Intercultural Communications: Chapter 06 oral & nonverbal communication


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Intercultural Communications: Chapter 06 oral & nonverbal communication

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Intercultural Communications: Chapter 06 oral & nonverbal communication

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Oral and Nonverbal Communication Patterns Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Evaluate thought patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Understand paralanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate attitudes toward time and use of space </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role that eye contact, smell, color, touch, and body language have on communication </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how silence is used </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  3. 3. What is meant by nonverbal communication ? Nonword messages, such as gestures, facial expressions, interpersonal distance, touch, eye contact, smell, and silence. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  4. 4. Cultural Differences in Patterns of Thought or Processes of Reasoning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Deductive reasoning - going from broad categories or observations to specific examples; U.S. persons use deductive reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning - start with observations or facts and go to generalizations; Asians use inductive reasoning. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  5. 5. Thought Patterns Include Speed of Making Decisions <ul><li>U. S. managers make quick decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese use a slower method of problem solving. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  6. 6. What is meant by paralanguage? <ul><li>What does an increased rate of speech signify? impatience or anger </li></ul><ul><li>What does an increased volume indicate? perhaps anger or a desire to be heard </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Refers to rate, volume, and quality that affects the meaning of the message.
  7. 7. Differences in loudness of speech is culture specific and gender specific: <ul><li>Arabs speak loudly; this is an indication of strength and sincerity. </li></ul><ul><li>People of the Philippines and Thailand speak softly; it indicates breeding and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Males usually speak louder than females and at a lower pitch than females. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of speech varies with the region of the U.S.; Northerners speak faster than Southerners. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  8. 8. Areas of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Chronemics (time) </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics (space) </li></ul><ul><li>Oculesics (gaze/eye contact) </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactics (smell) </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics (touch) </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesics (body language) </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatics (color) </li></ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  9. 9. Time (Chronemics) <ul><li>Attitudes toward time vary from culture to culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries that follow monochronic time perform only one major activity at a time (U.S., England, Switzerland, Germany). </li></ul><ul><li>Countries that follow polychronic time work on several activities simultaneously (Latin America, the Mediterranean, the Arabs). </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  10. 10. Monochronic/Polychronic Cultures <ul><li>do one thing at a time </li></ul><ul><li>concentrate on the job </li></ul><ul><li>take time commitments seriously </li></ul><ul><li>are committed to the job </li></ul><ul><li>show respect for private property; rarely borrow or lend </li></ul><ul><li>are accustomed to short-term relationships </li></ul><ul><li>do many things at once </li></ul><ul><li>are highly distractible </li></ul><ul><li>consider time commitments casually </li></ul><ul><li>are committed to people </li></ul><ul><li>borrow and lend things often </li></ul><ul><li>tend to build lifetime relationships </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Monochronic People Polychronic People
  11. 11. Cultural Differences in Attitudes Toward Time <ul><li>U.S. persons are very time conscious and value punctuality. Being late for meetings is viewed as rude and insensitive behavior; tardiness also conveys that the person is not well organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans and Swiss people are even more time conscious; people of Singapore and Hong Kong also value punctuality. </li></ul><ul><li>In Algeria, on the other hand, punctuality is not widely regarded. Latin American countries have a manana attitude; people in Arab cultures have a casual attitude toward time. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  12. 12. Space (Proxemics) Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin People in the U.S. tend to need more space than do persons of other cultures. U.S. persons back away when people stand too close. Standing too close is interpreted as being pushy or overbearing; standing too close may also be interpreted as unwelcomed sexual advances.
  13. 13. Space Zones in the U.S. <ul><li>The intimate zone (less than 18 inches) is reserved for very close friends. </li></ul><ul><li>The personal zone (18 inches to 4 feet) is for giving instructions to others or working closely with another person. </li></ul><ul><li>The social zone (4 to 12 feet) is used in business situations in which people interact in a more formal, impersonal way. </li></ul><ul><li>The public distance is over 12 feet. </li></ul>Hall & Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences
  14. 14. U.S. people need more space than do Greeks, Latin Americans, or Arabs. The Japanese stand even farther away than do U.S. persons. Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  15. 15. Elevator Proxemics Axtell, Gestures A psychology professor at a southern university gave his students an assignment to test elevator proxemics . Students reported the usual U.S. behaviors of facing the front and watching the illuminated floor indicator, assuming the Fig Leaf Position (hands/purses/ briefcases hanging down in front of the body), and positioning themselves in the corners or against the elevator walls. Then the professor added another assignment: students were to break the rules and get on the elevator, stand at the front facing the other occupants and jump backward off the elevator just before the door closed. One of the elevator occupants was heard to whisper, “Call 911; we’ve got a real weirdo here.”
  16. 16. The Office Environment and Nonverbal Messages <ul><li>U.S. persons prefer desks and chairs in a face-to-face arrangement or at right angles, while the Chinese prefer the side-by-side arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. outside offices with windows have more status than inside offices; large offices have more status than small ones; the top floor has more status than the first floor. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  17. 17. <ul><li>French top-level executives occupy the middle of an office area with subordinates around them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese do not consider private offices appropriate; only the highest ranking officers have private offices and may have desks in large work areas as well. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  18. 18. Gaze/Eye Contact (Oculesics) Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin Although people in the U.S. favor direct eye contact, in other cultures, such as the Japanese, the reverse is true; they direct their gaze below the chin. In the Middle East, on the other hand, the eye contact is more intense than U.S. people are comfortable with. A prolonged gaze or stare in the U.S. is considered rude. In most cultures, men do not stare at women as this may be interpreted as sexually suggestive.
  19. 19. Smell (Olfactics) <ul><li>Although people of the U.S. respond negatively to body odors, Arabs are comfortable with natural body odors. </li></ul><ul><li>Other cultures in which smell plays an important role include the Japanese and Samoans. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  20. 20. Touch (Haptics) <ul><li>Touch, when used properly, may create feelings of warmth and trust; when used improperly, touch may cause annoyance and betray trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy is a consideration when using touch in the U.S.: people who are older or higher rank may touch those who are younger or of lower rank; equals may touch each other. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  21. 21. “ Don't Touch” Cultures <ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>Other N. European countries </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  22. 22. <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East countries </li></ul>Middle Ground Countries Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  23. 23. “ Touch” Cultures <ul><li>Latin American countries </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Some Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Federation </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  24. 24. Location of the Touch Is Important <ul><li>Appropriate touch in the U.S. is limited to shaking hands in business situations - no hugs or expressions of affection. </li></ul><ul><li>In Thailand do not touch the head. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not touch Asians on the shoulders or even the back of the worker's chair. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching a person with the left hand in the Middle East. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  25. 25. Fast, Body Language in the Workplace Several years ago, when President Carter was mediating peace talks between Egypt and Israel, Anwar Sadat frequently placed his hand on President Carter’s knee. While this subtextual message was intended as a gesture of warm friendship, the subtler message Sadat was conveying to the world was that he was President Carter’s equal.
  26. 26. Body Language (Kinesics) <ul><li>Body language includes facial expressions, gestures, and posture and stance. </li></ul><ul><li>To interpret facial expressions correctly, it is important to take the communication context and culture into account. </li></ul><ul><li>People in some cultures rarely show emotion (China); Asians will smile or laugh softly when they are embarrassed. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  27. 27. Facial Expressions <ul><li>The face and eyes convey the most expressive types of body language, including happiness, surprise, fear, anger, interest, and determination. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions must be controlled when inappropriate to the setting (yawning during a presentation). </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  28. 28. Gestures <ul><li>Emblems or symbols (&quot;V&quot; for victory) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators (police officer's hand held up to stop traffic) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators (glancing at watch when in a hurry) </li></ul><ul><li>Affect displays (a person's face turns red with embarrassment) </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  29. 29. General Guidelines U.S. Gestures <ul><li>Interest is expressed by maintaining eye contact with the speaker, smiling, and nodding the head. </li></ul><ul><li>Open-mindedness is expressed by open hands and palms turned upward. </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness is sometimes shown by fidgeting, failing to give the speaker eye contact, or jingling keys or money in your pocket. </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  30. 30. <ul><li>Suspiciousness is indicated by glancing away or touching your nose, eyes, or ears. </li></ul><ul><li>Defensiveness is indicated by crossing your arms over your chest, making fisted gestures, or crossing your legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest or boredom is indicated by glancing repeatedly at your watch or staring at the ceiling or floor or out the window when the person is speaking. </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  31. 31. Additional Guidelines for Gesturing in Various Cultures <ul><li>The “V” for victory gesture, holding two fingers upright, with palm and fingers faced outward, is widely used in the U.S. and many other countries. In England, however, it is a crude connotation when used with the palm in. </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  32. 32. <ul><li>Has a positive connotation associated with the University of Texas Longhorn football team. </li></ul><ul><li>This gesture has an insulting connotation in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>In Brazil and Venezuela it is a sign for good luck </li></ul><ul><li>In other cultures, such as Italy and Malta, the horns are a symbol to ward off evil spirits </li></ul><ul><li>This symbol has various meanings in U.S. subcultures and should be used only when you are sure the other person understands its intended meaning </li></ul>The vertical horns gesture (raised fist, index finger and little finger extended) Axtell, Gestures
  33. 33. <ul><li>The thumbs-up gesture has been widely recognized as a positive signal meaning “everything is O.K.” or “good going.” Although well known in North America and most of Europe, in Australia and West Africa it is seen as a rude gesture. </li></ul><ul><li>The head nod in most countries means “yes,” but in Bulgaria it means “no.” </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  34. 34. <ul><li>The “O.K.” sign, with the thumb and forefinger joined to form a circle, is a positive gesture in the U.S., while in Brazil it is considered obscene. The gesture has still another meaning in Japan: money. </li></ul><ul><li>The beckoning gesture (fingers upturned, palm facing the body) used by people in the U.S. for summoning a waiter, for example, is offensive to Filipinos, as it is used to beckon animals and prostitutes. Vietnamese and Mexicans also find it offensive . </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  35. 35. <ul><li>An American engineer, sent to Germany by his U.S. company who had purchased a German firm, was working side by side with a German engineer on a piece of equipment. When the American engineer made a suggestion for improving the new machine, the German engineer followed the suggestion and asked his American counterpart whether or not he had done it correctly. The American replied by giving the U.S. American “OK” gesture, making a circle with the thumb and forefinger. The German engineer put down his tools and walked away, refusing further communication with the American engineer. The U.S. American later learned from one of the supervisors the significance of this gesture to a German: “You asshole.” </li></ul>Axtell, Gestures
  36. 36. Posture and Stance <ul><li>Posture can convey self-confidence, status, and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Confident people have a relaxed posture, yet stand erect and walk with assurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Walking with stooped shoulders and a slow, hesitating gait projects negative messages of lack of confidence. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  37. 37. <ul><li>Interest is demonstrated by leaning forward toward the person with whom you are conversing. </li></ul><ul><li>The posture of U.S. persons is casual, including sitting in a relaxed manner and slouching when standing (considered rude in Germany). </li></ul><ul><li>Posture when seated varies with the culture; U.S. persons often cross their legs while seated (women at the ankle and men with the ankle on the knee). </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  38. 38. <ul><li>Most Middle Easterners would consider crossing the leg with the ankle on the knee inappropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid showing the sole of your shoe or pointing your foot at someone in the Arab world. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the lead of the person of the other culture; assume the posture they assume. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  39. 39. Color (Chromatics) <ul><li>Colors have cultural variations in connotations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black is the color of mourning in the U.S., but white is worn to funerals by the Japanese. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S. white is typically worn by brides, while in India red or yellow is worn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple is sometimes associated with royalty, but it is the color of death in Mexico and Brazil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red (especially red roses) is associated with romance in some cultures including the U.S. </li></ul></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin
  40. 40. Ricks, Blunders in International Business United Airlines unknowingly got off on the wrong foot during its initial flights from Hong Kong. To commemorate the occasion, they handed out white carnations to the passengers. When they learned that to many Asians white flowers represent bad luck and even death, they changed to red carnations.
  41. 41. Silence <ul><li>Although U.S. persons are uncomfortable with silence, people from the Middle East are quite comfortable with silence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese also like periods of silence and do not like to be hurried. Such Japanese proverbs as, “Those who know do not speak - those who speak do not know,” emphasize the value of silence over words in that culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, Greece, and Arabian countries, on the other hand, there is very little silence. </li></ul>Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed., Chaney & Martin