• eating habits
• forms of
• Spanish words
Before the coming of Spaniards, Filipinos had no surnames. Their
names was taken from their physical appearance or from any
natural event or object.
Governor-General Narciso Claveria issued a decree in 1849
allowing the Filipinos to change their names.
The Spaniards as a rule did not intermarry wit Filipinos. There were,
of course, exceptions and these exceptions led to limited
intermarriages between Spanish men and Filipino women. There
were very few recorded marriages between a Filipino male and a
Spanish female. The child of the marriage of a Filipino and a Spaniard
was called Spanish mestizo.
Mestiza de Sangley – used to refer to children of a male Chinese and
a native woman.
Indios or Indias – called to those who belonged to the pure indigenous
The social life in any Christian community during the Spanish times
revolved around the church because the friar-curate was all-powerful person
in the whole community.
Church was the municipal building called Tribunal (court of justice).
The fiesta was always in honor of the town patron saints. Religious societies
were very active in the preparation for the fiesta and other religious event.
Moro-moro – a musical stage play on the conflict between Christians and
Muslims, and their resolution; romantic and humorous.
Comedia – another name for moro-moro
Zarzuela – classic, romantic musical play on ordinary life, enriched wit
lessons; later with socio-political themes.
Cockfighting – was the principal form
of entertainment of the Filipino men.
Feodor Jagor – a German scientist,
Filipino used cockfighting as
amusement and as a form of gambling.
Pigafetta – the chronicler of the
Magellan’s expedition, saw a men
engaged in cockfighting.
The barong, or what is popularly called today barong Tagalog, began to be
worn at this time by the ordinary menfolk.
Putong – the indigenous counterpart for male head gear or hat, consisting of a
cloth wrapped on one’s head or a round or rectangular shaped hat.
The women, in the other hand, still wore their skirt or saya, the tapis, and
the patadyong. They learned to wear a camisa in a Spanish way.
This was either a rectangular or square house made of strong materials
such as first class wood like narra, ipil and molave. The roof was made
of eiter nipa or tiles. At the back of the house was the azotea.
• Their rights over property which they enjoyed during pre-Spanish times
• They could not sell the property they inherited from their parents before
their marriage w/o the consent of their husbands.
• They should be very obedient to their husbands.
• The friars taught them to prepare themselves for marriage, which was
thought to be the only function of women.
• They were taught prayers and how to behave in public.
• They were not, however, taught how to be independent, how to help their
husbands in earning more for the family, how to work in order to earn
when their husbands were sick or away and they were not how to think for
The Spaniards introduced Catholicism
to the Filipinos, who, contrary to earlier
views, did not readily accept the new
religion. In fact, many of the earliest
resistances or uprisings were due to the
desire of the people to return to the
religion of their ancestors before Spanish
When the Spaniards came, they organized a central government through the
plaza complex. A central authority ruled the whole country, except the non-
Christian areas. The Christianized Filipinos, who constituted the great majority
of the people in the lowlands, recognized this central authority and followed
the laws promulgated either by the Government of the Spain or by the
governor-general. The same laws were followed in all Christianized areas
because there was already geographical unity in the colony under the Spanish
While it is true that the Spanish administrators, including the friars-
curates, did not teach the Spanish language to the Filipino, nevertheless,
many Filipinos who had contacts with the Spaniards learned the language.
Such contacts led to adoptions of Spanish words among many Filipino
The Dominican missionaries introduced printing by woodblocks when
they published the first books in the Philippines, the Doctrina Christiana,
one in Tagalog and one in Chinese. Later, printing by typography was
introduced. Filipino and Christianized Chinese aided the Spanish friars in
their printing work.
Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay – a Filipino printer and a good engraver. He
engraved a map prepared by a Jesuit.
Tomas Pinpin – “Prince of Filipino Printers”
Domingo Loag – also a printer and an engraver. He printed many religious
During the early period of Spanish rule, education was not available to
the majority of the Filipinos. However, in the second half of the
nineteenth century, primary and secondary schools were opened to
Filipino school-age children.
Science courses were not taught as they should be.
They were not allowed to study to become a lawyers, chemist, pharmacists
and the like
Naming the islands after King Philip II as “Felipinas”, later becoming
Christianity may have deepened and enriched the indigenous spirituality or
faith of the people, but its colorful processions, fiestas and pilgrimages
rendered them generally oblivious, if not passive, to the difficult and
worsening economic and political conditions around them.
Clothes, shoes, houses, among others, may have advance in style and
comfort, and may have been a delight in sight, especially as the Spanish and
the Filipino styles produce a beautiful mix.
Intermarriage between a male Spaniards and a native women produced te
mestisaje among the population whose looks, languages, values and ways of
the colonizers, further widened the gap between the Indios and the non-
Education which was limited to a few, was conservative in orientation and
kept the majority ignorant for a long time.