Dr. Kevin Burden:
Senior Lecturer,
The Faculty of Education
The University of Hull
About 200,000 academic
journals are published in
English every year.
The average number of
readers per article is 5!
4000+
downloads

35 countries
Personalisation

Collaboration

Authenticity
Is the iPad a ‘disruptive innovation’?

Clayton Christensen:
‘Disruptive Innovations’
• What?
• So what?

What do we currently know about the
use of mobile technologies in education?

What does this mean?
Wha...
iPad Scotland Evaluation: 2012
Edinburgh 1:1 Mobile project: 2012-2013
What does the
research tell us?
increase personal
access to technology in
the classroom
iPads dramatically
increase personal
access to technology in
the c...
Regular use of technology in school
iPad Scotland Evaluation (2012)
iPad Scotland Evaluation (2012)
W
Finding 2:
‘Ownership’ models may
be a significant variable
significant variable
significant variable
“It doesn’t work if it’s shared because all the good things
that happen, happen because it’s yours and you’re taking
it ho...
increase when mobile
devices are deployed
effectively
Personalisation may
increase when mobile
devices are deployed
effect...
“Staff directly involved in the initiative consider
it has fostered greater personalisation of
learning by offering studen...
Personalisation

• Students exercise more
agency over their own
learning

• The device is able to

customise learning to t...
Finding 4:
Levels of collaboration
and cooperation increase
Levels of collaboration
and cooperation increase
Levels of col...
Conversations mediated by mobile devices, not
replaced by them
The focus of learning shifts
from consumption (content
delivery) to production
(content creation)
Learner Generated Content
So what.....?
Augmented
Cognition
New patterns of
teaching and learning
are emerging
Independence:
where and how to learn
Narrow definitions of
‘literacy’ need expanding
How we ‘read’ a book changes
Students as authors
(knowledge constructors)
eBooks that understand your
‘reading’ habits
Greater authenticity is
possible
1. using the iPad to replicate professional tools

2. using the iPad to access real time ...
Heritage learning situated
What Next...?
“… before I would have maybe sent a worksheet
home and they would just complete it and send it
back to me.  But if I put t...
Design Based Research
Stage 1:
V:
1I:
Stage 1V:
III:
Iterativeathe initial to
Identify cycles of
Identification of design
...
Can we use DBR to design more effective
mobile learning scenarios?
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of
feedback
‘Making Thinking Visible’

•Use scenarios which encourage two-way feedback
•Design problems which force students to articu...
Your take-away

• Mobile devices can be ‘disruptive
innovations’

• Educators need to understand the unique
‘affordances’ ...
o
N

ma
QuickTime™ and a
he
t
decompressor
in
are needed to see this picture.
ed
rm
ha
re
e
sw
ad
iP

his
ft
o
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Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)
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Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)

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Dr. Kevin Burden explores to what extent the use of iPads in schools constitute 'disruptive technologies' which challenge the underlying paradigms behind education

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  • Need to talk about the nature of the research (paradigm) and how it is distributed and disseminated in a form that practitioners can use
    Mention ‘fuzzy generalisations’ (Michael Bassey)
  • My colleagues and I have captured all of these opportunities/affordances in a framework as shown
  • Low = exchange of content
    High = creation and sharing of contexts
  • Low = exchange of content
    High = creation and sharing of contexts
  • Every year 30,000 consumer products are launched - 95% fail because producers don’t see it from the customers persepctive
    Customers look at products as a way to get a job done - what is the job of a milkshake?
    Function is not the same as the job
    What might be the job of an iPad?
    Disruptive innovations:innovations that change the paradigm (e.g. publishing or music industries)
    What is the job of a milkshake
  • The other end of the spectrum - techno-dystopia
  • Current growth in interest around mobile learning - evidenced by the interest of the international Agencies
    Fill in with other pictures from the UNESCO studies across the world
  • Aims of this session:
    Draw us back to the national context of the UK first - share with you the research I and my colleagues have been undertaking in mobile learning, before going back to the international scene and thinking then about the future
    Using a tested technique to do this
    What next – and here I will suggest we need to investigate far more about the mechanisms that make mobile leanring effective and to do this we need to employ a new set of research instruments and paradogms which I will share with you towards the end of the presentation when I return to the international scene.
  • iPod research in North East Lincolnshire, 2009-2011
  • Authority:
    1. Where mobile technologies are sanctioned within the institution, especially in depolyments which are highly personal (e.g. 1:1) they alter the relationship between learners and teachers/educators
    2. Current model of learning is unsymmetrical in many ways:
    the teacher owns and controls most of the knowledge or ‘stuff’ which is mandated to be understood/known - Freire’s Banking Analogy (Knowledge is deposited) restricting the ability to think critically
    knowledge (or stuff) is consumed by the learner in large volumes but relatively little is produced, particularly with any lasting value (most is ephemeral and quickly lost)
    3. Ubiquitous connectivity (which is what mobile learning promises) - challenges this in many respects:
    knowledge cannot be ‘controlled’ or rationed in the same way it was when it belonged exclusively to the teachers - scarcity has dissappeared (much as it did with the monks who were previous guardians of knowledge and therefore learning)
    not necessary to teach as much content any longer - most of it can be located by students
    it is also less necessary to memorise everything any longer - freeing up cognitive space and energy for other things
    learners become more independent and less needy of the teacher
    they are able to make more choices - agency (where they work; how they work and undertake a task; when they work)
    they
  • Need to define regular - is this daily or weekly?
    all of our research demonstrates very clearly how students get considerable more access to technology in school when mobile devices are introduced than they ever did before (see graph)
    the access to technology is significantly more unmediated than is normally the case
  • Why is this significant?
    1. gives students more control or efficacy over their lives
    2. challenges the existing paradigm of learning - where and when
  • To undertake research and to support writing (fairly traditional - on the surface at least - this needs unpacking)
    So what do students use this access and technology for?
    1. All of our evidence show two principal uses at this point in time:
    research/internet
    writing - productivity
    2. Interesting - for later - also considerable sharing (look at this later)
    Research is interesting - demonstrates a different model of learning - not a banking model (deposits)
    Ubiquitous connectivity (which is what mobile learning promises) - challenges this in many respects:
    knowledge cannot be ‘controlled’ or rationed in the same way it was when it belonged exclusively to the teachers - scarcity has dissappeared (much as it did with the monks who were previous guardians of knowledge and therefore learning)
    not necessary to teach as much content any longer - most of it can be located by students
    it is also less necessary to memorise everything any longer - freeing up cognitive space and energy for other things
    learners become more independent and less needy of the teacher
    they are able to make more choices - agency (where they work; how they work and undertake a task; when they work)
    they
  • To provide personal ownership to technology - to put the learner in the driving seat
  • Models of ownership - we are going towards a much more 1:1 model
    Shift towards a very personalised model of learning
  • not just about providing equipment - its about providing flexible provision (giving students more choice)
  • One aspect of personalisation is customisation - technologies, like the iPad, offer great opportunities to customise learning to the individual
    the device itself can be customised giving it a great sense of personal identity (show screens)
    like eBay and Amazon the device can start to understand the learner’s preferences and customise resources accordingly (e.g. use of Twitter to send personal details)
    some apps are very good at customising the experience of learning (e.g. Beluga Maths)
    customisation through books - see iBooks and Bookry widgets
  • The risks associated with individualisations - lack of social contact
    But our data does not support this conclusion - at least not yet
    1. we were surprised to find higher levels of conversation and collaboration in the classroom than we expected - teachers report it has increased
  • Important that teachers still design lessons which encourage collaboration and cooperation between learners - when they do the technology actually supports this kind of learning - (e.g. see these apps_)
  • Examples of production - student generated content (contexts) - find examples
    For almost as long as we have had schools the relationship between the learner and the teacher has been unsymmetrical in the sense that most of what occurs is about consumption (i.e. of knowledge) not production: why
    technical reasons - hard for students to produce anything that would last
    technical - hard to share or disseminate to a wider audience
    lack of real audience diminishes the drive to publish - who reads a typical essay
  • What does this suggest about technology and cognition generally - we are smarter than you think
    Extended cognition
  • Deep Blue won in 1997 (three an half to two and a half)
    Steve Crampton and Zack Stephens - beat all grand masters + Hydra
  • Technologies have always done this - extended our cognition
    In doing so they have altered changed the way we think - books, for example, encouraged more linear and more abstract ways of thinking than did pictograms (oral tradition)
  • e.g. who directs and control learning: the teacher; the student:both?
    Where and how is learning organised - (pacing) - emerging
    Issues of space - traditional learning is situated in classrooms
  • Introduces more choices and autonomy for students - one of the emerging themes to date (students have more opportunities to find out for themselves; to be ‘experts’; to learn from experts outside the classroom’
    But is it happening (see findings from our study)
  • These are the mobile technologies of their day
    Just use the Book video with the iBooks to show how long it takes for practices to become standardised (e.g. book numbers and indexes)
  • Whole host of apps and software which enable students to create their own books
    smart books - customised t your likes and interests - sharing content with other readers/their notes on the same book - knows where you are and who is near you
    insert images of Apple books here ..
  • Widgets to make books more customised for learning - customied to the individual
  • List from previous conference - ??? 2012
    delivering more content
  • One aspect of personalisation is customisation - technologies, like the iPad, offer great opportunities to customise learning to the individual
    the device itself can be customised giving it a great sense of personal identity (show screens)
    like eBay and Amazon the device can start to understand the learner’s preferences and customise resources accordingly (e.g. use of Twitter to send personal details)
    some apps are very good at customising the experience of learning (e.g. Beluga Maths)
    customisation through books - see iBooks and Bookry widgets
  • social learning is not just about face to face collaboration - virtual and online as well
  • 1 - microscopes, sensors and wind tunnels
    2 - demo iPad (Quakespotter and Plane Finder)
    2. museum trails/ AR apps/ games (ARIS)
  • 3. Using it in real work-places:
    Authentic learning tools - video capture
    Situated learning on the job - in the work-place
  • 3. Using the real world and AR as the classroom - Museum of London street app
  • Some immediate challenges around expertise, knowledge and authority
  • Currently the creative activities, where students are producers, not consumers, are still low but we are starting from a low base and this needs to be an area where teachers re-conceptualise what leanring is and how it is assessed -process is as important as product (you can have both)
  • So whats stops us tackling these issues - we know what works (by observing) but we know far less about why or how they work and therefore how to replicate them at scale - use analogy
    What next - we need to understand more about what makes good learning with mobile technologies so good, in order that we can replicate this and better understand when and when not to use mobile devices
  • Example of DBR in non educational context - traffic flow and calming
  • Models of ownership - frequently 1:1 - highly personalised (see models of deployment in Scotland)
  • Disruptive Innovations? Research on iPads - Apple RTC Annual Conference (Eden Project, Nov 2013)

    1. 1. Dr. Kevin Burden: Senior Lecturer, The Faculty of Education The University of Hull
    2. 2. About 200,000 academic journals are published in English every year. The average number of readers per article is 5!
    3. 3. 4000+ downloads 35 countries
    4. 4. Personalisation Collaboration Authenticity
    5. 5. Is the iPad a ‘disruptive innovation’? Clayton Christensen: ‘Disruptive Innovations’
    6. 6. • What? • So what? What do we currently know about the use of mobile technologies in education? What does this mean? What difference is it making? • What next? What does the research suggest we sh be looking to in the future with mobile learning?
    7. 7. iPad Scotland Evaluation: 2012
    8. 8. Edinburgh 1:1 Mobile project: 2012-2013
    9. 9. What does the research tell us?
    10. 10. increase personal access to technology in the classroom iPads dramatically increase personal access to technology in the classroom iPads dramatically
    11. 11. Regular use of technology in school iPad Scotland Evaluation (2012) iPad Scotland Evaluation (2012)
    12. 12. W
    13. 13. Finding 2: ‘Ownership’ models may be a significant variable significant variable significant variable
    14. 14. “It doesn’t work if it’s shared because all the good things that happen, happen because it’s yours and you’re taking it home and you’re using it and then you’re adapting and you’re taking the different things. And you’re getting so used to using it that you can use them across the different apps and you can have that bit of personal choice” (Student, Bellshill Academy)
    15. 15. increase when mobile devices are deployed effectively Personalisation may increase when mobile devices are deployed effectively Personalisation may
    16. 16. “Staff directly involved in the initiative consider it has fostered greater personalisation of learning by offering students a greater degree of choice and freedom in how they access information (e.g. through apps or the Internet), how they process information and how they present and offer it up for assessment” Headteacher, Bellshill Academy
    17. 17. Personalisation • Students exercise more agency over their own learning • The device is able to customise learning to the individual
    18. 18. Finding 4: Levels of collaboration and cooperation increase Levels of collaboration and cooperation increase Levels of collaboration and cooperation increase
    19. 19. Conversations mediated by mobile devices, not replaced by them
    20. 20. The focus of learning shifts from consumption (content delivery) to production (content creation)
    21. 21. Learner Generated Content
    22. 22. So what.....?
    23. 23. Augmented Cognition
    24. 24. New patterns of teaching and learning are emerging
    25. 25. Independence: where and how to learn
    26. 26. Narrow definitions of ‘literacy’ need expanding
    27. 27. How we ‘read’ a book changes
    28. 28. Students as authors (knowledge constructors)
    29. 29. eBooks that understand your ‘reading’ habits
    30. 30. Greater authenticity is possible 1. using the iPad to replicate professional tools 2. using the iPad to access real time data in the classroom 3. using the iPad in outdoor contexts
    31. 31. Heritage learning situated
    32. 32. What Next...?
    33. 33. “… before I would have maybe sent a worksheet home and they would just complete it and send it back to me.  But if I put the worksheet on ‘Screen Chomp’, then they can do the worksheet on ‘Screen Chomp’ but record themselves while they do it, and explain what they are doing to me, so I can see where their understanding is, and I can see any points that they are not understanding.  And I can also, when I am marking it when I am talking to the children after, I will be able to give them more direct and targeted feedback because I will know exactly where they have gone wrong with things.  I think that has been a big change in being able to do that” Teacher - Chryston Primary School
    34. 34. Design Based Research Stage 1: V: 1I: Stage 1V: III: Iterativeathe initial to Identify cycles of Identification of design Build on an shoulders Develop product testing and design or improve it principles of giants and test prototype improvement
    35. 35. Can we use DBR to design more effective mobile learning scenarios?
    36. 36. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    37. 37. Using DBR to improve the effectiveness of feedback
    38. 38. ‘Making Thinking Visible’ •Use scenarios which encourage two-way feedback •Design problems which force students to articulate their thinking processes •Facilitate student feedback with peers •Focus on ‘threshold concepts’ and ‘troublesome knowledge’
    39. 39. Your take-away • Mobile devices can be ‘disruptive innovations’ • Educators need to understand the unique ‘affordances’ of mobile technologies in order to leverage powerful learning opportunities • Thinking of teaching as a design based science may help to identify how these affordances are translated into learning scenarios
    40. 40. o N ma QuickTime™ and a he t decompressor in are needed to see this picture. ed rm ha re e sw ad iP his ft o ing k dv a t! er

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