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# How to Study Ray Optics in Physics?

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How to Study Ray Optics in Physics?

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### How to Study Ray Optics in Physics?

1. 1.  The branch of physics that deals with light and vision,
2. 2.  Lens is a peace of transparent medium bounded by two curved surfaces or one curve and one plane surface.
3. 3. 1. Optical centre : rays passes undeviated
4. 4. 2. Centre of curvature & Radius of curvature :
5. 5. Principal focus , Principal plane , Focal plane, Focal length :
6. 6. 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 (1) According to Snell’s law sin (2) sin 1 2 sin sin sinr sin i sin r r and sin i i r i .. 3 i r From and i r For very small angles
7. 7. 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 From ODC i (4) and from DIC r r (5) .4&5 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) 6 As , and are very small angles and expressed in ra Sub in   dian then form the diagram. arcPD arcPD arcPD PO Pl PC
8. 8. 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 Substituting these values in equation 6 , we get ( ) ( ) The factor is called as power of surface. arcPD arcPD arcPD PC PO PI PC PO PI R u v u v R R
9. 9. 1 ' 1 1 1 u v R m - m - =
10. 10. 1 2 2 1 1 2 ' 1 ' 2 1 2 1 1, ' 1 1 (1) 2 1 1 (2) Adding equation 1 and 2 we can write 1 1 1 1 ( 1) for surface u v R Let and v v u v R For surface v v R v u R R
11. 11.  1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 When u and v f. 1 1 1 ( 1) For concave lens R is negative and R is positive therefore, 1 1 1 ( 1) 1 1 1 ( 1) f R R f R R f R R
12. 12. 1. A plano convex lens is made of refractive index 1.6. The radius of curvature of the curved surface is 60 cm. The focal length of the lens is (a) 50 cm (b) 100 cm (c) 200 cm (d) 400 cm
13. 13. Ans: (b) 100 cm 1 2 1 1 1 1 f R R 1 1 0.6 1 1.6 1 60 60 100 f 100 cm
14. 14. 2. A convex lens has a focal length f. It is cut into two parts along a line perpendicular to principal axis. The focal length of each part will be (a) f/2 (b) f (c) (d) 2f3 f 2
15. 15. Ans: (d) 2f 1 1 1 2 1 1 ..... i f R R R 11 1 1 1 ..... ii f ' R R Divide i by ii f ' 2 f ' 2f. f
16. 16.  “Ratio of linear size of image to linear size of object is called as linear magnification.”
17. 17.  “The ability of a lens to converge or diverge the rays passing through it is called as power of lens.”  “Power of lens can also be defined as reciprocal of focal length in meter.”
18. 18.  The minimum distance of an object from eye at which the object can clearly seen without causing strain to the eye is called as least distance of distinct vision (D) or distance of distinct vision (DDV)
19. 19. “The magnifying power of convex lens or a simple microscope is defined as the ratio of angle subtended by the image at the eye (β) when seen through lens, to the angle subtended by the object at the eye (α) when the object is held at the distance of distinct vision and seen directly.”
20. 20. 1 1 AB AB A B AB AB & AP D A P AP u Magnifying power of simple microscope is, AB / u MP AB / D D MP (11) u a = = b = = = b = = a = - - - - - -
21. 21. 1 1 1 But f v u Applying new Cartesian sign conventions 1 1 1 1 1 f ( v) ( u) v u 1 1 1 u f v Multiplying the above relation by D we can write D D D u f v D D MP f v = - = - = - + - - = + = + = +
22. 22. 1 1 MP D f v If the image is formed at distance of distinct vision i.e. V D then D D D MP 1 f : v f Wherepispowerof lens If the image is formed DP at infinity i.e. v then D D MP f v 1 : æ ö ÷ç= + ÷ç ÷çè ø = = + = + = = ¥ = + + = Case 1 Case 2 D D D f f MP DP + = ¥ =
23. 23.  “Magnifying power of compound microscope is defined as “ratio of angle subtended at the eye by final image (β) to the angle subtended at the eye by the object (α) when placed at DDV.”
24. 24. If object is at DDV from objective then μ0 = D. ( ) ( ) 1 1 e 0 1 1 e 1 1 e 01 1 0 e e e A B AB AB and u u D A B / u A B D MP AB / D ABu vA B But M AB u D & M u M.P. of compound microscope is, MP M x M b = a = = a = = = b = = = =
25. 25. 0 e 0 0 0 e 0 : If final image is formed at infinity then, : If the final image is formed MP M x M . 1 MP M x M 1 at DDV then, e e e e e D M f v D MP u f D M f v D MP u f Case 1 Case 2
26. 26. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 multiplying by u 1 1 . . if image is at infinity 0 0 . . 1 is image is formed at DDV. 0 0 e But v u f u u v f u u v f u u f v f v f u u f f D M P u f f f D M P u f fe
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