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Dipecho v aan reflect tot report_detail_sept_arp

  1. 1. "SURAKSHIT SAMUDAYA II: Building Disaster-Resilient Communities, Nepal" TRAINING REPORT REFLECT TRAINING OF TRAINERS (TOT) 8-15 August, 2009 VDRC Training Hall, Nawalparasi Funded by: ECHO Training organized by Co-financed by: AusAID ACTIONAID NEPAL
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I: SUMMARY REPORT Background Training Objectives Training Methodology Training Evaluation Conclusion & Recommendation Part II: PROCEDURAL REPORT Day 1: Introduction, Objectives, Development and DRR Day 2: Review, Education, REFLECT, and Participatory Methods Day 3: Power Relation, Power Mapping and RBA Day 4: Social Justice, Context Mapping, and Disaster Ranking Day 5: Problem & Issues, PRA tools, PWD Mainstreaming and AAN/ DIPECHO Project Overview Day 6: Gender and Women's Right, Advocacy & Campaign, DM Cycle and DMC Day 7: Education right, Communication and Micro-teaching Day 8: REFLECT Management Committee, Role of DMC and RF, Training Evaluation and Work plan Part III: ANNEXURE Annex 1: Training final evaluation compiled Annex 2: Participants list Annex 3: Training schedule and contents Annex 4: Training Handouts 2
  3. 3. Part I: SUMMARY REPORT BACKGROUND ActionAid Nepal is implementing a project titled Surakshit Samudaya II, a DIPECHO project in three disaster prone districts of Nepal, towards building safer communities through disaster management. The objective of the project is to strengthen capacities of community and local institutions for reducing impact of disasters and ensuring rights of disaster vulnerable people. In the project, REFLECT is being applied as the community mobilization and empowerment tool to generate participation and grassroots ownership. AAN has started applying REFLECT in disaster related issues, utilizing its inherent strength to mobilize and empower and empower the vulnerable groups, linking their struggle to cope with disasters to their ability to access and exercise their human rights. In order to initiate REFLECT in the field level, a training of trainers on REFLECT was organized during 8-15 August, 2009 in VDRC Gaidakot, Nawalparasi to 22 participants, the REFLECT facilitators and other staffs of DIPECHO partner NGOs and DIs. The number of female participants is 13. Dhruba Thapaliya was the lead facilitator in the training. The inputs and support in the training on Disaster Risk Reduction were provided by Shyam Sundar Jnavaly and Ashok Raj Pokharel. Likewise sessions in Education rights and issues were taken by Ram Sharan Sedhai ; campaign by Sona Lal Chaudhary, Women’ s rights by Mona Sherpa and Mainstreaming PWD in DRR by representatives of Handicap International. P.V. Krishnan introduced about overall project objectives, results and strategies. TRAINING OBJECTIVES The objectives of the training were; • Orient the participants on the Rights Based Approach to DRR/CBDP; enabling and empowering the community to take action for the protection and security needs of the vulnerable groups in the society • Develop capable facilitators/activist by imparting the knowledge and understanding on REFLECT: the concept, importance, learning process to take catalysts role for the Surakshit Samudaya II in the area. • Enable the participants to facilitate DRR focused REFLECT Circle and mobilize community to lead the DRR led REFLECT and PVA process 3
  4. 4. TRAINING METHODOLOGY The training was organized in highly participatory method, encouraging each and every participant in discussion, self-analysis, presentation and different roles & responsibilities. The methodologies used were presentation, brain storming, pair wise discussion, group discussion, role plays, debate, micro-teaching, songs, and games. The documentaries regarding Disaster awareness, PVA methods, Climate change, and Reflect process were shown and discussed in the evening and during the session. The materials used during the training were Meta card, newsprint, brown paper, LCD, Laptop, and documentary films. The handouts of the each session were also provided to the participants. Some reference books like Prakop Mala Series and Education Act were also distributed to the Reflect Facilitators. Methods Used in Trainings Self Analysis Pain and Pleasure in individual Life, Three self-characterstics (Merit and Demerit) Name of the Documentary shown Prakopko Pida, AAN-30 mins, Disaster Management in nepal /AAN-30 mins, Emergency Response to Nepal Flood/ AustCare-15 mins, PVA Process in DRR/AAN-20 mins, Asahaj Kampan/Kantipur-15 mins, Chetana/ECO Nepal- 15 mins, Climate Change/REUKYI-15 mins and Paribartan Ka Pailaharu-30 mins Games Disaster & DRR Game, Name Game, DM Management Cycle, and Group Division Game Role Play Practise of conducting REFLECT center, Demanding relief with CDO, Unsuccessful attempt to gain political interest in relief distribution Song Gaun Gaun Bata Utha, Reflect Ka Dip Jalana Hey, Hami pugne thaun Debate Disaster and Development, Educated and Literate person Micro-teaching REFLECT Tools introduced Social Map, Resource Map, Vulnerability Map, Role Play, Discussion, Problem Tree, Game, Self analysis, Documentary, Posters, Flip Chart, Problem Ranking, Seasonal Calender, Venn Diagram, Context Analysis, Power Analysis, Self-study (Related Laws, Policies) 4
  5. 5. TRAINING EVALUATION The training was evaluated in two ways-group presentation and individual evalutaion format. At the last day, last session, the participants were divided in two group and evaluated the strength and area of improvement of the 8 days long training and enlisted below. Strength of training Area of improvement • Training methods were clear and well managed • Time was Insufficient to cover the proposed topics in detail • Simple and precise facilitation • Training manual should be • Topics were relevant provided to the participants • Discussion method, practical exercise, role play • Would be effective if bags, caps, and documentary display method were good t-shirt was provided with introduction of DIPECHO V • Good arrangement of food and accommodation • Would be good if provided • Clear vision about related topics with support opportunity of visiting places in of trainer /DIPECHO team one/half day during training period • Sharing and participatory learning • Simple language used in training • The concept on PWDs and handicapped was cleared • Participants had good participation • Closeness between participants and facilitators • Well informed about DIPECHO V project • Effective training for personal development • Opportunity to sight-seeing CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION Training is said to be successful and effective when its learning are practised in ground realities. Training helps to reveal bitter realities and sufferings of community, helps to achieve specific goals and reach to set destination. As participants are representing right holders, issues raised by them will contribute greatly for achieving desired goals. The change in attitude and behaviour of participants was also remarkable. According to reflect and popular education concept for gearing up people's standard of living and livelihood and to carry out the campaign on disaster affected community, strong determination of partner organization is a must. Likewise, continual co-working and regular monitoring is also required. Participatory vulnerability Analysis training will more focus on 5
  6. 6. participatory tools and procedure and its practical exercise. It is believed that the practice of participatory tools and procedure help to raise reality based issues. It is expected that partner organizations will help to make available resource materials like books, audio-visuals, posters, pamphlets, international treaties, declarations, constitution, rules and regulations in regards to disaster management to use as reference materials while facilitating reflect centres. Similarly, environment will be created to make aware about citizens' rights. It is also believed all partner organizations will pay special attention on regular monitoring, disseminating information which help to make the reflect effective and solving problems tactful. For operating campaign only training is not effective but the continual comments and complements on the issues raised to boost self confidence and spirit of disaster affected and suffered people. Therefore, monthly interaction between support organization and facilitator is to be managed for better activation. It will be more effective and helpful to raise issues by organizing regular meeting and interactions with facilitators, reflect circle support committees. After the interval of 4-6months, refresher training if organized will be fruitful. Finally, training was able to incorporate disaster issues along with conceptual framework of REFLECT. Expectations and curiosities of participants were given priorities. All facilitators had played vital role in order to make the training effective and successful. In totality, training was found to be effective and fruitful. Understanding of participants on the contents of discussion was changed throughout the training period. Their confidence in later presentations was encouraging. 6
  7. 7. Part II: PROCEDURAL REPORT DAY 1 OPENING AND OBJECTIVES The training program started by Ashok R. Pokharel, Project Officer, DIPECHO welcoming the participants, giving details of participants, knowhow about funding agency and implementing agencies, and finally wishing everyone a great learning event. Then Shyam Sundar Jnavaly, Assistant Project Manager shared the objective of the training and its linkage with DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction). He stressed that REFLECT is being applied as the community mobilization and empowerment tool to generate participation and grassroots ownership. The objectives of the training were presented and discussed. They were: • Orient the participants on the Rights Based Approach to DRR/CBDP; enabling and empowering the community to take action for the protection and security needs of the vulnerable groups in the society • Develop capable facilitators/activist by imparting the knowledge and understanding on REFLECT: the concept, importance, learning process to take catalysts role for the Surakshit Samudaya II in the area • Enable the participants to facilitate DRR focused REFLECT Circle and mobilize community to lead the DRR led REFLECT and PVA process PARTICIPANTS' INTRODUCTION The training started with the introduction between the participants and facilitators. The participants were requested to give short information on the following aspects: Name and role of participants with their area of work Name of their organization Define poor and excluded (oppressed) people based on their understanding TIME AND MANAGEMENT TEAM For the smooth operation of training some rules and regulations were set Lunch up in a participatory way. At the same time the day leader, reporter, Tea / evaluator and entertaining team for break the day were agreed to select in a participatory way before the session Tea / starts. The participants also agreed to break start the session at 8 AM and end at 6 PM. Start Snacks / End break 7
  8. 8. EXPECTATION COLLECTION Expectations were collected from individual basis using meta-cards and presented in a plenary. The expectation was basically on getting skill to conduct Reflect center, knowing about disaster preparedness, concept of poverty and development, Right based approach, child labor and so on. The facilitators clearly mentioned about contents of the training, and expressing inability to discuss on child labor issue separately. SELF ANALYSIS Individual self-analysis was done focusing on the happiness and sorrowful events/moments of the participant's life. The analysis was done using the tool 'Jeevan Ganga' (life-river). 11 participants shared their experience on joy and pain. The facilitator described that this is very useful tool in the REFLECT to open up the participants and finding the issues. BRAIN STORMING A silhouette of two human head was shown and the participants were asked to give their views on it – what they had seen – 11 types of objectives were identified by the participants – it was symbolized how things can be analyzed and interpreted. UNDERSTANDING DEVELOPMENT Participants were asked to give their opinion or ideas on improving the lives development of the poor and excluded (oppressed) people. They were divided into 5 groups and work on the topic then they presented their views. Interaction was held among them on the issues raised by the participants. After the group presentation a concept of development and development approaches; Relief-; reform- and rights-oriented was presented (by the facilitator) and discussed. DRR AND DEVELOPMENT • Interaction on Disaster, Hazard, Risk, and Vulnerability was done. An example of old bus and passengers sitting in the roof was taken as illustration for the disaster, hazard, risk and vulnerability. Disaster- The serious disruption of functioning of society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected communities to cope using their own resources. Disaster occurs when the negative effects of hazards are not well managed. Hazard- An event or occurrence that has the potential for causing injuries to life and damaging property and the environment Risk-The probability that negative consequences may arise when hazards interact with the vulnerable areas, people, property and environment 8
  9. 9. Vulnerability- A concept which describes factors or constraints of an economic, social, physical or geographic nature, which reduce the ability of a community to prepare for and cope with the impact of hazards • A game was exercised on how disaster affects development • The realm of Development and disaster – if not planned properly, development can invite disaster or increases vulnerability and disaster also results in development in its aftermath • Stop, stem, resist and flee – preventive measures and minimization DAY REVIEW The whole day was Participants' Reflection (Day 1) reviewed focusing on the contents, Realized suffering and experiences are key to success tools/methods used, The detail study of subject matter is far more better than participation and surface study as it leads towards the reality areas for Information on development and its concept were given improvement for the Development and disasters are found to be interrelated. following day. The Development decreases the vulnerability and its effect only session was ended when it is properly carried out and if proper care is not given while the implementation of development it can even with the remarks of increase the potential of disaster the day leader. The reflection was collected in Meta cards. The participants reflected on most striking portion of the day or learning. Participants were impressed on the Life River and Development and DRR nexus. DAY 2 REVIEW OF PREVIOUS DAY The second day started at 8 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. The report contained key learnings. EDUCATION AND LITERACY An understanding on the education and literacy was developed from the discussion with the participants based on the Paulo Frere's definition of literacy and education. The difference between education and literacy was largely discussed. A debate between two groups about literate and educated person made clarity on literacy and education. TYPES OF EDUCATION A discussion was held to aware the participants on formal, informal and non-formal education. The group expressed their views that learning is the lifelong process and gained from formal, informal and non-formal education. The formal education is more structured and valuable whereas the informal is based on the nevents/experiences. The third one is gained through the non-formal setting where 9
  10. 10. people are free to set time, subject for discussion, facilitator and place according to their circumstances. POPULAR EDUCATION CONCEPT AND PRACTICES An understanding on the popular education; concept and practice was developed from the presentation and discussion with the participants. Jaya prithvi bahadur Singh, Yogmaya, Gautam Budda, Paulo Freire and Mahatma Gandhi are encouraging personality of popular education. In Nepal Popular education was initiated by Actionaid Nepal in 2006. REFLECT INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY REFLECT is a method to community empowerment, issues movements and literacy where: RE = Regenerated F = Frerian L = Literacy E = Empowering C = Community T = Techniques REFLECT = Regenerated Frerian Literacy through Empowering Community Techniques' Late Paulo Frery in Brazil first used the method in 1950s. In Nepal Reflect was initiated by Actionaid Nepal in 1994. Since Reflect approach focuses on the empowerment of the community this approach has been adopted by many I/NGOs in the country. PARTICIPATORY METHODS AND TECHNIQUES An understanding on the participatory method and techniques and its importance, use of social map, resource map and vulnerability map were discussed. Then the discussion lead to issues identifying, rise and action process through mapping in REFLECT centre. DAY REVIEW The whole day was reviewed Participants' Reflection (Day 2) focusing on the contents, tools/methods used, PRA was introduced which helped in making the participation and area for use of maps in the reflect procedure. improvement for the Documentary based on vulnerability mapping following day. helped to explain mapping in community. Concept of education and literacy and Frerian thoughts are even useful Concept on popular education was made clear 10
  11. 11. The session was ended with the remarks of the day leader. The participants' reflection contained impression made by tools on Participatory Vulnerability Analysis and the documentary shown about the process. Participants were able to distinguish about literacy and education with the help of debate game. DAY 3 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The third day started at 8 AM as usual with report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. POWER, POWER RELATION AND POWER MAPPING An understanding on the power, power relation, types of power and empowerment from the presentation and discussion with the participants. Use of Venn diagram (chapati/roti chitra) for analyzing the power relation of a person in a village was discussed, demonstrated and practiced. Participants are made aware on the importance of power analysis before starting rights based campaigning. The demonstration exercise was done. RIGHT BASED APPROACH An understanding on the rights based approach was formed through presentation and discussion with the participants. The presentation included poverty, causes of poverty, rights, access, and control and use of public resources. The five causes of poverty-patriarchy, globalization/privatization, neo-liberalism, conflict and disaster, and ineffective governance, were discussed in detail to make understanding about citizen rights. RIGHTS AND DRR • Human Rights, Disaster Victims Right, and Government’s Relief Provision were presented • In DRR, government works through legal provision and as a duty; UN organizations/ICRC work as their mandate, whereas the NGOs work through their code of conduct. It is right of citizen to exercise their human rights in any situation. • Three groups were given three different themes basically on demanding compensation from the government to disaster victims. Very good role plays were done, and feedbacks provided. 11
  12. 12. DAY REVIEW The day ended as Participants' reflection Day 3 usual giving remarks Change is not possible without social movement by day leader. Known about state provision for disaster victims Clear about empowerment and rights; added energy to empowerment; strong organization of right holders is essential to lead right campaign. It was relevant how to analyze power relation Role play for disaster victims claiming rights was effective DAY 4 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The fourth day started at 8 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE Participants divided in 5 groups, discussion in social justice, injustice and presentation. Presentation and interaction with participants on social justice, injustice DOCUMENTARY SHOW Documentry shown on Prakopko Pida and Disaster Management in Nepal. Interaction on documentry CONTEXT MAPPING Participants work on groups to map context relating to disaster – divided into three groups. Participants presented more on the information of the community. The facilitators tried to push participants further to think and analyze in depth with causes and consequences. Discussion on Identifying Problems was followed DISASTER AND PROBLEM RANKING A PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) tool – 'Pair wise ranking' for analysing and ranking the problem was discussed. The facilitator demonstrated one example of disaster ranking to make clear on the process. Discussed on Importance and use of DRR ranking in the REFLECT centre. 12
  13. 13. DAY REVIEW The whole day was reviewed Participants' Reflection (Day 4) and ended with the remarks Understing about social justice and injustice of the day leader. Context mapping exercise increased our confidence to analyze our context. We have to focus marginalized community i.e. poor, dalits, janajatis, women and children in our program. DAY 5 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The fifth day started at 9 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Understanding developed about problem and issues and their between difference. An example was presented to distinguish problem and issues. It was understood that the REFLECT facilitator should focus their work on identifying issues that has influence in the larger mass rather than individual problems. TIME LINE Discussed on importance and use of time line in the REFLECT centre. Time line in disaster management is basically used in understanding the history of disaster, types of disaster, and frequency of disaster. It helps in planning, and prioritizing the interventions. SEASONAL CALENDER Discussed on Importance and use of seasonal calendar in the REFLECT centre. It was discussed that there are number of uses of seasonal calendar. In disaster management, it could be used in tabulating seasonal disasters, and preparedness measures taken prior to the particular season. PROBLEM TREE Discussed on Importance and use of problem tree in the REFLECT centre. It was discussed that problem tree always gives the causes and effects of any problem, which is helpful in devising solution. An example of problem tree was shown to make clarity on making problem tree and use of it. PWD MAINSTREAMING IN DEVELOPMENT Brief introduction of Handicap International and its works Introduce of DRR project objectives and working modalities of HI A discussion was held to aware the participants on disability Orientation to use of IEC materials and fill in the forms for collecting data on disabled people in the project implemented areas disability is a state but not 13
  14. 14. the condition of a person i.e. missing of some limbs or dysfunction of some organs BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF DIPECHO V Project Manager PV Krishnan introduced DIPECHO project objectives and working modalities. The desired project achievement as he explained were, forming strong DMC networking with government, trained volunteers in all areas, changed mindset of people, aware people on their rights, and small scale model mitigation works with maximum local resource mobilization. He stressed that REFLECT facilitators should have combined characterstics of motivator, teacher, enabler and activist. DAY REVIEW The whole day was Participants Learning (Day 5) reviewed-making head, hand, heart and leg We have to give more priority on issue based feeling of the day. It was discussions while facilitating reflects circles. ended with the remarks Problem ranking exercise helped to know the steps of the day leader. of discussion on problems. Subject matter on disability helped to be sensitized From participants on people with disability. reflections, they were More clarity about DIPECHO and its program more concerned about It was interesting the use of IEC. raising issues that captures problems of many rather than individual problems. They were clearer about DIPECHO project strategies and working modalities. The use of IEC was clearly practiced. DAY 6 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The sixth day started at 8 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. GENDER AND WOMEN'S RIGHTS Mona Sherpa took session on Gender, Women's Rights and DRR Discussed about women's rights Linkage between disaster and women violence Case study interaction within group and presentation. Presentation on legal provision against women violence 14
  15. 15. ADVOCACY Plenary discussed about advocacy Presentation on advocacy and discussion on it Discussed of area of advocacy and issues analysis process DISASTER MAANGEMENT CYCLE, DMC FORMATION AND ROLES Presentation on disaster management cycle and DMC formation process Role play of DMC members by participants and discussed CAMPAIGN AND ACTIVISM Presentation on Campaign and activism Understanding developed about campaign and activism by group exercise and plenary discussion. DAY REVIEW The whole day was Participants' reflection (Day 6) reviewed and ended with the remarks of the day Clarity on advocacy and its procedures leader. Discussion on role of DMC and its formation process raised our confidence level so that we can facilitate According to participants this process in our community. reflection written in Meta Prevailing laws against women and women rights card; they were confident were discussed. in procedures of DMC Clarity on role of reflect facilitators in community formation. Prevailing laws Community lead campaign for ensuring human rights of all is a most. on women and women rights were touchy to the participants. The role of Reflect Facilitators was made clear through presentation and discussion. DAY 7 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The seventh day started at 8 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. EDUCATION RIGHT Sharing on education strategy of Actionaid, Nepal was carried out by Ram Sharan Sedhai. Focused in quality, universal, basic rights in education. Discussed on Education Policies and Act Distributed education policy and Act and discussion with group. The major articles and clause of the Act were made clear to the participants 15
  16. 16. COMMUNICATION AND PRESS RELEASE Discussed on objective of communication advocacy Understanding developed on mass communication Group exercise on Press Release - four groups made presentation on the press release mainly related to the disasters happening in the community. Tips on Press Release • Press should be written in the letter head for eligibility • Date, Press Release Title • Date line (Place and Date) • Objectives of the event, contents, conclusion • For contact: Name, Phone, Email • Sentence should be short, and precise METHODS OF PARTICIPATORY DISCUSSION Techniques of questioning was discussed focusing on 'What', 'Why' and "How'. Practice on open ended and closed questions was done. The practice was done focusing on 'Five Finger Principal' – What (Subject), Why (Reason/objectives), Experience, Realization and Evaluation (what next?) MICRO-TEACHING Participants were divided in three groups –first group[s role was feed back team, Second group's role was Participants of REFLECT center, third group member was facilitator. Four participants were role play on facilitators of REFLECT centre. DAY REVIEW The whole day was reviewed Participants' Reflection (Day 7) and ended with the remarks of Model exercise enriched facilitation skill of the day leader. participants Acquired skill to prepare press release. Micro-teaching exercise was Informed about information communication fascinated by all participants act which boosted confidence for Conceptual clarity on village education running REFLECT centers. The committee and mobile school. skill on press release was Informed about school fees. provided by the facilitator and Learnt process and procedures to facilitate exercised on it made participants somehow clarity in writing the press release. 16
  17. 17. DAY 8 RECAPPING OF PREVIOUS DAY The eighth day started at 8 AM with the report presentation by the reporter and evaluator and roles transferred to new participants. Reading and writing Practice Interaction about reading and writing method of the REFLECT centre OTHER PARTICIPATORY TECHNIQUES Understanding developed on the case study, group songs, poem, documentary show, poster and pamphlets show and discussion techniques which is uses in REFLECT centre that carries message for the improvement of the vulnerable poor people. Apart from these techniques, the immediate problems faced by the participants and observation could also be a discussion topic in the centre. MICRO-TEACHING Participants were divided in three groups –first group[s role was feed back team, Second group's role was Participants of REFLECT center, third group member was facilitator. Documentary shown of Climate Change Three participants were role play on facilitators of REFLECT centre basis on documentary. ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES Presentation and discussed on adult learning principle. In the session, the basic discussion was on the characterstics of adults and things to be remember in learning process with adults. VARIOUS NAME OF REFLECT CENTERS Participants come out with the name of Participants' Reflection (Day 8) Reflect Center with meanings. Samana Reflect Kendra, Sunaulo Reflect Learnt process and procedures to use audio-visuals in reflect circle. Kendra, Parbati Chhalfal Kendra, Prakop Discussion based on real event will Pidit Chhalfal Kendra, Sahabhagimulak be more effective to draw attention Sikai kendra, Samuhik Chhalfal Kendra, of participants in reflect circle. Samaj Kalayan Reflect Kendra, Prakop Prepared action plan make easy to Sachetana Bahas kendra, Samuhik motivate for community action. Janchetan Kendra, Samudayako Prakop Samana Kendra, Prakop Bal Kendra (Prabal), Bipad Samana Sachetana Kendra, Prakop Byabasthapanka lagi Lagansil Kendra (Prabal, Kendra), Janudaya Kendra, Pragati Chhalfal Kendra, & Samudayik Milan Kendra 17
  18. 18. REFLECT CENTER MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Importance and organizing process of the reflect centre management committee was presented and discussed ROLE OF FACILITATORS The role of the REFLECT facilitators was presented and discussed. The major roles of REFLECT facilitators presented were to conduct Reflect center meeting at least twice a week in different issues through different methodologies; make door to door visit for awareness raising along with Field mobilizer; facilitate in local naming the REFLECT center; support in PVA process; keep record of the decisions; make monthly plan and progress reports; prepare case studies etc. PLANNING AND REPORTING DIARY FOR REFLECT FACILITATORS The techniques to prepare work plan and reporting format for REFLECT facilitators was discussed. A sample format that was discussed is given below: A. Monthly Work Plan Format Name of the VDC: Ward Number: Tole: Month: Date/ week/ Subjects Issue for discussion Materials Remarks Day required B. Monthly Progress Format Name of the VDC: Ward Number: Tole: Month: Date/ week/ Subjects Activity/ Progress/achievements Remarks Day of work process plan 18
  19. 19. TRAINING EVALUATION The training was evaluated by participants on individual basis and compiled. From the evaluation, the training objectives of making capable facilitators were fulfilled along with disaster centric discussions. The training materials provided was not sufficient however 25% participants were satisfied with it. Participants were happy with facilitation style of the trainers. Participants found almost all (21 topics) useful. They were suggesting to adding livelihood issues, and present some government officials during the training. The role play method was liked by many followed by group discussion and documentary show during the training. 19
  20. 20. ANNEX 1: TRAINING FINAL EVALUATION COMPILED 1. The main objectives of training was "to develop capable facilitators for running REFLECT circle in community". How far did it make you capable? Somehow Confident Boosted confident - 16 21 Note: 15 participants ticked both option 2. Did you gain necessary knowledge method and materials to conduct REFLECT focusing disaster issues? Somehow Confident Boosted confident 3 13 14 Note: 8 participants ticked both option. 3. Was the book and training materials distributed sufficiently in training? Insufficient Sufficient 17 5 4. How would you like about facilitator's teaching style and behavior? Very Bad General Good good Style - - 9 13 Behavior - - 3 12 5. How would you like the participation of training participants? General Good Very good - 7 15 6. How would you like food, shelter and other management? General Good Very good - 7 15 20
  21. 21. 7. Write about 3 important subjects learn in training. The participants prepared the following topics learned in training . SN. Topics No. of participants 1 Women's Rights 9 2 Disability 8 3 Disaster related documentary 8 show 4 Self Analysis (Life river) 4 5 PRA method used in REFLECT 3 6 Education Rights 3 7 Education and Literacy 3 8 Participatory vulnerability map 3 9 Press release 3 10 RBA 2 11 Education policy discussion 2 12 Disaster reduction 2 13 Advocacy and process 2 14 Disaster management 2 15 Power analysis 2 16 Five finger discussion method 1 17 Context analysis 1 18 Development and rights 1 19 Problem ranking 1 20 Problem and Issues 1 21 Social justice 1 21
  22. 22. 8. Topics which need to be discussed but not mentioned. SN. Topics No. of participants 1 Discussion about livelihood issues 1 2 Need to discuss the work, function and role of social 1 mobilizers 3 Appreciative inquiry method 1 4 Field exercise and preparing map 1 5 Participation of disaster related stakeholders especially 1 CDO, LDO etc. In the discussion 9. In the training, Different method such on presentation, group discussion, and role play, songs, story, Documentary show etc. used. Among them which is the most suitable? SN. Methods No. of participants 1 Role play 11 2 Group discussion 7 3 Documentary show 4 10. Suggestion to make training effective in upcoming days. 10.a To organizer Actionaid Nepal Sn Suggestions No. of participants 1 To Introduce DIPECHO V along with bag, t-shirt, cap, cycle 8 for easy reflection of program 2 To continue the presence of theme leader in related subject 4 and issues 3 To increase training duration according to the subject 4 matter]{ 4 Good to prepare and allocate hands out of the training 1 materials 22
  23. 23. 5 Would be good if subject matter of the training are pre 1 informed] 6 Thank you for providing knowledge of Disaster and 1 Disability 7 Would be good if sufficient materials are provided to 1 conduct REFLECT centre 8 Would be good if such programs are increase in our village] 1 10.b To Facilitators Sn Suggestions No. of participants 1 Good to use more jokes, satire and entertainments 3 2 Would be better if training reports are available. 2 3 To focus on the subject matters with short break 1 4 It is better to have two to three facilitators in a day 1 5 To manage time according to subject matter 1 6 To act Seriously 1 7 Good to Include subject matter of field exercise and 1 practical session. 10.c To Participants Sn Suggestions No. of participants 1 Should be discipline and take care of time 3 2 Not to focus on the external matter beyond the subject. 3 3 To be serious about the training as it could be implemented 1 in owns life 4 To express enthusiasm about unclear topics immediately. 1 5 To take responsibilities 1 6 Not good to leave training hall frequently 1 7 To talk in their turn and mobile in vibration mode. 1 23
  24. 24. ANNEX 2: TRAINING PARTICIPANTS LIST SN Name Organization Designation Contact No. 1 Mr. Shivahari Khatiwada UPCA Nepal, SM, Narshingh 98420-60923 Sunsari 2 Mr. Dev Narayan Sharma ,, SM, Babiya 98420-46948 3 Mr. Khyam Bahadur Dahal ,, RF, Dharan 98070-38893 4 Ms. Anita Gupta ,, RF, Babiya 98421-23790 5 Ms. Radha Urawa ,, RF, Narshingh 98422-38886 6 Mr. Alam Miya ,, RF, Inaruwa 98040-50834 7 Mr. Bidhyananda Mehata ,, RF, Babiya 98070-44366 8 Ms. Ranjana Kumari Yadav ,, RF, Narshingh 98420-45102 9 Mr. Ram Niwas Yadav BEE Group, Banke SM, Matehiya 98480-80338 10 Mr. Makbool Ahmad ,, SM, Gangapur 97281-44225 Mukeri 11 Ms. Hasina Bano Mukeri ,, RF, Gangapur 081-691612 12 Ms. Raj Kumari Harijan ,, RF, Gangapur 081-691612 13 Ms. Shantidevi Mawrya ,, RF, Gangapur 081-691612 14 Ms. Ajita Godiya ,, RF, Matehiya 081-691612 15 Mr. Arjun Kumar Katuwal NP, Udayapur PO 97430-09765 16 Ms. Nirmala Budhathoki ,, RF, TM-2 98428-82354 17 Ms. Krishna Raut (Sita) ,, RF, TM-5 98428-71502 18 Ms. Sarita Kumari ,, RF, Jogidaha - Chaudhary 7/8 19 Ms. Bishnu Adhikary C.D.O., Chitwan Activist 98451-77260 20 Ms. Indira Bote ,, Activist 98451-56317 21 Ms. Sabitri Neupane NAF, Rasuwa Activist 97410-16172 22 Mr. Ashok Lama MSN, Rasuwa SM 9741-86417 23 Mr. Dhruba Prasad Prerana, Kathmandu Resource Person 9841-641916 Thapaliya 24 Mr. Ram Saran Sedhai AAN Kathmandu Theme Leader 98510-87619 25 Mr. Shyam Sundar Jnavaly ,, DIPECHO DPM 98510-49221 26 Mr. Shaurabh Sharma ,, DIPECHO FAO 98550-58811 27 Mr. Ashok Raj Pokharel ,, DIPECHO PO 9841-445524 28 Mr. Dulu Raj Chimariya Handicap DIPECHO PO International 29 Ms. Vera van Ek ,, Technical Advisor 30 Mr. Dinesh Singh ,, DIPECHO PO 98510-05818 31 Ms. Mona Sherpa AAN Kathmandu Theme Leader 32 Mr. P.V. Krishnan ,, DIPECHO 97510-01368 Project Manager 33 Mr. Rudra Shrestha ,, Driver 9841-233339 34 Mr. Sona Lal Chaudhary AAN CRC Bharatpur REFLECT 98420-59713 Supervisor 35 Mr. Shyam Lal Pariyar ,, Driver 98460-90335 36 Ms. Kopila Dangol ,, PO 9841-221588 37 Mr. Raj Kishor Rajak ,, PO 98451-78962 38 Mr. Meenraj Panthee PO 9841-296740 24
  25. 25. ANNEX 3: TRAINING SCHEDULES AND CONTENTS Days Time Content Method/process Responsible 09.00-09.15 Registration, Welcome, Ashok & Program & Training Shyam objective sharing 09.15-09.40 Introduction Individual Introduction Dhruba 09.40-10.00 Training management Open discussion and Dhruba ground rule, time plan, writing in news print reporting, Training method paper and process) 10.00-10.30 Break/ Tea 10.30-11.00 Expectation collection Personal brain Dhruba storming 11.00-11.15 Training Objective Presentation and open Dhruba discussion 1st day 11.15–12.00 Self analysis (Life river) Individual exercise Dhruba and presentation 12.00-01.00 Lunch 01.00-01.45 Self analysis (Life river) Individual exercise Dhruba and presentation 01.45-02.00 Brain storming Use of picture Dhruba 02.00-02.30 Development concept / Group work and Dhruba Approach presentation 02.30-02.45 Break 02.45-03.30 Development concept / Presentation and open Dhruba Approach discussion 25
  26. 26. 03.30-04.00 DRR and development Presentation and open Ashok discussion 04.00-04.30 Break, Tea and snacks 04.30-06.00 DRR and development Role play and Ashok discussion 06.00-06.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba leader 08.00-08.30 Review of First day 1st day report, Dhruba evaluation presentation and open discussion 08.30-10.00 What is literacy and Pair wise discussion Dhruba education, Types of and presentation education 10.00-10.30 Break/ Tea 10.30–12.00 Popular education concept Presentation and open Dhruba and REFLECT method discussion 12.00-01.00 Lunch • 01.00-02.30 • History and Features of • Presentation and Dhruba 2nd day REFLECT open discussion • Encouraging personality • Group discussion and its lessons of on paper and Popular education presentation 02.30-02.45 Break 02.45-04.00 Introduction of Participatory Presentation and open Dhruba method and techniques discussion /Importance and use step of Social map / Resource map 04.00-04.30 Break, Tea and snacks 04.30-06.00 Problem/ Issues rise and Group exercise and Dhruba action process through open discussion mapping 26
  27. 27. 6.00-6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba leader 8.00–8.30 Review of 2nd day 2nd day report Dhruba presentation and open discussion 8.30-10.00 Power and power relation Game and Open Dhruba discussion 10.00-10.30 Break/ Tea 10.30–12.00 Power mapping focused on Group exercise Shyam & DRR Dhruba 12.00-01.00 Lunch 3rd day 01.00-02.30 Rights based approach Open discussion and Dhruba presentation 02.30-02.45 Break 02.45-04.00 Rights based approach Open discussion and Dhruba and presentation Ramsharan 04.00-04.30 Tea/Snacks/ break 04.30 –06.00 Rights and DRR Shyam and Ashoki 6.00 – 6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba PM leader 8.00–8.30 Review of 3rd day 3rd day report Dhruba AM presentation and open discussion 8.30-10.00 Social justice, injustice Open discussion Dhruba AM 4th day 10.00-10.30 Break/ Tea AM 10.30 AM- Documentary show Video show and Shyam and 12.00 Noon (Prakopko pida and plenary discussion Ashok Disaster management in Nepal) and discussion 27
  28. 28. 12.00Noon- Lunch 1.00PM 1.00-2.30 PM Context mapping Group work Dhruba 2.30-2.45 PM Break 2.45-4.00 PM Context mapping Group work and Dhruba presentation 4.00-4.30 PM Tea/Snacks/ break 4.30 – 6.00 Need and uses of Disaster Open discussion Dhruba PM ranking and exercise 6.00 – 6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba PM leader or open discussion 8.00–8.30AM Review of 4th day 4th day report Dhruba presentation and open discussion 8.30-10.00 Problem and Issues Open discussion Dhruba AM 10.00 – Break/ Tea 10.30 AM 10.30 AM – Importance and uses of Open discussion Dhruba 12.00 Noon PRA tools (Time line, Seasonal calendar, problem tree) 5th day 12.00Noon- 1 Lunch PM 1.00-2.30 PM PWD Mainstreaming in Open discussion HI development / DRR 2.30-2.45 PM Break 2.45-5.00 PM PWD Mainstreaming in Plenary discussion HI development / DRR 5.00-5.30 PM Tea/Snacks/ break 5.30 – 6.00 Brief introduction to Plenary discussion Dhruba PM DIPECHO V 28
  29. 29. 6.00 – 6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba PM leader or open discussion 8.00–8.30 Review of 5th d 5th day report Dhruba AM presentation and open discussion 8.30-10.00 Gender and women's rights Case study, group Mona AM discussion and presentation 10.00 – Break/ Tea 10.30 AM 10.30 AM– Advocacy and its strategic Open discussion Dhruba 12.00 Noon process 12.00Noon- Lunch 1.00PM 6th day 1.00 – 2.30 Advocacy and its strategic Open discussion Dhruba PM process 2.30-2.45 PM Break 2.45 – 4.00 Disaster management Open discussion and Ashok PM cycle, DMC formation and role play roles 4.00-4.30 PM Tea/Snacks/ break 4.30-6.00 PM Campaign and activism Group work and Sonalal presentation 6.00 – 6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba PM leader or open discussion 8.00–8.30 Review of 6th day 6th day report Dhruba AM presentation and open discussion 7th day 8.30-10.00 Education rights Open discussion Ram Sharan AM 29
  30. 30. 10.00 – Break/ Tea 10.30 AM 10.30 AM– Communication Open discussion Ram Sharan 12.00 Noon 12.00Noon- 1 Lunch PM 1.00 – 2.30 Press release and Relation Open discussion and Ram Sharan PM with mass communication exercise 2.30-2.45 PM Break 2.45-4.00 PM Facilitation on participatory Plenary discussion Dhruba discussion (Discussion method and process & type of questions) 4.00 – 4.30 Tea/Snacks/ break PM 4.30 – 6.00 Micro exercise by 3 group divided and Dhruba PM participants facilitation 6.00 – 6.15 Day review Presentation by day Dhruba PM leader or open discussion 8.00-8.30 AM Review of 7th day 7th day report Dhruba presentation and open discussion 8.30-10.00 Reading and writing Open discussion Dhruba 8th day AM exercise on REFLECT Different name of REFLECT centre 10.00-10.30 Break/ Tea AM 30
  31. 31. 10.30AM- Other participatory tools Pair wise discussion Dhruba 12.00 Noon and techniques (Documentary, case 3 group divided and study, poster pamphlets, facilitation song, story etc) Micro teaching exercise by participants 12.00Noon- 1 Lunch PM 1.00 – 2.30 • Adult learning principle • Presentation and Dhruba PM discussion • Reflect centre management committee • Pair wise discussion 2.30-2.45 PM Break 2.45-4.00 PM • Role of REFLECT • Presentation and Ashok and Facilitators discussion Dhruba • Action plan (What next after training?) 4.00 – 4.30 Tea/Snacks/ break PM 4.30 – 6.00 • Review of training Group exercise Dhruba and PM • Training evaluation • Closing session Ashok 31
  32. 32. ANNEX 4: TRAINING HANDOUTS ljsf;df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f k|of; d"nk|jfxLs/0f k|sf]k hgwgsf] Iflt jf ljgfz ug]{ k|fs[lts jf dfgjl;lh{t 36gfnfO{ k|sf]k elgG5 . k|sf]ksf 36gfx?df k/]/ dflg;sf] d[To' x'G5, w]/} dflg; 3fOt] x'G5g, 3/af/, v]taf/L / afnLgfnL tyf cGo wgdfn gi6 eP/ w]/} dflg; 3/af/ljxLg x'G5g . k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd / vt/f k|sf]ksf] vt/f / vt/faf6 pTkGGf x'g] ;+s6fled'vtfsf] ;+o'Qm cj:yf g} k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd xf] . hf]lvd a9fpg] vt/f tyf ;+s6fled'vtfdWo] s'g} PsnfO{ x6fpg ;s] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd cyjf k|sf]kn] k'/ofpg] Iflt sd x'G5 / k|sf]ksf] c;/ klg sd x'G5 . vt/f X ;+s6fled'vtf = hf]lvd [hgwgsf] Iflt k'/ofpg ;Sg] s'g} 36gf x'g] cj:yfnfO{ vt/f elgG5 . af9L tyf klx/f]h:tf k|sf]khGo 36gf g} vt/f x'g . pbfx/0fsf] nflu n8gnfu]sf]] 3/ vt/f xf] . ;+s6fled'vtf s'g} 36gf x'+bf dflg;, j:t'efp tyf wg;DklQdf Iflt k'Ug] cj:yf /x]df tL dflg;, j:t'efp / wg;DklQnfO{ ;+s6fled'v elgG5 . ctM vt/flt/ kmls{Psf jf vt/fdf kg]{ cj:yfdf /x]sf s'g} klg j:t' jf dflg; jf hLjhGt' ;+s6fled'v x'G5g . hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f hf]lvd a9fpg] vt/f / ;+s6fled'vtfdWo] s'g} Ps tTjnfO{ x6fpg ;s] k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd sd x'G5 . olb ;fgf] klx/f] hfg nfu]sf] xf] eg] klx/f] hfg glbg 6]jf kvf{n nufpg], klx/f] hfg nfu]sf] 7fp+eGbf dflysf] kfgLnfO{ csf{lt/ tsf{P/ ;'/lIft /fVg] xf] eg] vt/f 6/]/ hf]lvd klg sd x'G5 / dflg;, 3/af/, ufOj:t' tyf ;DklQ ;+s6fled'vtfaf6 d'Qm x'G5g . ljsf;df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdsf] d"nk|jfxLs/0f s;/L < • ;/sf/L gLlt, lgod tyf P]gx?df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] :ki6 k|fjwfg . • Kf|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ;DaGwL r]tgf tyf Ifdtf j[l4 . • Gfof+ aGg] ;+/rgfx? Kf|sf]k k|lt/f]lw agfpg cfZj:t ug]{ . • ljsf; of]hgf th'{dfdf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ah]6 ljlgof]hg x'g'kg]{ . • u};; nufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+:yfx?sf] sfo{qmdx?df hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmd ;dfj]zug]{ . 32
  33. 33. ;fIf/tf, lzIff / hgd'vL lzIff ;fIf/tfsf] cy{ æ;fwf/0f n]vk9 / x/lx;fa ug{ ;Sg] eO{ b}gLs hLjgdf cfO{kg]{ Jojxfl/s ;d:ofx? xn ug{ ;Sg', ljleGg k]zfut gof+ gof+ ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/L k|fKt u/L ltgLx?nfO{ hLjgf]kof]uL agfpg ;Sg' g} ;fIf/tf xf] .Æ kfpnf] k|m/L ] lzIff kfpnf] km|]/Lsf cg';f/ lzIff eg]sf] clxn];Dd rln/x]sf] rng -;+:sf/_ s] 5 eg]/ kQf nufpg] / tL rngx? leq ePsf ;To -;f+rf]_ / c;To -e'm7f] jf unt_ s'/fx? 5'6ofO{ a]l7s jf unt rngnfO{ km]/]/ gof+ / l7s rngnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg' lzIff xf] . r'krfksf] ;+:sf/nfO{ tf]8]/ ;lx, tYo s'/fnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg' g} lzIff xf] . JolQm, ;d'bfo / ;dfhnfO{ dgdf nfu]sf s'/fx? af:tljs xf] ls xf]Og 5'6ofpg ;Sg' g} lzIff xf] afgLsf] kl/jt{g ug'{ g} lzIff xf] . hgd'vL lzIff hLjg k9g;Sg] aGg' tyf hgtfsf] af/]df k9g ;Sg] lzIff g} hgd'vL lzIff xf] . ;'rgf / 1fg yf]kfg]{ xf]O{g, ljZn]if0f / vf]hL ug{ l;sfpg] . k/Dk/fsf] bf; aGg xf]Og, Gofod'vL k/Dk/f yfngL l;sfpg] . pTkL8gsf] ;+/rgfdf l5g{ xf]Og, To;nfO{ a'emg / km]g{ l;sfpg] . zlQm s]Gb|sf] k'hf / u'0fufg xf]Og, ;zlQs/0f d'lv Jojxf/ ug]{ . cGofo, clwsf/ lg/fzf xf]Og, cfF6 ug]{, cfzf hufpg] lzIff . ;fIf/ aGg] k|s[of ;+u;u}+ ;r]t, ;jn, ;+ul7t, ;zQm aGb} ;fdflhs kl/jt{gdf ;l/s x'g] . hgd'vL lzIffsdL{x?sf] k|]/0ffsf >f]tMkfpnf] k|m]/] hGdM ;g !(@!, pQ/ k"j{ a|flhnsf] /]l;km klxrfgM hgd"vL Pj+ d'lQmbfoL lzIffsf k|jt{s, k|f}9 lzIffsdL{, ;fdflhs kl/jt{g lgDtL s[oflzn n]vs, lrGts, n]vs tyf PS6Llei6 . k|sflzt d"Vo s[ltx?M k]8fuf]hL ckm b ck|]:8 -pTkLl8tsf] lzIff_, k]8fuf]hL ckm xf]k -cfzf hufpg] lzIff_ 33
  34. 34. ljz]iftfM ;fdflhs Gofosf] kIfdf af]Ng], n]Vg], nfUg], kl/rfns klg x'g], hgd'vL lzIffsf] wf/0ff / ljwLsf] kIfdf af]Ng], k|lzIf0f ug]{, cEof; ug]{ ljwL k|s[of ;[hgf u/L/xg], df´L/xg], lg/Gt/ vf]hLstf{ d[To'M @ d], ;g !((& kfpnf] k|m]/]sf] ljrf/ / cEof; ;"rgf / 1fg yf]kg]{ dfq xf]Og, ljZn]if0f / vf]hL ug{ l;sfpg] . k/Dk/fsf] bf; aGg xf]Og, Gofod'vL k/Dk/f yfNg l;sfpg] . pTkL8g tyf cGofonfO{ sfod /fVg] jf l6sfpg] vfnsf] ;+/rgfdf l5g{ xf]Og, To;nfO{ a'´g / km]g{ l;sfpg] . zlQms]Gb|sf] k'hf / u'0fufg xf]Og, hgd'lv l;sfO / Jojxf/ ug]{ . cGofo, cTofrf/, lg/fzf xf]Og, cf+6 eg]{, e/f];f lbg] / cfzf hufpg] vfnsf] lzIff . ;fIf/ aGg] k|sof ;+u;+u} ;r]t, ;an, ;+ul7t, ;zQm jGb} ;fdflhs kl/jt{gdf ;l/s x'g] . [ ;fIf/ aGg] / agfpg] dfq xf]Og, wgLnfO{ ;fIf/ ul/anfO{ lg/If/, k'?ifnfO{ ;fIf/ dlxnfnfO{ lg/If/, zxl/ofnfO{ ;fIf/ uf+pn]nfO{ lg/If/, jfx'gnfO{ ;fIf/ blntnfO{ lg/If/ jgfpg] vfnsf ;fdflhs ;+:sf/ / zlQm ;DjGwnfO{ lrGg, a'´g / km]g{ klg l;sfpg] . 34
  35. 35. ;fdflhs Gofo tyf cGofo ;fdflhs Gofo s] xf] < s'g} JolQm jf ;d"xsf] ;dfhdf zflGtk"0f{ / Gofok"0f{ 9+un] afRg kfpg] clwsf/ . ;dfhdf s'g} klg ju{, lnË, /Ësf JolQmn] cGo ;fdflhs ;d"x jf JolQmaf6 Gofo kfpg] cj:yf . ;fdflhs e]befjsf] lzsf/ x'g' gkg]{ cj:yf . Ef}flts tyf g};lu{s clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ kfpg] cj:yf . s'g} klg dfgj vt/f, ;+s6 jf sl7gfOdf kbf{ afFsL ;dfhn] pgnfO{ p4f/ ug]{ ;+:sf/ jf Jojxf/ . ;fdflhs cGofonfO{ sd ub}{ cGofosf h/fnfO{ l5dNb} ;fdflhs Gofo :yflkt ub}{ n}hfg] sfd g} ljsf; xf] . ;fdflhs Gofosf Jojxfl/s pbf/0fx? O+=;= !(@% df sdf/f sdf/L k|yf cGTo . O{=;= !(%( df ljtf{ k|yfsf] pGd''ng . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& n] hfltkfltsf] cfwf/df 5'jf5'tsf] e]befj gug]{ ;dfgtfsf] xssf] ;j}wflgs Joj:yf O=;= !(%! Dff ufpF ljsf; sfddf u|fd ;]js / ;]ljsfsf] Joj:yf . /fHo4f/f j[4 eQfsf] Joj:yf . ;fdflhs cGofosf ?kx? gf/L pTkL8g . blnt zf]if0f ufpFn]nfO{ x]nf . hghfltnfO{ 5]p kfg]{ sfd . b''u{d If]qnfO{ a]jf:tf . ul/a d''nsnfO{ x]kfO{ . ' afnaflnsf dflysf] cTofrf/ . 35
  36. 36. k|sf]k / clwsf/ k|sf]khGo 36gf ePkl5 ;+s6 pTkGGf x'G5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf cfktsfnLg p4f/ / /fxt kfpg' klg k|sf]k kLl8tsf] dfgj clwsf/ xf] . k|sf]ksf] kL8faf6 d'lQm / hLjglgjf{xsf cfwf/e"t cj;/ k|fKt ug'{ k|sf]k kLl8tsf] g};lu{s clwsf/ xf] . k|sf]ksf sf/0f k"0f{ jf cflz+s ;DklQ u'dfP/ kL8fk"0f{ hljglgjf{x ul//x]sfnfO{ vfgf, n'uf, cfjf;, lzIff, :jf:Yonufotsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfaf6 jl~rt ePsf k|To]s JolQmn] /fHoaf6 ;'ljwf / ;'/Iff kfpg'kb{5 . dfgj clwsf/ k|To]s gful/sn] vfg, nfpg, a:g, lzIff, :jf:Yo nufotsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ u/L ;Ddflgt 9+un] hLjg hLpg] clwsf/nfO{ dfgj clwsf/ elgG5 . dfgj clwsf/ cGtu{t ;+/If0fsf] clwsf/, :jtGqtfsf] clwsf/, ;rgfsf] clwsf/, ;xefuLtfsf] clwsf/, Aff]Ng kfpg] jf cleJolQm clwsf/ cflb ;d]t kb{5g . Kf|To]s dfgj;+u dfgj clwsf/ /x]sf] x'G5 . k|To]s gful/ssf] clwsf/ a/fa/ x'G5 . cGt{/fli6|o dfgj clwsf/ ;DaGwL sfg"gx?, /fli6|o ;+ljwfg tyf sfg"g cflbaf6 dfgjclwsf/sf] k|Tofe"t ul/Psf] xG5 . dfgj clwsf/ h'g;'s} a]nf nfu" x'G5 oBlk 4G4 nufotsf hl6n kl/l:yltdf s]xL clwsf/x? s]xL ;dosf nflu lgnDag x'g ;Sb5g . s;}n] dfgj clwsf/sf] pNNf3+g u/]sf] v08df ;d]t dfgj clwsf/ ;DaGwL sfg"g nfu' x'G5 . Kf|sf]k Joj:yfkg / clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff Kf|sf]k k|efljt JolQm tyf ;d'bfonfO{ tTsfnLg ;xof]u ug{ / ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/sf] k'g{lg{df0f ug'{ dfq k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] dfgjLo kIf xf]Og . k|sf]k kLl8t ;d'bfosf] tTsfnLg cfjZostf k"lt{ ub]{ ;DDffghgs hLjgofkg, k'g{:yfkg, ;'/Iff / bL3{sfnLg Joj:yfkgsf] k|Tofe"lt ug{'kb{5 . tTsfnLg p4f/ / /fxtsf nflu ul/g] ;xof]u klg ;Ddfghgs x'g'kb{5 . p4f/, /fxt tyf cGo ;xof]u ubf{ lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg'kb{5 . != k|sf]k kLl8t klg c? ;/x g} ;Ddflgt gful/s xg . pgLx? cfkmgf ljifodf x'g] 5nkmn jf lg0f{o k|lqmofdf :jtGq ?kn] ;xefuL x'g ;S5g . @= vfgf, 5fgf, gfgf, kfgL, :jf:Yo, lzIff / ;'/Iffnufotsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k|sf]k k|efljt gful/ssf k|fs[lts clwsf/ x'g . tL clwsf/ /fHon] ljgfzt{ pknAw u/fpg'kb{5 . #= k|sf]khGo ;+s6 k|fs[lts 36gf dfq geP/ dfgjLo cfr/0f, Jojxf/, cEof; / k/Dk/fut ;+:s[ltdf k|efj kfg]{ tTj klg xf] . ;dfhdf rlncfPsf] k/Dk/fut dfGotf / ;+:s[ltlj?4sf sfo{ u/]/ ;d'bfosf] cf:yfk|lt gsf/fTds k|efj kg{ lbg'x'b}g . 36
  37. 37. $= ul/aLleq k|sf]khGo hf]lvd x'g] x'+bf ul/aL lgjf/0f sfo{qmdnfO{ clwsf/d'vL cjwf/0ff cGtu{t sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; x'g'kb{5 . %= k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf k|sf]k k"j{tof/L :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf tyf :yfgLo hf]lvdsf] Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u k'Ug] vfnsf] x'g'kb{5 . ^= x/]s kLl8tn] cfkm" ;'/lIft 5' eGg] ljZjf; lng] jftfj/0f agfpg'kb{5 . Kf|sf]k kLl8tnfO{ /fxt lbg] ;/sf/L dfkb08 b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g, @)#( cg';f/ s]Gb|Lo b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltn] k|sf]k kLl8t JolQm tyf kl/jf/nfO{ Iflt / k|efjsf cfwf/df tTsfn /fxt ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] gLltut lg0f{o ug]{ ub{5 . o;/L pknAw u/fpg] cfly{s tyf ef}lts ;xof]usf] dfqfdf ;do;dodf kl/jt{g x'G5 . s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn] kl5Nnf]k6s u/]sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ kLl8tnfO{ /fxt:j?k lgDg cg';f/ ;xof]u x'g;Sb5 . != Kf|sf]kdf k/L d[To' ePdf d[tssf kl/jf/nfO{ k|lt d[ts ?= !%,))). a/fa/sf] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . @= 3fOt]nfO{ lgz'Ns pkrf/ u/fpg] . #= 3/ gi6 ePdf c:yfoL cf>osf nflu k|lt kl/jf/ ?= !),))). ;Dd pknAw u/fpg] . $= 3/ cflz+s ?kdf gi6 ePdf ?= #))). ;Dd pknAw u/fpg] . %= nQfsk8f / ef+8fs'+8fsf] nflu k|ltJolQm ?= %)). sf b/n] pknAw u/fpg] . ^= vfBfGgafnL tyf hUuf hldg gf]S;fg eO{ tTsfn u'hf/f rnfpgsf nflu k|lt kl/jf/ ?= %)). sf b/n] pknAw u/fpg] . &= 3/ lgdf{0fsf nflu jg sfof{noaf6 ;x'lnot b/df sf7 pknAw u/fpg] . *= ;'/lIft :yfgdf ;fg'{kg]{ ePdf tTsfn Joj:yf ldnfpg] . (= pk/f]Qm adf]lhdsf] ;xof]u e"sDk, af9L, klx/f], cfunfuL, cl;gfkfgL, x'/Latf; / r6of8=af6 k|efljtnfO{ dfq k|sf]ksf] 36gf ePsf] #) lbg leq ;"rgf kfPsf]nfO{ dfq /fxt pknAw u/fpg] . 37
  38. 38. gf/Ljfb, dlxnfclwsf/ / g]kfnsf] l:ylt –/fdz/0f ;]9fO{+ k[i7e"ld ljZjel/ g} dlxnfclwsf/af/] rsf]{ ax; eO/x]sf] 5 . o; lsl;dsf ax;n] ;+;f/sf ljleGg efudf cfGbf]ng rsf{O/x]sf] 5 . ;du| ¿kdf dfgjclwsf/k|lt x/]s b]zsf gful/s ;r]t eO{ cfkmgf clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ k|of;/t x'“bf klg lsg dlxnfclwsf/sf] nflu 5'§} cfGbf]ng ug'{k¥of] eGg] k|Zg p7g ;S5 / Tof] Ps 9¨n] :jfefljs klg xf] . t/ ulxl/P/ cWoog ug]{ xf] eg] dlxnfclwsf/sf nflu ul/Psf cfGbf]ngx¿ cfjZostfn] hGdfPsf x'g . ljBdfg cGt/f{li6«o / /fli6«o ;lGw, dxf;lGw, cle;lGw, 3f]if0ffkq, ;Demf}tf tyf sfg'g / lgodx¿n] dlxnfclwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ ;sf/fTds e"ldsf v]n]sf eP tfklg Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf tL kof{Kt gePsfn] @! cf}“ ztfAbLdf klg gf/L cfkmgf cfwf/e"t clwsf/k|flKtsf nflu ;ª3if{/t 5g . gf/Ljfb dlxnfclwsf/sf] s'/f ubf{ hf]l8g] ;jfn ljleGg ;do / :yfgdf k|ltkflbt gf/LjfbL l;4fGtx¿sf] rrf{ ug'{ cfjZos x'g cfp“5 . x'g t To:tf l;4fGtx¿sf] hGd dlxnfsf clwsf/sf] jl~rtLs/0f jf pNnª3gaf6 ePsf] xf] . t/ klg tL l;4fGtx¿n] dlxnfclwsf/sf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ lbzf lgb]{zg u/]sf / kl/dfh{g ub}{ nu]sfn] logLx¿aLr ulx/f] ;DaGw 5 . gf/LnfO{ ;+;f/el/ g} cdfgjLo Jojxf/ ug]{ / k'?ifsf] cwLgdf /fVg] sfo{ r/d ¿kdf ePsfn] ;r]t gf/Ln] To:tf cdfgjLo Jojxf/ / l;4fGtlj¿4 rsf]{ cfGbf]ng u/]sf x'g . gf/Ldflysf] bdg lgs} rsf]{ ePsfn] g} pgLx¿sf] clwsf/sf] cfGbf]ng rsf]{ ePsf] xf] . gf/Lsf] clwsf/sf] xgg jf jl~rtLs/0fdf k'?ifsf] dfq xft geO{ gf/Lsf] klg 5 . lkt[;QfTds ;f]rsf] sf/0fn] o;f] ePsf] xf] . ljz]iftM k|frLg ;do / ;d'bfodf xfn klg kfl/jfl/s ¿kdf xf]; of ;fj{hlgs hLjgdf k'?ifsf] xfnLd'xfnL 5 / p;sf] xfnLd'xfnL x'g'df t'ngfTds ¿kdf pm zf/Ll/s ¿kn] ;an x'g' / pTkfbgzLn >f]tx¿df p;sf] kx'“r x'g' xf] . dlxnf xf]; jf k'?if hf] klg zlQms} kl5 nfU5g . To;}n] kl/jf/b]lv ;dfh;Dd kx'“rjfnf k'?if} ePsfn] ;'?df o;nfO{ lkt[;Qf elgPsf] xf] / sfnfGt/df of] k|j[lQdf kl/0ft eof] / o:tf] k|j[lQaf6 gfhfoh kmfObf p7fO{ bdg ug]{ k'?if x'g jf dlxnf b'j}nfO{ lkt[;QfTds ;f]raf6 u|l;t eGg yflnof] . pu| gf/Ljfb sltko cj:yfdf k'?if g} dlxnfclwsf/sf] xgg ug]{ JolQm ePsfn] / sltko cj:yfdf k|j[lQsf] a]]jf:tf u/L k'?ifnfO{ dfq bf]ifL b]Vg] k|j[lQn] clt jf pu|gf/Ljfbsf] hGd lbPsf] cfef; x'G5 . dfly klg elgof] gf/Ldflysf] rsf]{ bdg g} pu|gf/LjfbnfO{ hGd lbg] sf/s tŒj xf] . pu|gf/Ljfbn] 38
  39. 39. dlxnfnfO{ ;r]tLs/0f ug]{ / cfkmgf clwsf/ bfaL ug{ k|]l/t u/] tfklg o;n] ;dfhnfO{ ljv08glt/ ws]n]sf] cf/f]k klg nfUg] u/]sf] 5 . pu|gf/LjfbLx¿n] dlxnfdfly x'g] zf]if0fsf] d"n h8 g} pgLx¿sf] ;Gtfgf]Tkfbg ug{ ;Sg] / ug]{ zf/Ll/s agfj6nfO{ dfG5g . ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgsf] k|lqmofn] gf/LnfO{ k'?ifdfly a9L lge{/ u/fp“5 / k'?ifn] zf]if0f ug]{ cj;/ kfp“5 eGg] pgLx¿sf] ts{ 5 . Ps lx;fan] of] ;xL klg xf] . k|foMh;f] cj:yfdf ;Gtfgf]Tkfbg / ljjfxn] gf/Lsf] clwsf/ vf]l;Psf] dx;'; u/L pu|gf/Ljfbdf ljZjf; ug]{x¿ oL b'j} s'/f aGb ug'{k5{ eG5g . z'nfldy kmfo/:6f]g, h;nfO{ k|foM pu|gf/Ljfbsf] k|0f]tf dflgG5, pgL dfS;{jfbL ljrf/af6 l;Sb} elG5g— cfly{s ju{eGbf klg of}g ju{rflx“ ;fdflhs ljefhgsf] k|d'v sf/0f xf] . cGo gf/LjfbLx¿n] klg of}g ju{sf] s'/f ug]{ eP tfklg ltgLx¿ pgsf] ljrf/;“u ;xdt 5}gg . …of}gsf] åGåfTdstfÚ zLif{ssf] cfkmgf] n]vdf pgL elG5g– h}ljs kl/jf/ h'g k'?if÷dlxnf lzz' pTkfbgsf] cfwf/e"t PsfO xf] Tof] ;fdflhs Joj:yfsf] h'g;'s} ¿kdf eP klg Tof] b]xfosf tflŒjs jf ckl/jt{gLo tYox¿sf u'0fx¿ e]l6G5g— != ue{ lg/f]wgsf] cfljisf/eGbf klxn] dlxnf Oltxf;sf] cBf]kfGt lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cfkmg} zf/Ll/s agf]6sf] bofdf af“r]– dfl;s >fj, dfl;s >fjsf] cGTo, dlxnf;DaGwL /f]ux¿, ;Gtfg hGdfpg] lg/Gt/ kL8fbfoL sfo{, csf{sf] aRrfnfO{ b"w v'jfpg] / lzz'sf] x]/ljrf/ ug]{h:tf sfo{n] pgLx¿nfO{ af“Rgsf nflu -bfh', efO, a'af, >Ldfg, k|]dL, hflt, ;/sf/ / ;du|df ;d'bfodf_ k'?ifdf lge{/ /xg' kg]{ agfof] . @= dflg;df aRrfx¿ -lzz'x¿_ x's{gsf nflu cGo k|f0fLsf aRrfx¿eGbf a9L ;do nfUg] / af“Rgsf] nflu jo:sdf e/ kg'{kg]{ eof] . #= x/]s ;dfhdf cfdf–aRrfaLrsf] cGt/lge{/tf s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf /xg] ePsf]n] ljutdf xf]; of jt{dfgdf o;/L g} x/]s kfsf] dlxnf / x/]s lzz'sf] dgf]lj1fg o;/L g} ljsl;t ePsf] x'G5 . /fHosf] k|s[lt pgLx¿sf] o:tf] ;f]rn] k'?if gf/LaLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ laufg]{, lkt[;QfTds ;f]rdf kl/jt{g gNofpg] / cGttf]uTjf ;dfhnfO{ g} ljv08g / ljgfzlt/ ws]Ng] ;Defjgf k|an x'G5 . olb gf/L / k'?ifaLr ljjfx x'g 5f8of] jf ljjflxtx¿ wdfwd kf/kfr's] ug{ yfn] / ;Gtfgf]Tkfbgsf] k|lqmof /f]lsof] eg] ;dfhsf] ljsf; / dfgj ;Eotfdf klg k"0f{lj/fd nfUg ;S5 . dlxnfclwsf/ xf]; jf cGo dfgjclwsf/ . clwsf/ lbg] dfdnfdf /fHo hlxn] klg cln s~h'; aG5 . To;/L s~h'; aGg'sf] k5fl8sf] sf/0f xf] k|bQ clwsf/sf] pkof]u / ;+/If0f ug]{ bfloTj /fHodf x'G5 . o;sf nflu /fHon] k|z:t dfqfdf dfgj / cGo >f]tx¿ h'6fpg'kg]{ x'gfn] lgs} vlr{nf] x'G5 . To;}n] /fHosf] Wofg 7"nf] wg/flz vr]{/ hgtfnfO{ clwsf/ lbg'eGbf sd k};fdf ;lhnf];“u b]lvg] vfnsf ljsf;–lgdf0f{sf sfo{ ug{ ?rfp“5 . 39
  40. 40. s'g} klg b]z ef}lts ¿kdf ;DkGg x'“b}df ljsl;t eGg ldNb}g . ljsf; t Toltv]/ x'G5, hltv]/ p;sf hgtf cfkmgf clwsf/x¿ pkof]u u/L ;Ddfghgs hLjgofkg ug{ ;S5g . t'ngfTds ¿kdf o'/f]k / cd]l/sfsf b]zx¿df dfgjclwsf/sf] cj:yf g]kfnsf] eGbf /fd|f] eP tfklg dlxnfclwsf/ eg] tL d'n'sdf klg /fd|/L :yflkt x'g cem} klg ;s]sf] 5}g . g]kfndf dlxnfsf] cj:yf g]kfnsf] hg;+Vofsf] cfwf lx:;f cf]u6g] dlxnf clxn] klg lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ;fdflhs, cfly{s / /fhgLlts If]qdf alxis/0fdf k/]sf 5g . ljZj dfgj ljsf; k|ltj]bg @))$, o"Pg8LkLn] hgfPcg';f/ ln¨;DaGwL ;"rsf°df g]kfn !$$ b]zdWo] !!^ cf}+ :yfgdf kb{5 . o;af6 ;lhn} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 ls g]kfndf dlxnfsf] slQsf] ?U0f cj:yf 5 . k'?ifsf] t'ngfdf g]kfnsf nueu ;Dk"0f{ dlxnf lgs} a9L sfd u5{g t/ 3/fo;L cfodf pgLx¿sf] lx:;f s]jn #)Ü dflgPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf s]jn !)Ü dlxnfsf] dfq e"lddf :jfldTj 5 / dfq $ k|ltzt dlxnfsf] dfq 3/ / hUuf b'j}df :jfldTj 5 . g]kfnh:tf] s[lifk|wfg b]z hxf“ ^) k|ltzteGbf a9L dflg; hLljsf]kfh{gsf nflu e"lddf lge{/ u5{g Toxf“ dlxnfsf] e"lddf :jfldTj cToGt Go"g 5 . lkt[;QfTds sfg'gL k|fjwfgsf sf/0f clxn] klg dlxnfn] k"0f{¿kdf k}ts ;DklQdflysf] clwsf/ kfpg [ ;s]sf 5}gg . xfnsf] ;+ljwfg;efdf !(^ dlxnf lgjf{lrt / dgf]lgt eP tfklg ljutsf ;+;bLo r'gfjdf lgjf{lrt x'g]x¿sf] ;+Vof cToGt Go"g lyof] . ;g !(() kl5 ePsf ;+;bLo lgjf{rgdf #=$Ü, #=$Ü / %=*Ü dlxnfdfq ljhoL ePsf lyP . s]xLnfO{ nfUg ;S5 clxn] t /fhgLltdf dlxnf ;xeflutfn] km8sf] g} df/]sf] 5 . t/ o;df ;xdt x'g ;ls“b}g . %)Ü hg;+Vof ePsf dlxnfsf] ;+ljwfg;efdf ##Ü dfq pkl:ylt x'g' lgZro g} ;Gtf]ifk|b xf]Og . To;/L g} lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf !)Ü eGbf sd 5 . Gofokflnsfdf t Tof] ;+Vof s]jn @Ü sf] xf/fxf/Ldf 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf s;/L dlxnfclwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ vfnsf sfg'g aG5g < s;/L dlxnfk|lt lje]bsf/L sfg'gx¿ vf/]h x'G5g < / s;/L ePsf sfg'gsf] klg k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'G5 < gful/s ;dfhsf] e"ldsf gful/s ;dfh / /fli6«o tyf cGt//fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿sf] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf oxf“g]/ /xG5 . pgLx¿n] cfd;r]tLs/0f u/L ;/sf/nfO{ dlxnfclwsf/ lbnfpg ;d'bfodfkm{t bafa lbg ;S5g / ;/sf/sf] lj/f]wdfq gu/L cfnf]rgfTds ;xsfo{ -kl/cfp“bf ;xof]u / lj/f]w klg_ ug{ ;Sb5g . g]kfnsf] clws ;d'bfodf hgr]tgfsf] :t/ sd ePsf]n] To:tf ;d'bfodf r]tgf clej[l4 u/L dlxnfclwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ o:tf ;+:yfx¿ k|of;/t 5g . /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o b'j} ¿kdf o:tf ;+:yfn] ;~rfng u/]sf cleofgnfO{ …ljsf;] gf/LjfbÚ sf] ;+1f lbOG5 . /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] ck]Iffs[t ¿kdf nlIft ;d'bfosf 40
  41. 41. dlxnfsf] pTyfg ug{ g;s]sf] cfef; w]/}h;f] gful/sdf kfOG5 / dlxnf cfGbf]ngsf] xsdf o:t} ePsf] klg 5 . To;}n] o:tf k|of;nfO{ …ljsf;] gf/LjfbÚ egL xNsf 9¨n] lnOPsf] kfOG5 . dlxnf lx+;fsf sf/s tŒj clxn] klg g]kfndf dlxnfdfly x'g] ljleGg k|sf/sf lx+;fdf s'g} sdL cfPsf] 5}g . b]psL, jfbL, s'df/L / 5fpk8Lh:tf k/Dk/fut / cGwljZjf;df cfwfl/t af]S;L ;fwg, a]rlavg, of}g b'Jo{jxf/ / ha/h:tLs/0fLh:tf of}g lx+;f / bfOhf]nufotsf cGo 3/]n' lx+;faf6 dlxnf / lszf]/Lx¿;d]t kLl8t 5g . clxn]sf] h:tf] j}1flgs o'udf klg cGwljZjf;df /xg', lg/If/tf sfod} /xg' / k9]nv]sf JolQmn] ] klg lgod, sfg'gsf] pNnª3g ug{ / ltgdf r]tgf gcfpg' / l;Sg] k|oTg ug'{sf] ;f6f] l;sfpg]nfO{ g} lv;L u/L ;bf pxL :t/d} /xg'n] dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / dlxnfclwsf/sf] xggdf of]ubfg u/]sf] b]lvG5 . lx+;f ug]{nfO{ s8f sfg'gL sf/afxL gx'g' csf]{ k|d'v sf/0f xf] . sltko cj:yfdf t dlxnfclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t JolQmx¿ -dlxnf / k'?if b'j}_ af6} dlxnfdfly lx+;f ul/Psf] / clwsf/sf] pn+3g ul/Psf] klg kfOPsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmd jf ;df/f]xdf clwsf/sf] b'xfO{ lbg] t/ 3/df gfaflnsfnfO{ k9g] cj;/;Dd glbO IfdtfeGbf a9Lsf] sfd nufpg] / s'6lk6;d]t ug]{ u/]sf] 36gf klg l5k]sf] 5}g . dlxnfclwsf/k|ltsf] ;+j]bgxLgtf csf]{ d"n ;d:of xf] . cfkm"nfO{ dlxnfclwsf/sdL{ eGg ?rfpg] dlxnf / k'?if b'j}y/L pgLx¿sf] clwsf/k|lt ;+j]bgzLn 5}gg . w]/} k9]n]v]s} JolQmx¿df klg r]tgfsf] sdL 5 . ;fj{hlgs ;df/f]xd} olb ;fdflhs ln¨sf] s'/f p7of] eg] pgLx¿ ;se/ dlxnfclwsf/sdL{ pkl:yt eP gLhnfO{ / k'?if eP k'?ifnfO{ …pm ca ltd|f] ;jfn cfof]Ú elglbG5g . To;/L g} sfo{:yndf klg dlxnfclwsf/sdL{nfO{ …pm g]tL -g]t[_ cfO{Ú jf k'?if eP …pm dlxnfnfO{ dg k/fpg] cfof]Ú egL 6Lsf–l6Kk0fL ub{5g . sltkon] t olt;Dd klg eGg] u/]sf] ;'lgG5 ls dlxnf– k'?ifaLr s'g} s8f ljjfb eof] eg] klg lv:ofP/ g]tL / g]tfnfO{ af]nfpg'k5{ emu8f ldnfpg;Dd eG5g . k'?if s] rfxG5< dflg; :jefj}n] :jfyL{ x'G5 t/ lx+;|srflx“ ;dfhn] agfp“5 . s;}sf] clwsf/ xgg ug'{ jf lghnfO{ clwsf/ pkof]u ug{af6 jl~rt ug'{ klg ck/fw xf] . ;Sg]n] g;Sg]dfly zf]if0f ug'{ -c_dfgjLo u'0f xf] . To;}n] dlxnf x'g of k'?if b'j}df o:tf nIf0f kfOG5 . k'?if gf/Lx¿ -p;sf] cfdf, lbbLalxgL, >LdtL, 5f]/L of cGo gft]bf/ jf ;fyLx¿_ af6 dfg;Ddfgsf] ck]Iff /fVb5 . olb pm lkt[;QfTds ;f]rn] u|l;t 5 eg] c¿nfO{ ;Ddfg ug{ / c¿sf] clwsf/sf] sb/ ug{ ;Sb}g . pm cfkmgL 5f]/LeGbf gfaflnsfsf] d"Nodf cfkmgf ;GtfgnfO{ ;'v lbg nfnflot x'G5 . pm h'g Jojxf/ cfkmgf cfdf, lbbLalxgL, 5f]/L, elthL, efGhL jf cGo :qL gft]bf/n] gu/f]; eGg] rfxG5 ToxL s'/f cGo :qLdf vf]hL /x]sf] x'G5 . Ps k'?if jf Pp6L dlxnf tLhdf cfkmgL 5f]/LnfO{ lgs} g} cufl8 dfOtdf af]nfp“l5g t/ cfkmgL a'xf/LnfO{ eg] dfOt k7fpg rfxGgg . 41
  42. 42. pk;+xf/ dlxnf xf]; of k'?if . oL ;d:of r]tgfsf] sdLn] plAhPsf x'g . t;y{ xfdLn] cfh}b]lv cfkmgf ;f]r / Jojxf/x¿ abNg], c¿sf] clwsf/sf] sb/ ug]{, lgod, sfg'gsf] kfngf ug]{ / bf]ifLdfly s8f sfg'gL sf/afxL ug]{ k/Dk/f a;fNof“} eg] cfkmgf] clwsf/sf] /Iff ug]{ / gof“ k':tfdf 1fg x:tfGt/0f ug]{ tyf pgLx¿nfO{ ;r]tLs/0f 3/}bl] v u¥of}+“ eg] / gf/L lbjznfO{ >4fsf] geO{ ;fy{s ¿kdf dgfpg yfNof}+“ eg] s]xL jif{kl5 gf/L lbj; klg dgfpg' kg]{ 5}g / dlxnfclwsf/sf nflu ;fob cfGbf]ng klg ug'{ gknf{ . olt ug{ ;s]df dfq dlxnfclwsf/ klg dfgjclwsf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt x'g]5 . 42
  43. 43. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldlt k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] e"ldsf • ;ldltn] ;d'bfo:t/Lo r]tgf hfu/0f, Ifdtf clej[l4, ;/sf/L tyf cGo lgsfo;+u ;DaGw lj:tf/ cflb sfo{sf] of]hgf th{'df, of]hgf sfof{Gjog tyf cg'udg ug]{ . • k|sf]kdf p4f/ tyf /fxt, k"j{tof/L tyf Go"gLs/0f cflb sfo{df :jo+;]jsx? Kfl/rfng ug]{ . • k|sf]k k"j{tof/Lsf sfo{x?df :yfgLo ;|f]t ;fwgx?sf] kl/rfng ug]{ . • >f]t kl/rfng, n]vf Joj:yfkg tyf lqmofsnfkx?sf] kf/blz{tf tyf hjfkmb]lxtf ;'lglZrt ug]{ . • lgoldt ?kdf a}7s a:g] . k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldlt ;b:o aGgsf] nflu of]Uotf • Gf]t[Tj tyf ;+u7g ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf • ;d'bfon] ljZjf; u/]sf] JolQm • c;n rl/q ePsf] • :jo+;]jL efjgf ePsf] • /fhg}lts kf6L{sf] g]t[Tj tx jf d'Vo kbdf g/x]sf] • n]vk9 tyf x/lx;fa /fVg ;Sg] eP /fd|f] Kf|sf]k JoJf:yfkg ;ldlt u7g k|lqmof • l/kmn]S6 s]Gb|x? u7g tyf ;~rfng ug]{ . • lglZrt If]qleqsf l/kmn]S6 s]Gb|, / ljleGg ;d"xx?aLr e]nf u/L k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] cfjZostf / e"ldsf af/] 5nkmn ug]{ . • If]qut, hflto, lnu+, pd]/ ;d"x cflbsf] k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt ug]{ . • Dflxnf k|ltlglwTj sDtLdf %) k|ltzt x'g'kg]{ . • Jf[4j[4f, ckfu+tf ePsf JolQm / afnaflnsfsf] ;d]t k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt x'g' kg]{ . • cfjZostf cg';f/ &, ( jf !! ;b:oLo ;ldlt u7g ug]{ . • ;ldltsf] kbfjlw tf]lsg' kg]{ . k|sf]k JoJf:yfkg ;ldltn] Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? • s'g} klg k|sf]k Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd ;kmn x'g'df k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] dfq ;+nUgtf geO{ ;Dk"0f{ ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf x'g'kb{5 . • ;ldltdf cfwfl/t sfo{qmd geO{ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t sfo{qmd x'g'kb{5 . • ;d'bfosf k|To]s JolQmx?n] k|sf]k k"j{tof/Lsf] dxTj tyf cfjZostfaf/] hfgsf/L x'g'kb{5 . 43
  44. 44. l/kmn]S6 ;xhstf{sf] sfo{ljj/0f • ;d'bfo;+u kl/lrt x'g 3/3/df e]6 ug]{ . kl/of]hgf cjlwe/ sDtLdf # k6s 3/e]6 ug]{ . • Kflxnf] k6s 3/e]6 ug]{ a]nfdf ;fdflhs kl/rfns ;lxt uO{ kl/of]hgfsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbg] . cGo e]63f6df k|sf]k k"j{tof/L ;DaGwL ljifodf r]tgf hufpg] sfd ;fdflhs kl/rfns / k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltx?;+u ldn]/ ug]{ . • l/kmn]S6 ;d'x u7g ug{sf nflu cgf}krfl/s ?kdf ;d"xdf ;fdflhs kl/rfns / lkmN8 ;+of]hs ;lxt l/kmn]S6sf] dxTj tyf u7g af/] 5nkmn cfof]hgf u/fpg] . • l/kmn]S6 ;xefuLx? 5gf}6 -@) b]lv #) hgf:fDd_ . • l/kmn]S6 ;~rfng ug]{ :yfg / ;do 5gf}6 . • l/kmn]S6 ;~rfngsf nflu cfjZos ;fdfu|L Joj:yf . • 5nkmn s]Gb|sf] :yfgLo gfdfs/0f ug]{ . • 5nkmn s]Gb| /]vb]v ;ldlt # b]lv % hgf ;Ddsf] u7g ug]{ . • Pp6f s]Gb|df lgoldt xKtfdf sDtLdf @ lbg @ 306fsf b/n] k|sf]k s]lGb|t jx; 5nkmn ug]{ . • k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7gug{ ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ . • :yfgLo >f]t ;fwgsf] klxrfgu/L cfsl:ds tyf k|sf]k kLl8t tyf k|efljtx?sf]] kx'r, lgoGq0f / To;sf] cToflws kl/rfng ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{ . • clwsf/jfnf ;d'x -ul/j, cfsl:ds tyf k|sf]k kLl8t Pj+ k|efljtx? tyf dlxnf / afnaflnsf_ k|lt ;b}j pQ/bfoL /xg] . • k|sf]k r]tgf ;DaGwL kf]i6/, lkmNk rf6{, ;fdflhs gSzf, ;+s6fled'v gSzf, df};dL gSzf, uLt, syf, cfTd ljZn]if0f, j[If ljZn]if0f, v]n ljlw, e"ldsf clego, ;8s gf6s, kqklqsf, /]l8of], >Job[Zo cflb ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/L 5nkmn u/fpg] . • Dflxgfdf sDtLdf Psk6s k|sf]k r]tgf hufpg] vfnsf >Job[io k|bz{g u/L 5nkmn rnfpg] . • k|sf]k k"j{tof/L tyf Joj:yfkg, clwsf/, dlxnf clwsf/, lzIff cflb gLlt P]g nufotsf ljifodf lgoldt ?kdf cWoog / 5nkmn ug]{ . 44
  45. 45. • ljifout ;jfnsf nflu pknAw ljifout ;xhstf{x?;+u ;Dks{ u/L ;xof]uL ;+:yfsf] ;xof]u lnO{ >f]t JolQmsf] ?kdf k|of]u ug]{ . • l/kmn]S6 s]Gb|sf] ;xeflux?nfO{ k|sf]k k"j{tof/L, ;r]tgf, Go"lgs/0f tyf ;f] ;DjlGw k}/jLsf] cu'jfO{sf] nflu kl/rfng ug]{ . • s]Gb|df ePsf 5nkmn / lg0f{ox?sf] clen]v /fVg] . • s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?sf ;kmntfsf syfx?, 36gfx?, ;[hgfTds /rgfx? ;+sng ug]{ . • Kf|To]s dlxgf lgoldt ?kdf k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L ;+:yfdf k]z ug]{ . • ;dodf vr{sf lan ekf{O tof/ ug'{sf ;fy} k]ZsL k5of]{6 cflbdf Wofg lbg] . 45

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