2 billion Internet users 7.2 billion mobile phones 1.2 b photos/day shared on top 4 mobile sites Speed and power doubling every 18 months Disruption in virtually aspect of human endeavor “Mobile is eating the world, 2013 edition” http://ben-evans.com/benedictevans/2013/11/5/mobile-is-eating-the-world-autumn-2013-edition
  9. 9. “…Global connectivity, immense computational power, and access to all the world's knowledge amassed over many centuries, in everyone’s hands… “The world has never, ever, been in [this] situation before…” http://edge.org/response-detail/10646 Keith Devlin Executive Director, H-STAR Institute, Stanford University
  10. 10. We take free, global, resources for granted Wikipedia, Google, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, TED, Khan Academy…and the “read/write” web
  11. 11. Open access and human rights are profoundly connected
  12. 12. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ Article 27 (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. The obligations, benefits, and joy of global access are expressed in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These values are manifest in our missions and social contract.
  13. 13. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/CulturalRights/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx Introduction 1. Science and culture are not only of great importance to the knowledge economy; they are also fundamental to human dignity and autonomy. 2. In that area, two influential paradigms of international law — intellectual property and human rights — have evolved largely separately. 3. Recent developments, however, have rendered the interface of those two regimes more salient. Wow! UN Report: Copyright and the Right to Science and Culture United Nations Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights, 2015
  14. 14. What does it mean to be open?
  15. 15. Broadly speaking, open is a spectrum of alternatives to “traditional” models of control over intellectual property and authority, meant to enable the broadest possible access to and re-use of resources.
  16. 16. More people accessing and using cultural & scientific resources means bigger audiences, more creation, more benefit to society Broadly speaking, open is a spectrum of alternatives to “traditional” models of control over intellectual property and authority, meant to enable the broadest possible access to and re-use of resources.
  17. 17. “Museums are deconstructing, piece by piece, the authoritarian model that presumes control of what people see, what they learn and how they learn it” Trendswatch 2015
  18. 18. “Our understanding of research, education, artistic creativity, and the progress of knowledge is built upon the axiom that no idea stands alone and all innovation is built on the ideas and innovations of others.” Smithsonian Institution Web and New Media Strategy, 2009
  19. 19. Open Source The revolutionary idea that sharing source code, rather than keeping it a secret, can improve the quality of software, create new markets, and catalyze innovation on a global scale Many other forms of openness are derived from the success of the open source software movement
  20. 20. Open Images Images that are free to use and re-use without unnecessary restrictions Open Data Collections information, curatorial records, metadata, geospatial data, and other information
  21. 21. Open Knowledge Collaborative knowledge creation through the open sharing of data and resources Open Government Transparency, accountability, and efficiency through open sharing of government data
  22. 22. Open Authority The sharing of expertise with and among one’s audiences The Open Economy Also called the sharing economy—economic value created through the sharing of free resources
  23. 23. Open Science Collaboration and scientific progress through the open exchange of research, data, publications Open Education Also known as Open Educational Resources— courseware and classes that can be used and adapted for free
  24. 24. Open GLAM Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums
  25. 25. Intellectual property and open
  26. 26. The Public Domain Not owned by anyone. “The public domain is not some gummy residue left behind when all the good stuff has been covered by property law. The public domain is the place where we quarry the building blocks of our culture. It is, in fact, the majority of our culture.” James Boyle The Public Domain
  27. 27. In America, the original framers of copyright said that the public domain is the natural state of intellectual property, and copyright should only be a temporary and cautiously granted exception
  28. 28. “It is important for memory organizations to recognize that as the guardians of our shared culture and knowledge they play a central role in enabling the creativity of citizens and providing the raw materials for contemporary culture, science, innovation and economic growth.” Europeana Public Domain Charter http://pro.europeana.eu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=d542819d -d169-4240-9247-f96749113eaa&groupId=10602 Europeana’s Public Domain charter
  29. 29. The Creative Commons gives owners of intellectual property some flexibility above-and-beyond the strict boundaries of traditional copyright.  If you own the copyright for something, you can use a Creative Commons “license” to give others permission to re-use it.  If you want to use something that is under copyright, Creative Commons licenses tell you what you can do with the resource without having to ask the owner http://creativecommons.org/
  30. 30. “The most widely used open licenses are the Creative Commons licenses. It is estimated that, by 2015, those licenses will have been attached to more than 1 billion creative works, including photos, websites, music, government databases, UNESCO publications, journal articles and educational textbooks… The idea behind [those] efforts is to create a “cultural commons,” in which everyone can access, share and recombine cultural works.” United Nations: Copyright and the right to science and culture, 2015 http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/CulturalRights/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx “Promoting cultural participation through open licensing
  31. 31. http://www.slideshare.net/MereteSanderhoff/sharing-is-caring-keynote-for- public-domain-tagung-hek-basel-20-april-2015 Adapted from Merete Sanderhoff National Gallery of Denmark Creative Commons attribution (CC-BY) “It’s ours, but we permit you to reuse it with proper attribution.” Creative Commons Zero (CC-0) “It’s yours, so you have the right to reuse it in any way you want.”
  32. 32. Creative Commons attribution non-commercial (CC-BY-NC) “It’s ours, but we permit you to reuse it (with attribution) for non-commercial purposes.”
  33. 33. BUT BEWARE! Non-commercial resources can not be used in Wikipedia! Creative Commons attribution non-commercial (CC-BY-NC) “It’s ours, but we permit you to reuse it (with attribution) for non-commercial purposes.”
  34. 34. Pro tip: Share your museum resources as public domain or CC-BY so they can be used in Wikipedia articles.
  35. 35. Google Image search can be filtered for open images (explicitly labeled as public domain or Creative Commons)
  36. 36. Sounds pretty simple to me!
  37. 37. But access and re-use are still a challenge!
  38. 38. Enclosure
  39. 39. Enclosure is an 18th century term referring to the process of fencing off common land and turning it into private property. James Boyle, The second enclosure movement and the construction of the public domain, 2003, http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?articl e=1273&context=lcp
  40. 40. Museum resources are often enclosed, intentionally or inadvertently
  41. 41. Not digitized or access not granted
  42. 42. Only low resolution versions are made available
  43. 43. Item is shared but all rights are reserved
  44. 44. Item is shared under restrictive terms of use
  45. 45. “The visual arts field is pervaded with a permissions culture, the widespread acceptance that all new uses of copyrighted material must be expressly authorized. This assumption has taken its toll on practice in every area of the visual arts field…As digital opportunities emerge, old frustrations with this permissions culture have taken on a new urgency.” http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/FairUseIssuesReport.pdf “Permissions culture”
  46. 46. One-third of visual artists and visual arts professionals have avoided or abandoned work in their field because of copyright concerns. College Art Association survey of 2,000 visual art/museum professionals, 2014 http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/FairUseIssuesReport.pdf “Permissions culture”
  47. 47. “The vision of presenting art history on the terms set by the Internet had made good sense to us. It looked like the perfect medium for unfolding the paradigm of diversity. But then we came up against something that limited our options: copyright...” http://www.smk.dk/en/about-smk/smks- publications/sharing-is-caring/ Merete Sanderhoff Sharing is Caring: Openness and Sharing in the Cultural Heritage Sector, 2014
  48. 48. “The costs were tremendously high. Just one image cost several hundred dollars, and that would only buy us clearance for a limited period of time. The labor involved in writing to each rights holder, asking for files, describing the intended usage, and so on, turned out to be a major drain on our manpower.” http://www.smk.dk/en/about-smk/smks- publications/sharing-is-caring/ Merete Sanderhoff Sharing is Caring: Openness and Sharing in the Cultural Heritage Sector, 2014
  49. 49. https://medium.com/@CosmoWenman/3d-scanning-and-museum-access-9bfbad410d46 Examples of unpublished, inaccessible 3D scans: “This is a very small sampling..” • Metropolitan Museum of Art • Stanford University • Galleria dell’Accademia • The Bargello • The Acropolis Museum • The British Museum • Art Institute of Chicago • Baltimore Museum of Art • J. Paul Getty Museum • The Louvre • University of Leicester • The Van Gogh Museum
  50. 50. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHUCTDRCb4A “[Museums and archives] certainly have not been very friendly towards us. And they've not been very accommodating in our requests for information or our requests for images or anything else. It's an old story and it's been going on for a long time." Elizabeth Ryneki’s search for her great-grandfather’s paintings of the Warsaw ghetto
  51. 51. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/opinion/libraries-of-life.html?_r=1
  52. 52. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/opinion/libraries-of-life.html?_r=1
  53. 53. https://twitter.com/PUBDOMAINHULK/status/532283993111420928
  54. 54. Opening up
  55. 55. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing • Lack of resources No staff or money to do new things • Inertia “This is the way we’ve always done it…”
  56. 56. Copyright can be complicated, but when it’s simple, it’s very simple Release old works and ask donors/owners for permission to share with Creative Commons licenses • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share
  57. 57. Yale University says that sometimes you don’t have the right not to share… • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share
  58. 58. “Moreover, as the legal designation ‘public domain’ is supported by the rationale that eventually all creators and/or owners of content must relinquish their monopolies over such content making such content available for unmitigated access and use, attempts to restrict access through licensing provisions may be neither legally enforceable nor ethically prudent.” http://ydc2.yale.edu/sites/default/files/OpenAccessLAMSFinal.pdf Memo on open access to digital representations of works in the public domain from museum, library, and archive, collections at Yale University 5 May 2011 • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share
  59. 59. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections “There were concerns on the part of some about the consequences of open access and the loss of control of images, but over time these concerns dissipated. ” Mellon Foundation: Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access Mellon Foundation, 2013 http://msc.mellon.org/msc- files/Open%20Access%20Report%2004%2025%2013-Final.pdf
  60. 60. “We have lost almost all control, and this has been vital to our success.” William Noel Former curator of manuscripts Walters Art Museum Director, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts & Director, Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, U Penn Mellon Foundation, 2013 http://msc.mellon.org/msc- files/Open%20Access%20Report%2004%2025%2013-Final.pdf • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections
  61. 61. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing Memory institutions generate revenue from the sale and licensing of digital images, but I have yet to find an organization that makes a profit when overhead costs are taken into account. Revenue ≠ Profit
  62. 62. “Everyone interviewed wants to recoup costs but almost none claimed to actually achieve or expected to achieve this…Even those services that claimed to recoup full costs generally did not account fully for salary costs or overhead expenses.” Simon Tanner: Reproduction charging models & rights policy for digital images in American art museums, a Mellon Foundation Study http://msc.mellon.org/research- reports/Reproduction%20charging%20models%20and%20rights%20policy.p df/view • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing
  63. 63. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing • Lack of resources No staff or money to do new things Mellon Foundation, 2013 http://msc.mellon.org/msc- files/Open%20Access%20Report%2004%2025%2013-Final.pdf “Some museums have the technological, financial, and human resources to make the leap to open access in one step… Others are taking the process in steps as resources and time permit.” Kristin Kelly: Mellon Foundation: Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access
  64. 64. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing “If you are trying to do something big, it’s not enough to just grow, you need to scale… In the Internet Century, this sort of global growth is within anyone’s reach….It no longer takes a phalanx of people and a widespread network of offices to create a company.” Eric Schmidt & Jeffrey Rosenberg How Google Works
  65. 65. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing Lars Lundqvist, Swedish National Heritage Board, 2012 On aggregating 4.2 million objects from 40 organizations and making it available through their open API, SOCH http://www.ksamsok.se/in-english/
  66. 66. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing • Lack of resources No staff or money to do new things Flickr, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and even your own website terms of use can be basis for low cost, high impact experiments.
  67. 67. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing • Lack of resources No staff or money to do new things • Inertia “This is the way we’ve always done it…” http://www.cprr.org/Museum/legal.html This museum has a 34,000 word terms-of- use statement on its website! (Yours might not be much better!)
  68. 68. Note too that many funders now require or strongly prefer open access
  69. 69. • Legal Sometimes you don’t have the rights to share • Control Fear that the public will misuse collections • Revenue Concern over loss of income from licensing • Lack of resources No staff or money to do new things • Inertia “This is the way we’ve always done it…”
  70. 70. “Default to Open, Not Closed Like most things heretical, open is terrifying to the establishment mindset. It’s a lot easier to compete by locking customers into your nice closed world than it is by venturing out into the open wild and competing on innovation and merit. With open you trade control for scale and innovation.” Eric Schmidt & Jeffrey Rosenberg How Google Works
  71. 71. Open Art History Art historians have an extraordinary opportunity—collectively— to share our expertise openly on the web and thereby help to educate the world about visual cultural heritage…. This magnitude of outreach is impossible without a commitment to open licensing. http://smarthistoryblog.org/2015/07/13/where-is-the-pedagogy-in- digital-art-history/
  72. 72. Who is doing good stuff? So many people!
  73. 73. http://openglam.org/ #openGLAM @OpenGLAM GLAM = Galleries, Libraries, Archives & Museums
  74. 74. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM GLAM-WIKI
  75. 75. http://publicdomainreview.org/
  76. 76. The Rijksmuseum https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en Also, the Getty, the National Gallery of Art, the Walters, the National Gallery of Denmark (Statens Museum for Kunst), Davison Art Center (Wesleyan University), New York Public Library (maps), Beeld en Geluid (Netherland Image and Sound)
  77. 77. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/14/arts/international/a-museum- at-the-forefront-of-digitization.html?smid=tw-share
  78. 78. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/14/arts/international/a-museum- at-the-forefront-of-digitization.html?smid=tw-share “Sharing is the new having” Cecile van der Harten Head of Imaging, Rijksmuseum
  79. 79. Case Study: Rijksmuseum releases 111,000 high quality images to the public domain http://openglam.org/2013/02/27/case-study-rijksmuseum-releases-111-000-high-quality-images-to-the-public- domain/
  80. 80. http://dp.la | http://europeana.eu | http://digitalnz.org/ The Digital Public Library of America, Europeana, and Digital New Zealand are leading an international effort to provide open access to cultural/scientific data
  81. 81. https://www.flickr.com/commons
  82. 82. http://www.nypl.org/blog/2014/03/28/open-access-maps
  83. 83. http://openglam.org/open-collections/
  84. 84. SO MUCH INNOVATION, OPENNESS, AND SHARING (And if I’m sorry if I left your organization out! Let me know!!!)
  85. 85. • Mission • Community • Scholarship • Reputation • Trust • Collaboration • Knowledge creation • Creativity • Finance • Efficiency • Job satisfaction The benefits of open are enormous
  86. 86. “Change is good No museum that has made the transition to open access would return to its previous approach.” The benefits of open are enormous http://msc.mellon.org/msc- files/Open%20Access%20Report%2004%2025%2013-Final.pdf Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access, 2013
  87. 87. Remember… “Openness is not just about distributing information. It is also a matter of being present in order to interact and cooperate with the people who want to follow you. Ideally, openness allows you to work together with members of the community.” —Merete Sanderhoff http://www.sharingiscaring.smk.dk/en
  88. 88. Open culture / Open GLAM is a warm, wonderful community Join us! @openGLAM
  89. 89. Michael Peter Edson @mpedson http://slideshare.net/edsonm Thank you!

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