Most boys are playing at least 6 hours or more per week.Most teens play on multiple devicesData on playing alone contradicted by Pew information which indicated far more kids playing with friends in the same room and a smaller percentage with friends on line.
Note that if you add together video games and computer games, the concern is much larger.
Much information comes from this study – which also debunked much of the previous work
Violent behavior – most studies indicating this have either been poorly produced or rely on a “gaming effect” which looks at aggression right after or within the game. Many studies have shown no link. And some have even looked at some pro=social reasons to blow off steam in a fantasy world. Some studies out of Iowa indicate an effect based on long term aggressive game play and There is a neurological link and there is a short-term causal relationship.Jenkins - I believe that media is most powerful in our lives when it reinforces our existing values and least powerful when it contradicts them.“Violent video games frequently have been criticized for enhancing aggressive reactions such as aggressive cognitions, aggressive affects or aggressive behavior. On a neurobiological level we have shown the link exists.”Emotional memory is a really important part of your cognitive functioning. If you don't remember negative or harmful situations, you can't learn from them and avoid them in the future," said Bowen. Fantasy v realityAddiction: most addiction research not coming out of US. Most games do have natural breaking points. Mobile apps. Much smaller. Be most careful for young children.Obesity – need to make sure kids have a balance; WII and now other moving games burns 400cals in ½ of play Same as hereSocial isolation – in fact, many games give common ground for conversation or playProf. JENKINS: I am not saying "Grand Theft Auto Three" is good for young kids. But what I am saying is some kinds of violent play allow kids to play with fantasies of power and to rebuild self-esteem that is being destroyed by real verbal and physical violence at our schools. I think it may be healthy within limits. The challenge is how to set those limits, and that requires informed parents.
Young children are more susceptible to confusion over fantasy and realityFrom huge Kutner and Olson study, these are anecdotal but borne out in the research. TIP – monitor the games and start by worrying about those issues that are most transferable to reality. Kids do know the difference. The brief quotes one of the scholars, Celia Pearce, who sums up the humanist understanding of violent fantasy games: "Most of the alarmism about violence," she writes, "is based on a profound misunderstanding about the social and emotional function of games. Games allow people who are midway between childhood and adulthood to engage in fantasies of power to compensate for their own feelings of personal powerlessness. This role-playing function is important for children of all ages."
American Association of Pediatrics, 2006
At risk for social isolation, for relying on video games for self esteem, for not understanding fantasyvs reality, for violent or aggressive behavior, usually have a variety of other risk factors
Henry Jenkins, MIT
We as parents may feel uncomfortable with specific imagery, but in fact, kids are involved with all these skills and practices when playing immersive games…Community – many games are played with friends and MMOG are played with large groupsCollaboration – complex teamwork and collaborationSocial Justice – research on kids who play certain games participate in more charity workIntrinsic motivation – moving up in levels, solving more and more difficult challengesDeep understanding and Active learning – this is training for 21st century. Learn rules, make decisions, change information and actions flexibly according to system, collaborate, very complex intellectual demandTake kids seriously – this is a world they know a lot about and are master of
Find research from pew on WHICH games.
.-Keep computers in public places for younger kids- Very young children do not need to chat onlineOlder kids can talk to friends and familyMultiplayer options – very young kids should not talk to others online, older elementary can talk to people they know, teens can use multiplayer options, but monitor and discuss these interactions
Recommendations for parents: -Acknowledge that there can be cool aspects of violent games, even if they are inappropriate-Find GREAT games for kids that don't involve violence and foster build civic participation. See Common Sense.-Keep computers in public places for younger kids-Talk to kids about the violence in games and its potential impact Multiplayer options – very young kids should not talk to others online, older elementary can talk to people they know, teens can use multiplayer options, but monitor and discuss these interactions
-31% of parents say they always or sometimes play games with their kids-46% of parents say they always or sometimes stop their kids from playing a game, which means there is room for more education and advance discussionYahoo survey, 2008 – 87% of parents say they play video games with their kidsParenting is parenting – be an active parent.83% of game purchases for underage kids were made by a parent or parent and child together. Parents control the purchasing. Girls who play video games with their parents are generally better behaved and showed lower rates of depression than those who don’t - feb, 2011 reported in Journal of Adolescent Health – Brigham Young University
Kutner & Olson; NPD Group, 2008
Some problems with ESRBDon’t use educators as reviewersReviewers had formerly looked at videos, not played games, that’s now changingDon’t look at things in context Issue around showing consequencesFunded by software industryThere isn’t a rating system for games downloaded on the internetNo actual law against selling to minors, though it is self regulated
- Craig Anderson
CRISP began as predator protection software, now part of many virtual worlds. Built in technology for monitoring unsavory communication.
Bank street csm presentation.v2
The Effect of Video Games on Our Children:Bank Street School for ChildrenMarch 2, 2011<br />
Objectives<br /><ul><li> Explore today’s video game and interactive media landscape
Review both sides of the research on the effects of video games on children’s behavior
Share tips for taking advantage of the opportunities and avoiding the risks associated with video game and interactive media play</li></li></ul><li>Introductions…<br />
Who Am I?<br />Anne Schreiber – <br />Vice President <br />of Education Content; <br />Common Sense Media<br />Educational media and<br />publishing professional<br />Parent of three NYC<br />teens!<br />
Who is Common Sense Media?<br />Rate:Library of over 13,000 Common Sense Media ratings and reviews<br />Educate:Advice and issue education for parents, educators, and young people<br />Advocate:Respected nonpartisan voice - to national policymakers, the media industry, legislators and thought leaders<br />CommonSenseMedia.org/Educator<br />
Common Sense Media<br />Education Programs<br />Digital Literacy & Citizenship Student Curriculum<br />Parent Education Program<br />Teachers implement with students; includes student/parent activities<br />Educators implement with parents<br />
My media life is like a…<br />http://registrarism.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/globe-europe.jpg<br />http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Environment/Pix/pictures/2007/10/15/WaitroseFrankBaron.jpg<br />
What exactly are kids doing with video games and interactive media?<br />
The average American child, 8 to 18, spends 53 hours per week (7.5 hours per day) using technology.<br />99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games.<br />83% of children, 8 to 18, have at least one video game console in their homes, and of that group, 25% keep a game console in their bedrooms.<br />Female gamers comprised 28% of the market in 2009.<br />More Americans play video games than go to the movies each year.<br />Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010<br />
Most gamers do not limit themselves to one genre.<br />80% of teens play 5 or more different game genres.<br />40% play 8 or more different game types.<br />Most popular game genres:<br /> Racing (74%)<br /> Puzzle (72%)<br /> Sports (68%)<br /> Action (67%)<br /> Adventure (66%)<br /> Rhythm (61%)<br /> Strategy (59%)<br />Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010<br />
Most popular games for teens: (2008 data)<br /> Guitar Hero<br /> Halo 3<br /> Madden NFL<br /> Solitaire<br /> Dance Dance Revolution<br />One of the top five (Halo 3) is rated M (mature) while two (Solitaire & DDR) is rated E (everyone).<br />Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010<br />
Some national data on parent perspectives… <br />
Impact of Media on Children is Among Top Parenting Concerns<br />2<br />4<br />1<br />3<br />Source: Common Sense Media Parent Survey 2010<br />
Parents’ Biggest Concerns are: TV, the Internet and Movies<br />Source: Common Sense Media Parent Survey 2010<br />
What does the research say about the effects of video games on children’s behavior?<br />
The Situation is Complex<br />“Much of what we found surprised us. The data were both encouraging and, at times, disturbing. The more we analyzed our own data and looked at other research, the more we realized that we -- parents, politicians, researchers and child advocates -- probably worry too much about the wrong things and too little about more subtle issues and complex effects that are much more likely to affect our children.” <br />(from Harvard researchers Kutner and Olson, 2009)<br />
What are Parents Concerned About?<br />Will playing video games…<br />lead to aggression and violent behavior?<br />blur the line between fantasy and reality?<br />lead to social isolation and less pro-social behavior?<br />lead to addictive behavior?<br />lead to obesity/sedentary lifestyle?<br />take time away from other, healthier, activities?<br />
What Does the Research Indicate?<br />Will playing video games…<br /><ul><li>lead to aggression and violent behavior?
take time away from other, healthier, activities?</li></li></ul><li>The Line Between Fantasy and Reality<br />"Really violent games, like in Vice City where you can just go around killing anybody, they're less realistic. The environment, the people are real, but not the actions.” (- middle school student)<br />“For the most part, it was not the violence that these children wanted to protect their younger brothers and sisters from. It was the language…It was the use of language that most easily bridged the gulf between their fantasy game worlds and reality.” (Kutner & Olson) <br />
Social Isolation vs. Collaboration<br />Much video game play is social:<br /><ul><li> Almost 60% of frequent gamers play with friends
Just 18% of boys and 12% of girls always play games alone.</li></ul> Even single player games are often played socially.<br /> The majority of new and popular games are designed for multiple players.<br />
Obesity and Life Balance<br />Spending large amounts of time playing video games can lead to: <br />time away from family, school-work, hobbies <br />lower grades and reading less <br />less exercising and becoming overweight <br />aggressive thoughts and behaviors <br />( - AAP, 2006)<br />
And There are Other Issues… <br />Racial and gender stereotypes<br />Increase in bullying behavior<br />Reinforcement of aggression as a potential means to solving conflict<br />Some children may be at risk – we need ways to identify them<br />
What’s the Good News?<br />“Many current games are designed to be ethical testing grounds. They allow players to navigate an expansive and open-ended world, make their own choices and witness their consequences…we can be encouraged to examine our own values by seeing how we behave within virtual space.”<br />
Community<br />Collaboration<br />Social justice<br />Intrinsic motivation<br />Deep understanding<br />Active learning<br />Taking kids seriously<br />(borrowed from “Bank Street’s Progressive Education in Context”, Alfie Kohn, 2010)<br />Hallmarks of Progressive Education<br />
Taking kids seriously</li></ul>Hallmarks of Popular Video Games<br />
Games as Vehicles for Deep Understanding and Active Learning<br />Games are powerful vehicles for learning<br />Provide an environment for working out ethical decisions<br />Highly collaborative (many games require forming an effective team)<br />21st Century skills - great skills for job market<br />Motivation, engagement and critical thinking<br />“Learning to be” rather than “learning about” – based on trail and error<br /> (-John Seely Brown, USC, Xerox Corp, 2006)<br />
Games as Vehicles for Social Justice<br />Teens who take part in social interaction related to the game, are more engaged civically and politically. ( - Pew, 2008)<br />67% stay informed about current events<br />63% are interested in politics<br />74% are committed to civic participation<br />Teens who played games with pro-social themes engaged in more pro-social behaviors ( - Anderson & Gentile, 2010)<br />Teens who played games with more civic learning are more likely to raise money or volunteer for charities. (- Pew, 2008)<br />
What can a parent do to help their children safely navigate the world of online- and video- games? <br />
Tips for Elementary-age Children<br />Establish time limits <br />Encourage balance between game play and other activities<br />Choose good (and developmentally appropriate) games<br />Monitor use as much as you can – try to keep game play in common spaces<br />Talk about Internet rules and safety<br />Talk about violence and its effects<br />Be aware of multi-player options<br />
Tips for Tweens and Teens<br />Discuss what you think is appropriate. Help your child choose good games.<br />Beware of addiction. Set time limits and encourage self-regulation. Take advantage of natural breaks in the game.<br />Review multi-player options. Discuss Internet safety.<br />Watch language. Use monitoring tools if needed.<br />
Tips for All Ages<br />Talk to your kids about what they’re playing (even if you don’t like it). Acknowledge the positive aspects of their game play and content.<br />Buy the games you want them to play.<br />Encourage “active gaming” (e.g. wii, kinect) – they are calorie burners.<br />Play with your kids. There’s no substitute for an engaged parent!<br />
Panel Discussion:Bank Street School for ChildrenMarch 2, 2011<br />
Violent Crimes are DownVideo Game Sales are Up<br /><ul><li>Violent juvenile crime in the US has been steadily declining since its peak in 1993.
Murder arrests, peaked at 3,800 in 1993 and dropped to 1,400 by 2001. </li></ul>At the same time…<br /><ul><li>US video game sales rose from $3.2 billion in 1995 to almost $18 billion in 2007. </li></li></ul><li>How to Help Your Kids Self-Regulate<br />Set an example. Do you keep the TV on during dinner, or check your email constantly? Model what you want to see.<br />Set limits. Help kids create a schedule with all they need to do. Hobbies and learning comes first. Down time develops self-awareness. <br />Get involved. Not all screens are created equal – so make sure you know what your kids are doing. Take the time to sit down and play their favorite game with them. Then you can help them make better decisions about what they watch, play, and do. <br />
How to Tell the Good From the Bad From the Ugly<br />
Some Market Statistics<br />62 % of the game market and 66% of the PC market is 18 years old+<br />25% of children age 11-16 identify an M (mature) rated game as one of their favorites<br />80% of retailers will not sell M-rated content to a minor<br />Huge discrepancy on data about whether or not parents pay attention to ratings (from 10% - 72% reporting difference)<br />83% of games purchased for children are purchased by the parent. Parents have power!<br />
What to Ask When Choosing a Game<br />Does the game involve some characters trying to harm others?<br />Does this happen frequently, more than once or twice in 30 minutes?<br />Is the harm rewarded in any way?<br />Is the harm portrayed as humorous?<br />Are nonviolent solutions absent or less "fun" than the violent ones?<br />Are realistic consequences of violence absent from the game (- Craig Anderson, Iowa State, 2006)<br />
A Game Primer<br />Console games (Play Station, X-Box, Wii, etc)<br />Online games – four types:<br />Casual games found on most kid Web sites<br />Online game portals (e.g. Miniclip)<br />MMPOG - need to purchase and download<br />Online environments (e.g. Club Penguin)<br />CRISP Thinking – tool for monitoring unsavory online communication<br />Apps<br />The “app” market for Smart Phones and tablets is creating new opportunities for educational gaming<br />
The Market is Changing <br />In the 90’s, the software game dollars went to game consoles. <br />Game consoles expensive to produce for ><br />difficult to publish educational games because the demand is not great enough<br />Now mobile apps are gaining in popularity. <br />Easier to create > many new educational games<br />Natural breaking points, smaller chunks<br />Beware of “in game purchases”!<br />Mobile technologies make parental monitoring even harder.<br />