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Expansão marítima européia

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Expansão marítima européia

  1. 1. Século XV
  2. 2. Também chamada de GRANDES NAVEGAÇÕES , foi um movimento que ocorreu na Europa, a partir do séc. XV, quando países europeus – liderados por Portugal e Espanha – lançaram-se na conquista dos mares
  3. 3. Causas <ul><li>Catequese : a Igreja Católica desejava conquistar novos fieis para compensar as perdas na Europa. </li></ul><ul><li>Tecnologias: alguns inventos, como bússola , astrolábio e a caravela tornavam as viagens mais seguras. </li></ul><ul><li>Especiarias : temperos como canela, cravo e pimenta-do-reino custavam caro na Europa e foram uma das principais causas da expansão marítima. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivos que levaram às Grandes Navegações: <ul><li>Falta de alimento para abastecer as cidades. </li></ul><ul><li>A produção artesanal nas cidades era alta e não encontrava consumidores na zona rural. </li></ul><ul><li>Falta de moedas. </li></ul><ul><li>Encarecimento das especiarias. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversão ao cristianismo. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rotas das especiarias <ul><li>As rotas mais conhecidas para buscar especiarias eram a rota por terra ou via Mar Mediterrâneo . </li></ul><ul><li>A rota por terra era dominada, geralmente, pelos árabes. Além disso, o percurso era muito grande, o que desestimulava a burguesia. </li></ul><ul><li>A rota pelo Mar Mediterrâneo era dominada pelos italianos – especialmente de Gênova e Veneza. </li></ul><ul><li>Cabia aos portugueses buscar uma rota alternativa. A escolha foi o Oceano Atlântico . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Principais especiarias <ul><li>Cravo da Índia </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principais especiarias <ul><li>Pimenta do reino </li></ul>
  8. 8. Principais especiarias <ul><li>Noz Moscada </li></ul>
  9. 9. Principais especiarias <ul><li>Eram especiarias também o gengibre, a canela, o açúcar entre outras. </li></ul><ul><li>Os europeus compravam outros produtos do Oriente, como: tecidos finos,tapetes, cristal,perfumes,porcelana e seda. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Visões de Mundo
  11. 11. Visões de Mundo
  12. 12. O Mundo Hoje
  13. 13. Riscos (imaginários) de navegação <ul><li>Navegar no Oceano Atlântico não era tarefa fácil. </li></ul><ul><li>Este oceano era conhecido como Mar Tenebroso, pois havia a ideia de que era habitado por monstros marinhos . </li></ul><ul><li>Além disso, alguns acreditavam na ideia – propagada nas escrituras bíblicas – da Terra Plana . </li></ul><ul><li>Assim, em determinado ponto da viagem, as embarcações seriam atacadas por monstros ou cairiam em um abismo sem fim. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Visões dos mares
  15. 15. Riscos (reais) de navegação <ul><li>Além das crenças e superstições da época, os navegadores enfrentavam outras ameaças. </li></ul><ul><li>Problemas como fome, sede, doenças, tédio e tempestades ofereciam perigos reais. </li></ul><ul><li>Desta forma, das embarcações que partiam, poucas retornavam. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pioneirismo português <ul><li>Portugal já era uma nação unificada e independente no século XII. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolução de Avis (1385) - subiu ao trono D. João I que, apoiado pelos burgueses, tinha grande interesse na expansão marítima. </li></ul><ul><li>Boa parte da população portuguesa vivia da pesca. </li></ul><ul><li>Escola de Sagres – século XV. </li></ul><ul><li>Localização privilegiada . </li></ul>
  17. 17. (Alguns) navegadores portugueses <ul><li>Bartolomeu Dias : chegou ao sul da África em 1488, no local denominado Cabo das Tormentas. Este local foi, futuramente, denominado Cabo da Boa Esperança. </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama : primeiro navegador a atingir a Índia, em 1498. Trouxe um grande carregamento de especiarias. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro Álvares Cabral : veio ao Brasil, em 1500, antes de seguir até a Índia. A idéia predominante hoje é que esta vinda ao Brasil foi intencional. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Expansão marítima portuguesa <ul><li>Objetivo: alcançar o Oriente contornando o litoral sul africano. </li></ul><ul><li>Primeiras conquistas: Ceuta (1415), Ilha da Madeira (1418-1419), Açores (1427-1428). </li></ul><ul><li>1434 – o cabo do Bojador foi ultrapassado. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Expansão marítima portuguesa <ul><li>1487-1488 – Bartolomeu Dias atravessou o Cabo das Tormentas, chamado depois de Cabo da Boa Esperança. European Voyages of Exploration: Winds and Routes </li></ul><ul><li>1498 – Vasco da Gama chegou às Índias. </li></ul><ul><li>1500 – Pedro Álvares Cabral tomou posse das terras que, mais tarde, foram chamadas de Brasil. </li></ul><ul><li>Até 1530, Portugal esteve mais interessado em explorar as riquezas do Oriente. Apenas quando esse comércio parou de gerar tantos lucros e a posse das terras americanas estava ameaçada,Portugal iniciou a colonização na América. </li></ul>
  20. 21. (Alguns) navegadores espanhóis <ul><li>Cristóvão Colombo : era genôves, mas navegou em nome da coroa espanhola. Propôs a chegada na Índia navegando em sentido Oeste, mas acabou alcançando a América, em 1492. </li></ul><ul><li>Fernão de Magalhães : era português, mas navegou pela Espanha. Comandou a expedição que efetuou a primeira circunavegação do planeta, partindo em 1519. </li></ul><ul><li>Hernán Cortés : conquistou o Império Asteca, em 1519, no atual México. </li></ul><ul><li>A Espanha entrou atrasada em relação à Portugal na conquista dos mares, pois estava expulsando os mulçumanos de seu território, na chamada Reconquista . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Expansão Marítima Espanhola <ul><li>Enquanto Portugal se lançava ao mar, os reinos de Castela e Aragão ainda lutavam contra os mouros. </li></ul><ul><li>1492 – Colombo chegou a América. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/map.html </li></ul><ul><li>1519 – Fernão de Magalhães – primeira viagem em torno do mundo – circunavegação . </li></ul>
  22. 23. Portugal e Espanha - diferenças - <ul><li>Portugueses: fixavam-se no litoral das terras conquistadas. </li></ul><ul><li>Espanhóis: procuravam explorar o interior. Assim, com o trabalho forçado da população nativa conseguiram explorar minas de ouro e prata para enriquecer a metrópole. </li></ul><ul><li>A Espanha conquistou a supremacia européia. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Portugal e Espanha - conflitos- <ul><li>Problemas gerados pelos feitos de Colombo. </li></ul><ul><li>1479 – Tratado de Alcáçovas - que garantia a Portugal a posse de todas as ilhas do Oceano Atlântico. </li></ul><ul><li>1493 – bula Inter Coetera </li></ul><ul><li>1494 – Tratado de Tordesilhas. </li></ul>
  24. 25. A divisão do mundo... <ul><li>Para dividir as terras conquistadas (Novo Mundo) entre Portugal e Espanha, foram criados dois documentos: </li></ul><ul><li>Bula Intercoetera : foi assinada em 1493, pelo papa Alexandre VI, e dividia as novas terras através de um meridiano situado a 100 léguas da ilha de Cabo Verde. Portugal não se beneficiava com esta divisão, e exigiu um novo documento. </li></ul><ul><li>Tratado de Tordesilhas : foi assinado em 1494, por pressões de Portugal. Estabelecia um meridiano situado a 370 léguas a partir da ilha de Cabo Verde. </li></ul><ul><li>Estes documentos foram questionados por outros países europeus que não participaram desta divisão. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Ingleses e franceses <ul><li>Encorajados pelas conquistas dos portugueses e dos espanhóis, lançaram-se ao mar. </li></ul><ul><li>Muitas vezes, desrespeitaram o Tratado de Tordesilhas o que gerou muitos conflitos. </li></ul><ul><li>Chegaram em muitas terras da América do Norte, mas a importância da França e da Inglaterra no processo de colonização só cresceu no século XVII. </li></ul>

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