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Upcoming Revisions to the ASTM E1527
Phase I Standard
by
Anthony J. Buonicore, P.E., BCEE, QEP
CEO, The Buonicore Group
fo...
• Key Revisions to E1527 Phase I Standard
• Anticipated Publication Schedule
• Use of E2600-10 for Vapor Migration Assessm...
Key Revisions to ASTM
E1527 Phase I ESA Standard
Major
• Recognized Environmental Conditions (RECs)
• Vapor Migration
• Regulatory File Review
Minor
• User Responsibilitie...
• REC definition “simplified”
• Revised definition of HREC
• New definition for a “controlled” REC (CREC)
RECs
Old Definition:
“the presence or likely presence of any hazardous substances or
petroleum products on a property under con...
42 U.S.C. § 9601(22) defines a “release” as “any spilling, leaking,
pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, inj...
The term “environment” includes (A) the navigable waters, the waters of
the contiguous zone, and the ocean waters…and (B) ...
Old Definition:
“an environmental condition which in the past would have been considered a
REC, but which may or may not b...
“a REC resulting from a past release of hazardous substances or
petroleum products that has been addressed to the satisfac...
REC-HREC-CREC Relationship
Contamination
in, at or on the
target property.
Is it de minimis? Has it been
addressed?
Would
...
• List in Findings
‒ Known or suspect RECs
‒ CRECs
‒ HRECs
‒ De minimis conditions
• List in Conclusions
‒ Known or suspec...
• CERCLA/AAI do not differentiate the form (e.g., solid, liquid, vapor) of
the release to the environment (refer to CERCLA...
“refers to the movement of hazardous substances or petroleum products
in any form, including, for example, solid and liqui...
• Referenced in Section 2.1 of ASTM E1527 Standard*
*Vapor migration must be considered no differently than contaminated
g...
“activity and use limitations – legal or physical restrictions or limitations
on the use of, or access to, a site or facil...
• IAQ exclusion had been used as a rationale NOT to consider vapor
migration/intrusion in the Phase I investigation, e.g.,...
• New section 8.2.2 added on Regulatory Agency File and Records
Review
• If the TP or any adjoining property is identified...
• Environmental liens and AULs are commonly found in recorded land
title records.
• Environmental liens and AULs recorded ...
•Although user is responsible to provide known environmental lien and
AUL information to EP (unless EP given responsibilit...
• If property use is/has been industrial or manufacturing, then
“additional standard historical sources shall be reviewed ...
• Completely re-written Legal Appendix
• Minor revisions to User Questionnaire Appendix
• Simplified Recommended Table of ...
• Ballot closed October 17, 2012
• Negatives ruled non-persuasive in follow-on ballot that closed January
9, 2013
• Final ...
Use of ASTM E2600-10 for Vapor Migration
Assessment in Phase Is
Vapor Intrusion Chronology
1991 J&E Model published
1993 MA includes VI pathway in MCP
1998 Redfield Rifles VI case receiv...
Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable
Industry Survey in August-September 2012
Did you typically include vapor migr...
Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable
Industry Survey in August-September 2012
Today do you typically include vapor...
Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable
Industry Survey in August-September 2012
When you conduct vapor migration
scr...
1. Identify AOC and minimize to the maximum extent possible based on
experience
• Start out with 1/3rd mile or 1/10th mile...
E 2600-10 w/
Source Location E 2600-10 Buonicore Methodology*
Up-gradient 1,760’ 1,760’
Down-gradient 1,760’ 100’
Cross-gr...
E 2600 Revised w/
Source Location E 2600-08 Buonicore Methodology*
Up-gradient 528’ 528’
Down-gradient 528’ 100’ (LNAPL)
3...
2. Are there any known or suspect COC-contaminated sites in the EP-
defined AOC?
• Government records
• Historical researc...
4. Identify VEC status
• exists (physical evidence)
• likely (within close proximity, e.g., two properties?)
• can not be ...
• State VI Guidance
• E 1527-05 de minimus criteria in REC definition
• Soil characteristics, subsurface confining layers ...
• Down-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites with volatiles
• Cross-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites wi...
• Up-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites with volatiles
Where is it more likely that what caused a
VEC would have...
7. If VEC is a REC, E2600-10 Tier 2 provides a suggested vapor
migration scope-of-work for follow-on investigation in Phas...
• Vapor migration should be treated no differently than the way
contaminated groundwater migration is considered in a Phas...
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Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 1 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 2 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 3 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 4 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 5 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 6 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 7 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 8 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 9 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 10 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 11 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 12 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 13 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 14 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 15 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 16 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 17 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 18 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 19 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 20 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 21 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 22 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 23 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 24 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 25 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 26 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 27 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 28 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 29 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 30 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 31 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 32 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 33 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 34 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 35 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 36 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 37 Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready? Slide 38
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Revisions to the ASTM E 1527 Standard: Are You Ready?

  1. 1. Upcoming Revisions to the ASTM E1527 Phase I Standard by Anthony J. Buonicore, P.E., BCEE, QEP CEO, The Buonicore Group for presentation at EDR Insight Webinar April 23, 2013
  2. 2. • Key Revisions to E1527 Phase I Standard • Anticipated Publication Schedule • Use of E2600-10 for Vapor Migration Assessment in Phase Is Overview
  3. 3. Key Revisions to ASTM E1527 Phase I ESA Standard
  4. 4. Major • Recognized Environmental Conditions (RECs) • Vapor Migration • Regulatory File Review Minor • User Responsibilities • Industrial/Manufacturing Properties • Appendices Key Revisions to E1527-05 Impacting Phase I Investigations
  5. 5. • REC definition “simplified” • Revised definition of HREC • New definition for a “controlled” REC (CREC) RECs
  6. 6. Old Definition: “the presence or likely presence of any hazardous substances or petroleum products on a property under conditions that indicate an existing release, a past release, or a material threat of a release of any hazardous substances or petroleum products into structures on the property, or into the ground, ground water, or surface water of the property. The term includes hazardous substances or petroleum products even under conditions in compliance with laws.” New Simplified Definition: “the presence or likely presence of any hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at a property: (1) due to any release to the environment; (2) under conditions indicative of a release to the environment; or (3) under conditions that pose a material threat of a future release to the environment.” Simplified REC Definition
  7. 7. 42 U.S.C. § 9601(22) defines a “release” as “any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or discharging of barrels, containers, and other closed receptacles containing any hazardous substances or pollutant or contaminant” (refer to New Legal Appendix in Revised E 1527, XI.1.1) CERCLA Definition of a “Release”
  8. 8. The term “environment” includes (A) the navigable waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, and the ocean waters…and (B) any other surface water, groundwater, drinking water supply, land surface or subsurface strata…” (refer to New Legal Appendix in Revised E 1527, XI.1.1.1) CERCLA Definition of “Environment”
  9. 9. Old Definition: “an environmental condition which in the past would have been considered a REC, but which may or may not be considered a REC currently.” New Definition: “a past release of any hazardous substances or petroleum products that has occurred in connection with the property and has been addressed to the satisfaction of the applicable regulatory authority or meeting unrestricted residential use criteria established by a regulatory authority, without subjecting the property to any required controls (e.g., property use restrictions, AULs, institutional controls, or engineering controls). Before calling the past release an HREC, the EP must determine whether the past release is a REC at the time the Phase I ESA is conducted (e.g., if there has been a change in the regulatory criteria). If the EP considers this past release to be a REC at the time the Phase I ESA is conducted, the condition shall be included in the conclusions section of the report as a REC.” Revised HREC Definition
  10. 10. “a REC resulting from a past release of hazardous substances or petroleum products that has been addressed to the satisfaction of the applicable regulatory authority (e.g., as evidenced by the issuance of a NFA letter or equivalent, or meeting risk-based criteria established by regulatory authority), with hazardous substances or petroleum products allowed to remain in place subject to the implementation of required controls (e.g., property use restrictions, AULs, institutional controls, or engineering controls)… a CREC shall be listed in the Findings Section of the Phase I ESA report, and as a REC in the Conclusions Section of the…report.” New CREC Definition
  11. 11. REC-HREC-CREC Relationship Contamination in, at or on the target property. Is it de minimis? Has it been addressed? Would regulatory officials view cleanup as inadequate today? Are there restrictions? YES NO NO YES REC (“Bad REC”) De minimis (“Not a REC”) NO CREC (“Good REC”) HREC (“Not a REC”) YES YES NO
  12. 12. • List in Findings ‒ Known or suspect RECs ‒ CRECs ‒ HRECs ‒ De minimis conditions • List in Conclusions ‒ Known or suspect RECs ‒ CRECs Findings and Conclusions Sections
  13. 13. • CERCLA/AAI do not differentiate the form (e.g., solid, liquid, vapor) of the release to the environment (refer to CERCLA definition of “release” and “environment”) • Migrate/migration now defined in E1527 (as it is used in many places in E1527) • E2600-10 is a referenced document in E1527 • Addressed in revised AUL definition • Contaminated vapor migration/intrusion now specifically excluded from IAQ (which is a non-scope consideration) Vapor Migration Clarified as Included in Phase I Investigation
  14. 14. “refers to the movement of hazardous substances or petroleum products in any form, including, for example, solid and liquid at the surface or subsurface, and vapor in the subsurface.” Migrate/Migration Definition Added
  15. 15. • Referenced in Section 2.1 of ASTM E1527 Standard* *Vapor migration must be considered no differently than contaminated groundwater migration in the Phase I investigation. While E2600-10 provides an industry consensus methodology to assess vapor migration, use of E2600-10 methodology is not required to achieve compliance with AAI – an EP may use alternative methodology as deemed appropriate, but this must be documented in the Phase I report (i.e., it must be “capable of being reconstructed by an EP other than the EP responsible for the Phase I”). E2600-10 Included as a Referenced Document
  16. 16. “activity and use limitations – legal or physical restrictions or limitations on the use of, or access to, a site or facility: (1) to reduce or eliminate potential exposure to hazardous substances or petroleum products in the soil, soil vapor, groundwater, and/or surface water on the property…” Revised AUL Definition
  17. 17. • IAQ exclusion had been used as a rationale NOT to consider vapor migration/intrusion in the Phase I investigation, e.g., vapor migration/intrusion is an IAQ issue and as such is a non-scope consideration in the Phase I • The following words were added after IAQ: “unrelated to releases of hazardous substances or petroleum products into the environment” • The words imply that if the IAQ issue is related to releases of hazardous substances or petroleum products into the environment (i.e., vapor intrusion), then this would be within the scope of the Phase I – however, if vapor migration is eliminated as a concern (and vapor migration must now be considered in the Phase I investigation), then the issue of there being a vapor intrusion problem is a moot point! IAQ Non-Scope Consideration Clarified
  18. 18. • New section 8.2.2 added on Regulatory Agency File and Records Review • If the TP or any adjoining property is identified in government records search, “pertinent regulatory files and or records associated with the listing should be reviewed” - at the discretion of the environmental professional • If in the EP’s opinion such a file review is not warranted, the EP must provide justification in the Phase I report • EPs may review files/records from alternative sources such as on-site records, user-provided records, records from local government agencies, interviews with regulatory officials, etc. • Summary of information obtained from the file review shall be included in the Phase I report and EP must include opinion on the sufficiency of the information obtained Regulatory File Review
  19. 19. • Environmental liens and AULs are commonly found in recorded land title records. • Environmental liens and AULs recorded in any place other than recorded land title records are not considered to be reasonably ascertainable - unless applicable statutes or regulations specify a place other than recorded land title records. • Environmental liens and AULs imposed by judicial authorities may be recorded or filed in judicial records only. • In jurisdictions where environmental liens and AULs are only recorded or filed in judicial records, these records must be searched. • Chain of title reports will not normally disclose environmental liens. Revisions to User Responsibilities
  20. 20. •Although user is responsible to provide known environmental lien and AUL information to EP (unless EP given responsibility through a change in the scope of work), the search for environmental liens and AULs under User Responsibilities Section does not preclude the EP from still conducting a search of institutional control and engineering control registries in the EPs government records search (under 8.2). •Commonly known or reasonably ascertainable information within the local community about the property which could be material to the REC determination by the EP must be taken into account by the user and communicated to EP •If user does not communicate to the EP the information in Section 6, User Responsibilities, the EP needs to consider the significance of this shortcoming similar to any other data gap. Revisions to User Responsibilities cont’d
  21. 21. • If property use is/has been industrial or manufacturing, then “additional standard historical sources shall be reviewed if they are likely to identify a more specific use and are reasonably ascertainable, subject to the constraints of data failure.” • Standard historical sources include: aerials, fire insurance maps, property tax files, recorded land title records, USGS topo maps, street directories, building department records, zoning/land use records, and “other historical sources” such as newspaper archives, internet sites, etc. Industrial/Manufacturing Properties
  22. 22. • Completely re-written Legal Appendix • Minor revisions to User Questionnaire Appendix • Simplified Recommended Table of Contents and Report Format Appendix • New Appendix discussing Non-Scope Business Environmental Risk Considerations Revisions to Appendices
  23. 23. • Ballot closed October 17, 2012 • Negatives ruled non-persuasive in follow-on ballot that closed January 9, 2013 • Final standard submitted to EPA for formal approval (to issue a ruling that the standard is AAI-compliant) • EPA plans to publish both the proposed rule (with a 30 day public comment period) and the final rule simultaneously in early summer • Assuming there are no objections to the proposed rule, the already published final rule becomes effective 30 days after the public comment period ends (likely becoming effective around Labor Day) • ASTM would then immediately publish the standard (as E1527-13) and the standard would be effective immediately Status of ASTM E 1527 Revision Process
  24. 24. Use of ASTM E2600-10 for Vapor Migration Assessment in Phase Is
  25. 25. Vapor Intrusion Chronology 1991 J&E Model published 1993 MA includes VI pathway in MCP 1998 Redfield Rifles VI case receives national publicity 2002 EPA publishes its DRAFT VI Guidance document 2006 Kiddie Kollege VI Case hits the national media 2007 NYDEC re-opens 438 closed sites 2007 ITRC publishes VI Guidance for states 2002-2008 approximately 26 states publish VI guidance documents ASTM publishes VI/Migration Assessment methodology (E2600-08) - vapor migration investigation identified as optional in a Phase I (up to the client) Lawyers in E2600-10 remove the “optional” provision, must assess vapor migration in Phase I to be consistent with CERCLA and AAI E1527 Phase I revision process begins in 2010 – addressing vapor migration issue (to be treated no differently than contaminated GW migration) Revisions to E1527 completed at the end of 2012 - incorporate vapor migration EPA plans to publish Final VI Guidance document “imminent”
  26. 26. Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable Industry Survey in August-September 2012 Did you typically include vapor migration screening in your Phase I scope of work prior to 2010 (prior to E2600-10 being published)? Yes 11.8% No 88.2%
  27. 27. Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable Industry Survey in August-September 2012 Today do you typically include vapor migration screening in your Phase I scope of work? Yes 21.7% Only When Requested 49.2% No 29.1%
  28. 28. Phase I Environmental Consultants Roundtable Industry Survey in August-September 2012 When you conduct vapor migration screening today as part of your Phase I, what methodology do you follow? Tier 1 in E2600-10 59.0% In-house methodology 10.9% EP Professional Judgment 30.1%
  29. 29. 1. Identify AOC and minimize to the maximum extent possible based on experience • Start out with 1/3rd mile or 1/10th mile (for petroleum hydrocarbons), BUT • Can reduce significantly when GW flow direction known or can be inferred (from topographical data or nearby Phase II data or hydrologic data, etc.) • Can further reduce by using professional judgment based on local knowledge ‒ Hydraulic barriers (such as rivers and wetlands) ‒ Sub-surface man-made physical barriers (preventing vapors from reaching TP such as utility lines in a main road that can intercept migrating vapors moving toward a TP) ‒ Sub-surface natural barriers (preventing vapors from reaching the TP such as confining layers, e.g., low permeability soil (e.g., clay layer) or fresh water lens Steps for Conducting a Tier 1 VEC Screen in a Phase I (assuming no preferential pathways direct to the TP from contaminated sites)
  30. 30. E 2600-10 w/ Source Location E 2600-10 Buonicore Methodology* Up-gradient 1,760’ 1,760’ Down-gradient 1,760’ 100’ Cross-gradient 1,760’ 365’ *Buonicore, A.J. , Methodology for Identifying the Area of Concern Around a Property Potentially Impacted by Vapor Migration from Nearby Contaminated Sources, Paper No. 2011-A-301, Proceedings, Air & Waste Management Association, 104th Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, June 20-24, 2011. Net Reduction in AOC for Tier 1 Screening of Known or Suspect COC SOURCES if Groundwater Flow Direction is Known or Can Be Inferred
  31. 31. E 2600 Revised w/ Source Location E 2600-08 Buonicore Methodology* Up-gradient 528’ 528’ Down-gradient 528’ 100’ (LNAPL) 30’ (dissolved) Cross-gradient 528’ 165’ (LNAPL) 95’ (dissolved) *Buonicore, A.J. , Methodology for Identifying the Area of Concern Around a Property Potentially Impacted by Vapor Migration from Nearby Contaminated Sources, Paper No. 2011-A-301, Proceedings, Air & Waste Management Association, 104th Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, June 20-24, 2011. Net Reduction in AOC for Tier 1 Screening of Known or Suspect PHC SOURCES if Groundwater Flow Direction is Known or Can Be Inferred
  32. 32. 2. Are there any known or suspect COC-contaminated sites in the EP- defined AOC? • Government records • Historical research • Other (?) 3. Evaluate each site remaining in the EP-defined AOC • Remediation status? • Did remediation consider vapor pathway? • Regulatory file review may help • Review AULs – contamination left on-site? • Other (?) Conducting a Tier 1 VEC Screen cont’d
  33. 33. 4. Identify VEC status • exists (physical evidence) • likely (within close proximity, e.g., two properties?) • can not be ruled out (further away, beyond two properties?) • can be ruled out because it does not or is unlikely to exist 5. If VEC can be ruled out, vapor migration evaluation is completed Conducting a Tier 1 VEC Screen cont’d
  34. 34. • State VI Guidance • E 1527-05 de minimus criteria in REC definition • Soil characteristics, subsurface confining layers and depth to water table • Hydraulic barriers • Physical barriers • Building design and location on property • Building operation (positive pressure?, etc.) • Chemical vapor barrier already exists? • Other? 6. If VEC exists/likely/cannot be ruled out, determine if VEC is a REC
  35. 35. • Down-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites with volatiles • Cross-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites with volatiles • Vapor migration takes the path of least resistance no matter what direction it is! Where are there more likely to be RECs based solely on vapor migration considerations?
  36. 36. • Up-gradient known or suspect contaminated sites with volatiles Where is it more likely that what caused a VEC would have been viewed as a REC anyway even if vapor migration was not considered?
  37. 37. 7. If VEC is a REC, E2600-10 Tier 2 provides a suggested vapor migration scope-of-work for follow-on investigation in Phase II Conducting a Tier 1 VEC Screen cont’d
  38. 38. • Vapor migration should be treated no differently than the way contaminated groundwater migration is considered in a Phase I • EP can evaluate vapor migration using whatever methodology the EP determines to be appropriate (if not E 2600-10, then EP needs to document “alternative” methodology and include documentation in the Phase I) • E 2600-10 Tier 1 screening methodology is an industry consensus methodology • E 2600-10 allows for EPs professional judgment and is therefore able to “cover” virtually any “alternative” vapor migration methodology (making a strong case for using Tier 1 in E 2600-10) Bottom Line

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