Smart Cities and CommunitiesRecipes to make your own city smart(instead of waiting for others to fix it)Edoardo Calia, Dep...
Smart City modelSmart EconomySmart MobilitySmart LivingSmart GovernanceSmart Environment
The central role of communities• Turning a city into a smart one cannot bedone with a top down approach• Smart services re...
Several different communitiesGovernment/PA
We often dont like our cities• What we do today (dumb cities)1. Realize that services are poorly organizedand not working2...
We often dont like our cities• Todays dumb cities– Citizens and decision makers (funders,politicians) are very far from ea...
But things can change! (believe me)• Tomorrow (smart cities)– Citizens and decision makers(funders, politicians) are all p...
Things will change because...• The traditional way cities and services aremanaged has failed. Its just in front of us• Res...
A hard transition• The transition from inefficiency and excess ofpublic subsidies to efficiency and targetedgovernment inc...
A hard transition• The transition from inefficiency and excess ofpublic subsidies to efficiency and targetedgovernment inc...
In the meantime, a whole newworld is quietly startingEfficiencyJobs mobilityStartups"Failing is ok"Risk sharing"PermanentB...
In the meantime, a whole newworld is quietly startingEfficiencyJobs mobilityStartups"Failing is ok"Risk sharing"PermanentB...
A new, smart society• Young generations know about InformationTechnologies, at least as users• They are "always on"• Smart...
Social Networks• New ways to create and manage your ownidentity• The Internet Galaxy metaphor• Reputation as a capital• Re...
Manage your online identity• In the beginning of the Internet peopleused to build anonymous profiles. Someused it as a rea...
Manage your online identity• In face-to-face relationships we groupfriends, colleagues etc in separated sets• Social netwo...
Internet Galaxy Metaphor(Manuel Castell)MoonNeptuneBarnards star Sirius sharingconnectivity
Internet Galaxy Metaphor(Manuel Castell)MoonNeptuneBarnards star Sirius sharingconnectivity
Online Reputation
Online reputation• Like reputation in general, it is a capital– It takes long time to be built– It can be easily destroyed...
Online reputation and social media• Social media are ideal to build and spread onlinereputation due to their:– Transparenc...
Online reputation objectives• Trust building: reputation encourages fairbehavior• Filtering: most relevant contributions c...
Online reputation and business• Gaining a good online reputation becomes acompetition which can affect your businesssucces...
Social scoring
Social Mobility and Social Networks• The traditional model: strong impact of startingconditions on social mobility• The ne...
Government and Market• Historically played a key role in most ofsocial issues providing a safe employmentcontext• Today: i...
Professional and organizationalidentity separation• Hoffman & Casnocha: excessiveemotional attachment to your companymakes...
Prosumers• Producer, Consumer, Prosumer• The customer participates to all productcreation phases• Started with information...
The third industrial revolution• Democratization of competences: pro-am– Amateur professionals or professional amateurs– T...
3D Printing• A technology that has been around for awhile, but in these years is experiencing alarger diffusion due to the...
FabLabs• A fab lab (fabrication laboratory) is a small-scale workshop offering (personal) digitalfabrication• Generally eq...
FabLabs• The fab lab program was started inthe Media Lab at Massachusetts Instituteof Technology (MIT)• Research groups ex...
Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding• Crowdsourcing: the value of participationis becoming a powerful resource for thefuture of ...
Cambiamo Tutto!• A book recently published by RiccardoLuna, one of the most known personalitiesin the startup/collaboratio...
Crowdsourcing, crowdfunding andsocial networks• The main difference between social networks forfreelance or microworking a...
Crowdfunding• Reward-based: funders are donors, andthey get from the project a reward in theform of a sample/prototype of ...
Crowdfunding• Tim Scharfer: 400K$ in 7 hrs, 1M$ in24hr, 3,336,371$ at the end of hiscampaign o Kickstarter• In Italy and E...
Crowdfunding – Tim Scharfer
Crowdfunding
Crowdfunding – nothing new!
European Crowdfunding Network• Promote and support the development ofcrowdfunding mechanisms as a fundingsource for Europe...
Getting closer to each other:Coworking• Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding arebased on the principle of collaborationfrom the ...
Selective Coworking• A step beyond offering just a commonspace as a temporary office• Co-workers are selected based on the...
Collaborative projects• Involve communities to participate puttingtogether a project or contribute to acommon cause• Examp...
ISMB-Polito: collaborative airquality monitoring• Raspberry Pi board with WiFi connectivity• Two temperature + Humidity se...
TrafficO2 - PUSH• PUSH is an association of youngarchitects and engineers fromPalermo, Sicily• They won a grant from the I...
Restoring Saracen GuardTowers• Slowscape: a project from a young architect(Claudio Esposito) who developed his thesisaroun...
Recipes to make your own city smart
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Recipes to make your own city smart

  1. 1. Smart Cities and CommunitiesRecipes to make your own city smart(instead of waiting for others to fix it)Edoardo Calia, Deputy Director – ISMB@edocaliaTorino, May 10 2013
  2. 2. Smart City modelSmart EconomySmart MobilitySmart LivingSmart GovernanceSmart Environment
  3. 3. The central role of communities• Turning a city into a smart one cannot bedone with a top down approach• Smart services require smart users (whichdoes not mean technologists: just peoplewho care about their city, its environmentand the other citizens)• Users are not limited to citizens: smartcities are made by smart communities
  4. 4. Several different communitiesGovernment/PA
  5. 5. We often dont like our cities• What we do today (dumb cities)1. Realize that services are poorly organizedand not working2. Complain because we pay (taxes) for thingsthat do not work the way we want / need3. Assume we cannot do anything4. Accept with resignation that nothing everhappens / improves (more complaining here)5. Goto 1
  6. 6. We often dont like our cities• Todays dumb cities– Citizens and decision makers (funders,politicians) are very far from each other– There is no efficient and trusted way tocommunicate with the institutions, informthem about problems, receive replies/info– We all have the impression to be excludedfrom the decision processes– We do not have a central role in the citydesign/management. We passively live there.
  7. 7. But things can change! (believe me)• Tomorrow (smart cities)– Citizens and decision makers(funders, politicians) are all part of the game– There are efficient and trusted ways tocommunicate with the institutions, informthem about problems, receive replies/info– Everybody has a clear vision of whereresources are going, how they are used– Everybody feels safe contributing
  8. 8. Things will change because...• The traditional way cities and services aremanaged has failed. Its just in front of us• Resources are scarce (particularly publicresources)• With no resources, the PA is losing power• Private capital and money is the only way out...• ... but efficiency and transparency must beguaranteed• Young generations believe they can change theworld (just because they can)
  9. 9. A hard transition• The transition from inefficiency and excess ofpublic subsidies to efficiency and targetedgovernment incentives will be hard• Many industries and business will disappear(lots of jobs lost), just because they make nosense in todays world (unfortunately it wasvery clear long ago, when there was still timefor a smooth transition)• Public support in this phase is a must, butresources are not available
  10. 10. A hard transition• The transition from inefficiency and excess ofpublic subsidies to efficiency and targetedgovernment incentives will be hard• Many industries and business will disappear(lots of jobs lost), just because they make nosense in todays world (unfortunately it wasvery clear long ago, when there was still timefor a smooth transition)• Public support in this phase is a must, butresources are not available
  11. 11. In the meantime, a whole newworld is quietly startingEfficiencyJobs mobilityStartups"Failing is ok"Risk sharing"PermanentBeta"Create your own jobTransparencyCollaboration
  12. 12. In the meantime, a whole newworld is quietly startingEfficiencyJobs mobilityStartups"Failing is ok"Risk sharing"PermanentBeta"Create your own jobTransparencyCollaboration
  13. 13. A new, smart society• Young generations know about InformationTechnologies, at least as users• They are "always on"• Smart cities must leverage the power of new tools:the users are ready!• Social networks offer great support to create andmaintain personal and professional relationshipsfacilitating groups & communities aggregation
  14. 14. Social Networks• New ways to create and manage your ownidentity• The Internet Galaxy metaphor• Reputation as a capital• Reputation mechanisms objectives• Impact of reputation on business• Social scoring platforms
  15. 15. Manage your online identity• In the beginning of the Internet peopleused to build anonymous profiles. Someused it as a real identity, others sat behinda fake ID• Facebook message: if you want to hideyour ID, there must be something wrong /to hide• Dating sites: we build our identity in orderto appear as we would like to be (seen)
  16. 16. Manage your online identity• In face-to-face relationships we groupfriends, colleagues etc in separated sets• Social networks tend to mix these sets in order tocreate as many relationships as possible, making itmuch more difficult to maintain isolated, closed groups• It is like a wedding banquet wherefriends, family, colleagues sit in the same room. Evenif we try to keep them separate (Google+ groups) theysee each other, they interact in a way which we cannotreally control• Our online identity must be designed to be acceptableenough to be shown in different groups
  17. 17. Internet Galaxy Metaphor(Manuel Castell)MoonNeptuneBarnards star Sirius sharingconnectivity
  18. 18. Internet Galaxy Metaphor(Manuel Castell)MoonNeptuneBarnards star Sirius sharingconnectivity
  19. 19. Online Reputation
  20. 20. Online reputation• Like reputation in general, it is a capital– It takes long time to be built– It can be easily destroyed• Reputation is different from– Prestige, because it does not involve hierarchy– Esteem, because it also influences economics– Interpersonal trust, because it is collective– Influence, because it doesnt necessarily have animpact on choices or behaviour
  21. 21. Online reputation and social media• Social media are ideal to build and spread onlinereputation due to their:– Transparency– Accountability (prize and punishment mechanisms)– Interconnection (spreading across networkconnections)• Online reputation can be applied to objects orpeople– Amazon, eBay, TripAdvisor, RateMyProfessor, GlassdoorCourtesy of Ivana Pais, "La rete che lavora"
  22. 22. Online reputation objectives• Trust building: reputation encourages fairbehavior• Filtering: most relevant contributions canbe easily identified• Meeting: people with similar interests canmeet• Loyalty gaining: once you have built a(good) reputation, you dont want to leavethe system
  23. 23. Online reputation and business• Gaining a good online reputation becomes acompetition which can affect your businesssuccess• An eBay seller with good reputation sells thesame items for a cost 8% higher than a newuser• Studies are being carried out (AlessandroGandini) to verify the connection betweencreative freelance workers online reputationand their salaries
  24. 24. Social scoring
  25. 25. Social Mobility and Social Networks• The traditional model: strong impact of startingconditions on social mobility• The new vision: social mobility mostly depends onindividual abilities and merits• A new tag cloud: Permanentbeta, empowerment, failure culture, fastevoution, network• Everybodys career should be managed as astartup (Hoffman – Casnocha 2012)• Social Networks: the new social escalator?
  26. 26. Government and Market• Historically played a key role in most ofsocial issues providing a safe employmentcontext• Today: informal regulation based onnetworked logic mechanisms• Government still has a fundamental role inproviding enabling infrastructures andservices, but cant any more help solvingunemployment and similar problems
  27. 27. Professional and organizationalidentity separation• Hoffman & Casnocha: excessiveemotional attachment to your companymakes you lose opportunities• Employers are aware of this: they want thebest from their emloyees but in a limitedtime: they dont count any more on verylong cooperation relationships• The best employees are those who aremore dynamic in the job market
  28. 28. Prosumers• Producer, Consumer, Prosumer• The customer participates to all productcreation phases• Started with information-related andintangible products(Wikipedia, Youtube, Open source SW)• Today: physical objects and products(makers, open source HW)
  29. 29. The third industrial revolution• Democratization of competences: pro-am– Amateur professionals or professional amateurs– They are not professionals, but they like to beconsidered professionals• Access to information is made easy bytechnologies commonly available• Everybody can pretend to be a professional• Are the pro-ams going to invade the reign ofexperts? Common in journalism (@tigella)
  30. 30. 3D Printing• A technology that has been around for awhile, but in these years is experiencing alarger diffusion due to the availability ofsmaller, cheaper, do-it-yourself printers– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aafp7EnzmOY– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7GXgAm7sBo• One of the most common tools found inMakers Labs (FabLab etc)
  31. 31. FabLabs• A fab lab (fabrication laboratory) is a small-scale workshop offering (personal) digitalfabrication• Generally equipped with an array of flexiblecomputer controlled tools that cover severaldifferent length scales and various materials,with the aim to make "almost anything"• This includes technology-enabled productsgenerally perceived as limited to massproduction.(Wikipedia)
  32. 32. FabLabs• The fab lab program was started inthe Media Lab at Massachusetts Instituteof Technology (MIT)• Research groups exploring how thecontent of information relates to itsphysical representation, and how acommunity can be powered by technologyat the grassroots level.
  33. 33. Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding• Crowdsourcing: the value of participationis becoming a powerful resource for thefuture of business (Howe)• Wikinomics: mass collaboration which willchange the world• Examples: Building the Statue ofLiberty, the Goldcorp Challenge(1999), Moonwatch System
  34. 34. Cambiamo Tutto!• A book recently published by RiccardoLuna, one of the most known personalitiesin the startup/collaboration/innovationareas
  35. 35. Crowdsourcing, crowdfunding andsocial networks• The main difference between social networks forfreelance or microworking and crowdsourcing isthe actual participation of the community to acommon goal/project instead of simply dividingwork among different autonomousworkers/professionals• Example: Openwear in Italy, creation of fashiongarments under a Creative Commons License.Non commercial brand, self-production, economical + ecological + socialsustainability
  36. 36. Crowdfunding• Reward-based: funders are donors, andthey get from the project a reward in theform of a sample/prototype of the result, aspecial edition, a meeting with theauthors/designers etc• Equity-based: funders get shares of thecompany originated from the project
  37. 37. Crowdfunding• Tim Scharfer: 400K$ in 7 hrs, 1M$ in24hr, 3,336,371$ at the end of hiscampaign o Kickstarter• In Italy and EU these models are knownbut still in their infancy, particularly due toregulation issues• UK, Holland are ahead of other countriesin Europe, but there is no common EUlegislation yet
  38. 38. Crowdfunding – Tim Scharfer
  39. 39. Crowdfunding
  40. 40. Crowdfunding – nothing new!
  41. 41. European Crowdfunding Network• Promote and support the development ofcrowdfunding mechanisms as a fundingsource for European society and investors• In Italy crowdfunding-oriented startups aregetting organized in two ways:– Connection with crowdsourcing(Cineama, Starteed)– Connection with local and professionalcommunities(YouCapital, Shiniynote, Eppela, Siamosoci)
  42. 42. Getting closer to each other:Coworking• Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding arebased on the principle of collaborationfrom the distance• A different but very modern and efficientphenomenon is coworking, whichpromotes collaboration among different /heterogeneous companies andprofessionals by sharing the same workinglocation
  43. 43. Selective Coworking• A step beyond offering just a commonspace as a temporary office• Co-workers are selected based on theirproject, the space is co-designed withthem according to their needs, and theremay be a "facilitator" helping cooperation• The main purpose is acceleration of ideasand projects
  44. 44. Collaborative projects• Involve communities to participate puttingtogether a project or contribute to acommon cause• Examples: environmentalmonitoring, trafficcontrol/observation, restoring / redesigncultural / historic heritage
  45. 45. ISMB-Polito: collaborative airquality monitoring• Raspberry Pi board with WiFi connectivity• Two temperature + Humidity sensors• 1 Dust sensor• 200+ students engaged, in teams of 4• ISMB set up the central server tocollect, process and present the data• Students built the sensor boards andwrote the code to sense and send data
  46. 46. TrafficO2 - PUSH• PUSH is an association of youngarchitects and engineers fromPalermo, Sicily• They won a grant from the Italian Ministryof Research and University• Their project TrafficO2 aims at evaluatingmobility patterns collecting data frommobile phones embedded sensors
  47. 47. Restoring Saracen GuardTowers• Slowscape: a project from a young architect(Claudio Esposito) who developed his thesisaround a project aimed at restoring severalhistoric buildings in Puglia, including someICT to offer innovation services to the territory• ISMB and PUSH will collaborate with Claudioto make his dream (project) become true• Citizens and other communities will beinvolved (a crowdfunding campaign is alsoplanned)

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