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Adaptive Learning for Educational Game Design

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Educational computer games continue to overwhelm educators with design and development complexities, time, and cost and underwhelm learners regarding immersive, intuitive, and enjoyable game play. No complete model or comprehensive guideline for content development or game design exists for educators and game designers to follow in the creation of educational games that adapt to learners in real-time. This research developed and validated the ALGAE (Adaptive Learning GAme dEsign) model, a comprehensive adaptive learning model based on game design theories and practices, instructional strategies, and adaptive models. This dissertation extends previous research in game design, instructional strategies, and adaptive learning, combining these three components into a single complex model. The results of this study include the validation and applicability of the ALGAE model, benefits and challenges of using the model, and insights regarding the focused and unfocused implementation approaches. The study also reveals the cross-industry applicability of the model to include government agencies, military units, game industry, and academia.

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Adaptive Learning for Educational Game Design

  1. 1. Adaptive Learning for Educational Game Design Dr. Ed Lavieri
  2. 2. Three Roads
  3. 3. Game Design Game Design Learners excited about games; not school Excite learners about game’s content ‘to learn’ is the fundamental motivating factor Traditional Game Design
  4. 4. Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Learner Concept Map Learning Object Ontology
  5. 5. Learning Theories Human Behavior Cognitive Factors Environmental Influences Behavior Respondent (prior cues) (emotional) Operant (produces rewards/punishments) (environment) Performs Operations (encoding) Information Storage Retention/Retrieval Generate Response to Info Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Understanding Knowledge P EB
  6. 6. Adaptive LearningAdaptive Learning
  7. 7. Methodology Qualitative Exploratory Model Based Reasoning Tacit Epistemology Literature Review Integrated Model Survey Analysis Revised Model
  8. 8. ALGAE Adaptive Learning GAme dEsign (ALGAE)
  9. 9. ALGAE Model Consolidated Instructional Strategies Model (CISM)
  10. 10. ALGAE Model Comprehensive Adaptive Learning Model (CALM)
  11. 11. Survey Instrument – Area of Focus Game Design INS-STR Adaptive Learning Not Identified 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Focus Area Participant Primary Area of Focus
  12. 12. Survey Instrument – Expertise Levels Very Little Very Little Very Little Very Little Some Some Some Some Above Avg Above Avg Above Avg Above Avg Expert Expert Expert Expert 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Game Design INS-STR Adaptive Other Game Design INS-STR Adaptive Other Expert 6 19 1 6 Above Avg 7 15 8 4 Some 2 9 2 1 Very Little 1 0 0 6 Participant Level of Expertise by Area of Focus
  13. 13. Survey Instrument - Industries Government/Military Academic Game Not-For-Profit Independent Other 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Participant Industries (Select All That Apply) • No “Independent” Respondents • No “Not-For-Profit” Respondents • “Other” Write-ins: • Corporate Training & Development • Synthetic Intelligence • Libraries • Corporate and Non-Profit Online Training
  14. 14. Survey Instrument – Education Levels HS or Below HS or Below HS or Below HS or Below AS/AA AS/AA AS/AA AS/AA BS/BA BS/BA BS/BA BS/BA MS/MA MS/MA MS/MA MS/MA Doctorate Doctorate Doctorate Doctorate 0 5 10 15 20 25 Game Design INS-STR Adaptive Oher Participant Education Levels
  15. 15. RQ1 How can an adaptive learning model’s effectiveness be assessed? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 assessments automated analytics baseline / benchmarks case studies expert opnion learner retention learning outcomes measured over time
  16. 16. RQ2 What characteristics of an adaptive learning model need to be evaluated in order to determine the model’s efficacy? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
  17. 17. RQ3 What are the key conceptual elements of game design methodologies that should be incorporated into a comprehensive adaptive learning model? Missing Intuitive Transreality Component Storage Measurement Systems Video Tutorials Aesthetics Role of Trainer Personalization, Engaging, Challenging, Completion Certificate Complex Open-Ended Problem Space Unnecessary Social Connectivity / Collaborative Punishment System Instructional Strategies System Contextual Feedback NPCs Motivated
  18. 18. RQ4 What are the key instructional strategies that should be incorporated into a comprehensive adaptive learning model?
  19. 19. RQ5 What level of adaptiveness is necessary to increase learning outcomes in educational games? Level of Adaptiveness Design & Development Difficulty
  20. 20. RQ6-A What are the advantages. . .of using the ALGAE model? Inst.DesignersGameDesigners - Structure / guidelines - Game success - Improved outcomes - Non-exclusive gameplay - Link between GD & EDU - Structure / guidelines - Checklist / job aid - Understanding in-game adaptivity
  21. 21. RQ6-B What are the. . . disadvantages of using the ALGAE model? Inst.DesignersGameDesigners - Specificity of LOs - Difficult to comprehend - Difficult to implement - Change / buy-in - Collaboration with educators
  22. 22. RQ7 How does the ALGAE model support adaptive learning? Content-Related Adapts presentation of content Participation-based content creation Makes content effective Delivers adaptive content Based on learner needs Links Content to storyline Instruction and goals Goals to KSAAMs Learner-Focused Adaptable learning path In-game progression drives difficultly level
  23. 23. RQ8 What are the benefits and challenges when using a focused vs. an unfocused approach to implementing a specific game design model? UnfocusedFocused Consistency Accuracy Coordination Scope Management Flexibility Adaptability Creativity Inflexibility Stifles Creativity People Time Consuming Hard to Implement Implementation Approach
  24. 24. Implications Basic Guideline Checklist Data Schema Unknown Level of Adaptiveness (RQ5) Figure 5.41 Opinions of Usability
  25. 25. Art of the Possible
  26. 26. Future Research Near Term Detailed model analysis Focused / unfocused implementation Assessment tool Determine adaptiveness level Map to serious game heuristics Longer Term Domain ontology & repository integration method Learner retention methods Deep immersion Determine ethical, social, and cultural issues Measuring connectivity between ALGAE components Collaboration Invitation: MIT Education Arcade and Learning Games Network
  27. 27. Three Roads & ALGAE
  28. 28. Adaptive Learning Instructional Strategies Game Design Adaptive Learning for Educational Game Design Dr. Ed Lavieri

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