Inside this issue:
Skills, Systems & Nepal, like many of the Asia and Pacific developing countries is situated in the world’s
Institution through hazard belt and is subject to multiple hazards such as floods, earthquakes, land‐ slides,
Capacity Building and drought etc. The major natural disasters that occur periodically in this country are
largely due to climatic and seismic factors. The frequency of the onset of disasters is
CARE: increasing alarmingly. Since the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
began in 1990, the number of deaths and loss of properties has drastically increased
Capacity Building of
communities for Risk due to natural disasters. Vulnerability to disasters has further increased due to
Reduction inadequate capacities and resources as well as the increased aggregation of people in
urban center, environmental degradation, and a lack of planning and preparedness.
Floods are the most common disaster in the country and include seasonal floods as well
Danish Red Cross:
SAFE through Capacity
as flash floods. In addition to the influence of topography, landslides are aggravated by
Building human activities, such as deforestation, cultivation and construction, which destabilize
the already fragile slopes. As a result of the combined actions of natural (mostly heavy
rainfall) and human‐induced factors, as many as 12,000 landslides occur in Nepal each
year (ESCAP, 1995a). Additionally, Nepal is one of the countries vulnerable to seismic
International: activities of varying intensity (ESCAP, 1995a), particularly the areas in the Himalayan
Building Capacities of
DRR stakeholders for
increased inclusion of The humanitarian organizations are responding to the humanitarian crisis time and
people with disabilities again. Day by day the changing disaster scenario, the inflow and out flow of
international aids, the global standard, the humanitarian imperatives and felt needs of
Mercy Corps: the communities have started influencing the response pattern and the modalities.
Building Individual &
Institutional Capacity Given the cyclical nature of disasters, there is an evident need of Community Based
Disaster Preparedness and Risk Reduction approach and link our humanitarian
Mission East: responses to these disasters with a broader approach that addresses underlying causes
Capacity Building for and vulnerabilities. Generally speaking, the poor are most at risk from these hazards as
Isolated Communities they tend to be economically, socially and physically marginalized. They have fewer
resources to draw upon, have less influence over decisions affecting their lives, and may
be forced to live and make their living from areas that have a high degree of exposure
Oxfam: to multiple hazards.
Capacity Building in
DIPECHO DIPECHO under the fifth Action Plan for South Asia emphasizes on the community
based disaster preparedness and risk reduction through capacity development
Practical Action: initiatives. This fifth edition of the DIPECHO News Letter in Nepal abstracts how the
Communities building eight partners Action Aid, CARE, Danish Red Cross, Handicap International, Mercy
capacity through scaling Corps, Mission East, Oxfam and Practical Action contributing towards way to resiliency
up EWS in Nepal though Capacity Building of vulnerable Nepali populations………..
Action Aid: Enhancing Knowledge, Skills, Systems and Institutions through Capacity Building….
Surakshit Samudaya II is the DIPECHO V project implemented by Action Aid in
Nepal, aims to build resilient of communities to disasters. Capacity Building is
one of the key components of the project and is treated as the process of
combining all the strengths, attributes and resources available within the
community, and institutions that can be used to achieve project objectives and
goal. Under capacity building component, Action Aid Nepal has been
facilitating a range of trainings at different levels, developing and
strengthening system and institutions, creating resources and support in
creating an enabling policy environment for DRR in Nepal.
The process began with assessing communities’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on disaster preparedness and disaster
reduction through a baseline study. Hazard and vulnerability mapping and capacity assessment were done through
Participatory vulnerability analysis in 17 clusters/wards of the project area. 17 disaster management committees are being
supported to lead local DRR initiatives, ingrained with more than 50 task forces and 32 REFLECT Circles at the community level.
Up to now, all the 137 DMC members and volunteers have been provided with orientation in CBDRR through a rights‐based
approach. Informed community members are thus taking grassroots leadership on DRR to a higher level, working towards
sustaining local actions to cope with uncertainties of future.
"We have been facing inundation problems of Dondra River since a long. We were almost
uninformed about the rights of disaster affected people. Now we are informed, and
capacitated to know the rights of the disaster affected people through Surakshit Samudaya
II project. We are happy, excited and benefitted from the project. This time we demanded
money in VDC council for disaster management and they are positive in the regard”
‐Ms. Mayabati Morya, Gangapur, Banke
Forty‐eight young volunteers were trained on Basic First Aid and are equipped
with the first‐aid materials. They are available in the community to assist
distressed people. 171 district level government authorities including other
stakeholders, NGOs and political parties' representatives are oriented on the
DRR and HFA, thereby helping to realize national strategies and policies on
disaster risk management.
During the project, school students will be trained on DRR, volunteers will be trained on Light Search and Rescue and people at
large will be sensitized towards bringing about an attitudinal change towards risks. Action Aid DIPECHO project is also working
with the concerned ministers and constituent assembly members, advocating stronger DRR policy framework in the country. The
proposed DRR Tool Kit and sensitization workshop for CA members is our attempt to build capacity of policy makers to undertake
informed policy debates and decisions.
Strengthening community cohesion and social bondage, their increased capacity to make informed choices on their own well‐
being, their enhanced self‐confidence through involvement in decisions making processes and linkages with various stakeholders
are some of the attributes of the capacity building initiatives.
“Risk Reduction is not the responsibility of DDRC alone, but should be the business of all. I am sure this orientation program will help us to
integrate disaster management not only in theoretical aspects but in practicality. I request all of the participants to study HFA book provided; and
do accordingly in days to come” ‐Mr. Ram Prasad Thapaliya, Chief District Officer, Sunsari
CARE: Capacity Building of Communities for Risk Reduction…..
SAMADHAN, the disaster preparedness
programme of CARE Nepal has dual task on hand –
to equip vulnerable communities with requisite
knowledge and skills, and to design a system
whereby disaster response could be well managed
and effective. On this account, each community has
three task force groups comprising of 6 members
approximately. The groups are envisaged to help
anchor the responsibility for the following areas on
the event of disaster.
• Search and rescue
• Early warning and communication
• First aid
Task force group at First aid training
Membership in the task force group was based on willingness and ability to be in task force group, and attempted to link people
with existing skills like a health worker assigned to first aid task force and knowledge with swimming was added advantage to
be member of search and rescue task force. The task force members were taken through a process of knowledge training and
skill enhancement, depending on their area of focus knowledge based training was organized by CARE’s implementing partners
CSSD and EDC with the support from CARE‐Nepal and specialized resource person. It began with an orientation to disaster risk
reduction and response and then branches out into specific subject area.
Recently the first aid training for community task force member and NGO staff was organized in several locations of the project
districts. The training was built around the use of locally available resources and the material supplied by CARE. The primary
objective of the training was to prepare the trainees to be able to help the communities evacuate the site of disaster, rescue as
many people as possible and to provide first level medical help until professional support arrived.
Around 120 task force members are trained in 20 project communities in the two project districts Doti and Kailali.
Danish Red Cross: SAFE through Capacity Building ……
SAFE, the very word brings positive energy, tremendous will power and enormous mental strength to navigate though the
hazards of life…….
With the same perspective and to live a full life with limited risks and capacity to withstand disasters the SAFE ‐ Safer
Communities through Multi‐Hazard Risk Reduction programme is being implemented by Danish Red Cross and Nepal Red Cross
Society with support from the European Commission through its Humanitarian Aid Department.
SAFE focuses on the Capacity Building of communities extremely vulnerable to multiple natural hazards. While “Capacity
Building” covers a wide range of activities, SAFE dwells on the aspects of human resource and institutional development, the
process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables
them to perform effectively. Okhaldunga and Myagdi, two of the most hazard prone districts in Nepal are covered under SAFE
programme, where detail Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (VCA) were carried out using various participatory tools. The
findings and recommendations is the base of rest other risk reduction initiatives in the programme. Disaster Preparedness (DP)
units have been established in 12 targeted vulnerable communities sphere headed by the communities themselves. The
establishment process encouraged communities to incorporate representatives from all groups specifically minority and
vulnerable groups (religious, ethnic, socially disadvantaged and disabled), which has been very helpful in ensuring greater
involvement ownership. Each DP unit with 11 members are trained and oriented to function as the primary body for
implementing community level disaster management and risk reduction initiatives.
Trainings & Simulation Exercises on Light Search and
Rescue, Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction
(CBDRR), Basic First Aid, Basic Health & Hygiene
were conducted in order to develop human
resources to be armed with skills and knowledge on
their way to resiliency. So far, 234 male and 133
female volunteers, total 367 are trained with Light
Search and Rescue skill & techniques that will be
most useful for the search and rescue action on the
face of disaster. Similarly, 187 male and 206 female
volunteers are trained to provide First Aid service to
the needy during post disaster or normal situation as
and when required. Preparedness and Response
equipments are provided to the communities to
equip them to be better prepared for the events
hazards. CBDRR training has been imparted to 226
male and 143 female volunteers from the project
communities who are playing pragmatic role in the
risk reduction initiative with ensured community
involvement at the ground.
Light Search and Rescue Training and Simulation in
Okhaldunga district, Nepal
First Aid training & simulation in Myagdi district
Health and Hygiene remains the basic need of
any population in normal as well as post disaster
situation, hence team of volunteers are trained
on the same. Till date a total of 89 male and 82
female volunteers are provided with the Health
and Hygiene training to provide service to their
respective communities so that the vulnerable
populations are not at the pray of external
support time and again.
SAFE has motivated and in fact facilitated
pragmatically in establishing community level
revolving fund for emergencies. In all the 12
communities now there is a revolving fund
contributing 10 to 20 rupees (i.e. € 0.10 to €
0.20) a month from each household. This has
laid a foundation to the process of community
savings to address the unmet needs at the onset
of any disaster.
District Disaster Response Team (DDRT) is established in each district where the key local government agencies such as Police,
Army, District Administration and Heath Department including Red Cross District Chapter are members. The DDRT connects to
the global response tools of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and functions as the first line of response in Red Cross
and Red Crescent system as this is based at District Chapter level. This was envisaged as both the districts are isolated and
difficult to access on the face of disasters.
Danish Red Cross and Nepal Red Cross Society together through the SAFE venture effort to bring positive change in community
perspective, ensuring poorest, most vulnerable and marginalized understand the simple and practical actions to protect lives
and assets making their communities SAFER………
Handicap International: Building Capacities of DRR stakeholders for increased inclusion of
people with disabilities & the most vulnerable groups into DRR activities…..
How we build capacity by training
The Fifth DIPECHO Action Plan promotes the specific targeting of potential groups having a multiplier effect such as trainers
(i), teachers, and representatives of media and institutional members of the society such as the (ii) local disaster management
committees, (iii) volunteers, (iv) local NGOs, private sector and (v) officials.
In this line, HI has developed a (i) Training of Trainers where 6 DIPECHO partners, 9 partners working in disability and 2 Nepali
DRR partners were trained as trainers on mainstreaming disability into disaster risk reduction.
A Refresher ToT was also organized for the 11 disability‐oriented
organizations trained during DIPECHO IV on inclusive DRR, to update
on recent innovations in DRR, disability legislative framework in
Nepal and facilitation techniques. A total of 60 Nepali trainers are
now available on disability‐inclusive DRR and will be part of a
Trainers’ Pool, available at the National and District level Resource
Centers on Disability and DRR.
Other targets have been (ii) the local DMCs and (iii) community
mobilizers and volunteers on disaster preparedness. More than 250
members of DMCs and Disaster Relief Committees and 250
community workers and volunteers have acquired basic tips and
tools to address disability issues and to promote the participation of
persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups in DRR
(iv) Upon an invitation by Action Aid of joining their orientation sessions on the Hyogo Framework for Action with more than
70 government officials, HI facilitated a session on inclusive DRR and HFA related provisions.
2 examples of building capacity working jointly: Together with Danish Red Cross and on request of the Nepal Red Cross
Society, a workshop took place to identify how to reach more inclusiveness in one of the Red Cross areas of expertise: First Aid
and Light Search & Rescue. A working group will follow and will include field‐based joint activities to identify together more
entry points for disability‐ inclusiveness.
On initiative of Mercy Corps, a screening camp of people with
disability took place in Kailali in January 2010.The screening camp
was organized for assessment of people with disability in the
project area to identify their needs for assistive devices and also
to record their wishes on participation in DRR activities.
Methodology of work aimed at ensuring mutual capacity building
and to ensure future and sustainable networking between Mercy
Corps staff, their local partner the Nepal Red Cross Society and
HI’s partner NNSWA (Nepal National Social Welfare Association).
The objective was to ensure sustainability of a disability‐inclusive
capacity building. As a result of the camp, all staff involved
understands and can autonomously use the screening form for
persons with disabilities; a local link between the disability partner
and the DIPECHO partner has been established and the
communities are sensitized on issues related to disability and
Team work with partners on a screening camp, Kailali, inclusive DRR activities.
Mercy Corps: Building Individual and Institutional Capacity…….
The population in the areas supported under the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives II (KDRRI) implemented jointly by
Mercy Corps and the Nepal Red Cross Kailali is almost entirely immigrants. Because its residents are relative newcomers,
there is little indigenous knowledge or community memory of flooding and no repertoire of traditional coping mechanisms or
history of adaption to fall back upon. Mercy Corps acknowledge that building their capacities and understanding of underlying
factors are crucial in reducing vulnerabilities.
These analyses allow communities and schools to identify
risks, root causes, capacity and short‐, medium‐, and long‐
CBDRR Training in Ambari, Kailali
term interventions. Needs for capacity building initiatives in
first aid, search and rescue, disaster risk reduction,
leadership and community mobilization were identified
along with more technical trainings as nursery management,
bio‐engineering, early warning systems and financial
management all with a view of improving ability to launch
DRR initiatives. Most trainings are organized using a cascade
model where master trainers train DPC members, teachers
and students who eventually will share their knowledge with
peers. Recognizing that schools are an accepted platform for
development and reform initiatives and that children have
the future shape of society in their hands, Mercy Corps have
incorporate disaster risk resilient features in schools.
The school interventions aim at making students and teachers aware of the causes and effects of disasters on lives and
property in general and helping them understand measures and methods to prevent and mitigate the impacts of disasters. By
imparting such knowledge and skills, schools prepare children to cope with future disasters and to help the community plan
and implement DRR activities. Schools also play a very important role in the dissemination of information in particular;
children and youth lead awareness campaigns and perform street drama.
The institutional capacity building initiatives have so far
resulted in establishment of links with local government and
non‐governmental organizations. Through various cross visits
and exposure visits the project facilitates interactions between
communities and stakeholders. To date 1,000 DPC members,
VDC stakeholders, students and teachers have participated in
The capacity building initiatives are instrumental in preparing
communities and schools for DRR and in increasing their ability
to understand the problems they face and to recommend
suitable actions as a step forwards in a continual empowerment
DP Planning in Kailad Gaon, Kailali 7
Mission East: Capacity building for isolated communities……..
Simikot, Humla District, only accessible by air In mountainous area, enhancing capacities of
the population to be more resilient to disasters
starts within the households and the village. In
remote area such as Humla, population will
have to manage disasters usually with their
own resources. Small scale but numerous
disasters such as landslides and mudflow
cannot be addressed even by district level.
Epidemic diseases (one of the most common
disaster together with landslide) take roots in
extreme individual poverty and lack of hygiene
Surveyed realized by Mission East showed that
the population is well aware of surrounding
hazards but have very little knowledge on how
to address it. Their coping attitudes are
embedded in ancient traditional believes; if not
simply rely on “God’s fate”.
Well aware that population of Humla will have to rely on their own resources, Mission East engaged in a very cautious capacity
building approach to avoid creating unsustainable mechanisms. Our approach is to engage dialogue with local communities, and
involve them in every step of our CBDRM deployment. Thanks to their participation in our in‐depth risk assessment and KAP
survey, discussion has been engaged on its findings using the structured frame of Village Disaster Preparedness and Response
Planning. Behind the production of a plan of action, our aim is to change people’s passive and fatalistic attitude and show them
that even with little resources, they are able to mitigate adverse impact of a disaster. Nevertheless, more dramatic scenario such
as earthquake or GLOF cannot be addressed by the sole threatened communities and ME has established a Task Force at District
Level to reactivate the District Natural Disaster Relief Committee. A series of workshops and discussion, in the frame of the
guideline produced by MoHA, will be conducted to debate preparedness planning. But what can be the role of the district in a
place where you need days of walk to reach the nearest communities, unless you have a fleet of helicopters at your disposal! And
how to address needs of hundred of isolated villages facing more or less similar risks, with the little resources they possess in one
of the poorest district of Nepal, even with donor support such as ECHO? By initiating the dialogue at village level on one side, and
district level on the other side, people spontaneously realized the missing link: the VDC level.
The next step for our project, based on newly acquired DRR knowledge at community level and based on a mechanism discussed
at District level, VDC groups will be empowered to consolidate human and material resources that can be mobilized for any
communities within the concerned VDCs. Fully in line with the HFA and National Strategy on Disaster Management, based on
dialogue and field‐based survey, ME aims, at the end of the 15 months DIPECHO project, to establish a network of DRR‐skilled
stakeholders from villages to district level, from individual to local NGO and district government.
Oxfam: Capacity Building in DIPECHO…..
To build the capacities of the communities that Oxfam is working with under the 5th DIPECHO round, the programme engages
the communities in a process starting with a participatory risk, vulnerability and capacity assessment of the community.
Community volunteers from the Disaster Management Committees (CDMCs), supported by Oxfam and its local partners, use
the findings of this assessment to elaborate a Community Disaster Preparedness and Response Plan (CDPRP), outlining Risk
Reducing and Preparedness activities that will strengthen the communities’ resilience. Consequently these activities are
disseminated, elaborated and supported through the programme.
Although this approach commonly referred to as
A district level contingency plan – Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) has
prepared in local language proven its life saving relevance, community resilience has
its limits, depending on the intensity, duration, scope and
area of the flood. The 2008 Koshi flood, clearly
demonstrated these limits by affecting communities that
hadn’t been flooded in 40 years and weren’t targeted by
CBDRR. Furthermore the scale of the disaster superseded
any CBDRR initiatives, underlining the importance of
planning and coordination at the District level. For
example, the contingency plan of the Koshi Victim’s
Society, Oxfam’s local partner in Saptari district, proved
invaluable immediately after the Koshi River breached its
embankment, when trained volunteers equipped with life
jackets and a rescue boat were able to rescue about 1,800
people. This district level preparedness allowed for a
quick mobilization of resources which proved essential
during the relief operation. The DIPECHO V project of
Oxfam took this learning on board and has a strong focus
of linking the community level preparedness, through the
VDC with the district level.
In order to ensure this district level coordination and
preparedness, Oxfam is supporting pre monsoon planning
workshops both at national level and district level
(Nawalparasi, Sarlahi and Saptari). All districts will
develop a District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP),
including implementation mechanism in Nawalparasi
where such a DDMP was previously developed for under
the DIPECHO III project.
Chief District Officer addressing at the district level contingency
planning workshop, Saptari, Nepal
Practical Action: Communities building capacity through scaling up EWS……
Acknowledging the importance of Early Warning System (EWS) as a
major component of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Practical Action
through Scaling up of Early Warning System in Nepal (SEWIN) project
has actively motivated the communities at risk to respond to and
prepare for the up‐coming flood in Banke, Bardia, Chitwan and
Nawalparasi Districts of Nepal. Capacity building is vital for sustainable
development and is the focal point of the project. To achieve this
objective, SEWIN identified risks perceived by the community through
'risk mapping', 'hazard mapping', 'social mapping', 'problem tree
analysis', and 'vulnerability mapping'. This process helped individuals,
household and communities at large to recognize their weaknesses and
capacities by understanding the impact of such hazards and preparing
to reduce their vulnerabilities. Over all, it has helped strengthen Communities and district stakeholders
visiting upstream in Bardiya district
people's existing capacities and their position in decision‐making.
Several awareness raising activities such as door‐to‐door campaign, local song competition, street drama, school level
competition on EWS, FM broadcasts in local language, jingles and distribution of IEC materials relating to early warning were
conducted by the communities through the project. The communities as well as other stakeholders ‐ police, army, Red Cross
personnel and district authorities visited the upstream river gauging and rainfall stations of the Department of Hydrology and
Meteorology (DH&M). The DH&M’s gauging stations helped all the stakeholders understand how warning and danger levels are
measured, along with the importance of upstream linkage with the downstream for flood early warning. The communities held a
meeting to determine their own priorities and sites for the construction of infrastructure for small scale‐mitigation such as
culverts, dykes with bio‐engineering technology, machan, small culvert, and retro‐fitting of buildings and shelters. Moreover, to
enhance the communities ability to gain ownership over the resources and institution, the project is focusing on institutional
building by assisting the local District Management Committees (DMC) to legally institutionalize through registration of DMCs.
Keeping in mind that capacity building should not create dependency, nor should it be a means of weakening the state or already
existing institutions, Practical Action is trying to make the DMCs accountable to the government. Such DMCs will help the local
people to become independent in the long run as it will be transparent and accountable to the local community.
“We had negotiated with Village Development Committee (VDC) of
Kamdi to contribute NRs.350, 000.00 as emergency fund for the
community from this year. Earlier there was no such provision in
VDC budget but we realized this is very important for preparedness
and mitigation for our communities “– Sakil Ahmad Khan, member
of Local DMC in Kamdi VDC,
For Practical Action, the concept of capacity building is to increase
voluntary participation, empowerment and institutional building
through linkages between different stakeholders. Emphasizing on
what the communities can do rather than on what they would like
others to do for them is the core of capacity building and sustainable
Communities and district stakeholders visiting
upstream in Bardiya district
hematic news letter has been produce by DIPECH projects in Nepal with support fro the Europ
s b ed HO h om pean Commis
through its Humanita
arian Aid Dep partment. Wh hile the work of the projec
cts is supporte
ed by the Eur mission, the views
ed in the new
expresse ws letter are those of the p
partner organizations alonee.
ntents and in
nformation ha been prov
as artners Action Aid, CARE, Danish Red Cross, Hand
vided by the DIPECHO pa dicap
tional, Mercy Corps, Mission East Nepaal, Oxfam GB, and Practicaal Action. Th
his issue is ed
dited and circ
culated by Da anish
Red Crosss on behalf o
of DIPECHO ppartners in Ne
To knoww more about t DIPECHO pr rojects, please contact Luc
c Verna for D
DG ECHO / DIPECHO at ho
respective Project M
Managers at Krishnan.pv firstname.lastname@example.org (Action Aid), rajesh@
org @carenepal.o (CARE), drcdp@mos.
(Danish Red Cross), dppm@ @hi‐nepal.org (Handicap Internatio
g p onal), udon
email@example.com ycorps.org (Mercy Corps),
Christop firstname.lastname@example.org rg (Mission East‐N
s oxfam.org.uk (Oxfam GB) and
@practicalact tion.org (Prac