Past, Present and Research
Challenges in Adaptive User
Interfaces
Eduardo Castillejo, PhD. student
DeustoTech - Deusto Ins...
Outline
Introduction
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Questions And Feedback
Outline
Introduction
University of Deusto
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Questions...
University of Deusto - Bilbao Campus

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Introduction

4 / ...
University of Deusto

997 staff
> 12 K students (15% international)
125 anniversary in 2012
2 campus: Bilbao & San Sebasti...
DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology

Associated to Faculty of
Engineering, it belongs to
´
Fundacion Deusto
150 pe...
DeustoTech-INTERNET
Motto: “User-centred Intelligent Services for Anything,
Anywhere at Anytime”
Areas of research:
Contex...
DeustoTech-INTERNET Unit
Principal researcher:
´
˜
Diego Lopez-de-Ipina,
http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina/

It co...
DeustoTech-INTERNET Performance

Scientific:
2012: 66 publications
8 JCRs, 12 book chapters, 33 indexed conferences, 13 oth...
Active projects

European projects:
1. Go-Lab: Global Online Science Labs for Inquiry Learning at
School (FP7-ICT-2011-8, ...
Active projects

Spanish projects (mostly applied research):
1. THOFU: Future Hotel Technologies, CENIT 2010, Spanish
IP-l...
Active projects

Basque projects (mostly basic research):
1. DYNUI: Capability and Context-aware Dynamic Adaptation of
Use...
What we actually do?
Remote Labs & Internet-connected Objects:
GO-LAB – federation of remote labs to enable
cross-organiza...
What we actually do?

Social Data Mining & Opinion Mining:
SABESS – extracting structured knowledge about
emergencies from...
What we actually do?
Semantic Embedded Middleware:
TALIS+ENGINE – coordination of distributed embedded
objects through Tri...
What we actually do?

More info about our projects:
Projects page:
http://www.morelab.deusto.es
Semantic searcher and RDF ...
Sentiment analysis: Hotel review analysis
THOFU project
Localization data fusion
Reality Mining from user data

Past, Pres...
Social trends analysis
Imhotep project
What do we consider a “big” screen for a mobile phone?
Would a Japan individual con...
Web of Data: Waste-related LinkedStats
http://helheim.deusto.es/linkedstats/

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Ada...
SABESS: Social Data Mining for Emergency
Detection
Data gathered from social networks
NLP
Alarms triggering

Past, Present...
Federating Labs for Remote Experimentation
using the Web
http://www.weblab.deusto.es

Scalable, web-based and experiment-a...
Social Coffee

https://twitter.com/Social_Coffee
Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Introdu...
Collaborative Eco-aware Everyday Things

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Introduction

2...
Persuasive Eco-aware Everyday Things

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Introduction

24 /...
PhDs defended in the group
“CONCERT: A new framework for contextual computing in
tourism to support human mobility”, by Ca...
PhDs defended in the group
“Transitive and Scalable Federation Model for Remote
˜
´
Laboratories” by Pablo Orduna Fernande...
Some selected publications
User-Aware Location Management of Prosumed
´
˜
Micro-services. Bernhard Klein, Diego Lopez-de-I...
Some selected publications
Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent
Environments: Towards a More Reliable Contex...
Some selected publications
For more details look at:
http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina/
publications.html
http://w...
Other achievements
1 spin-off came up from the research group,
http://www.symplio.com/
Open source contributions:
Imhotep ...
Activities Organized @ MORElab

Open Hack Day 2013:
http://dev.morelab.deusto.es/hackathon/index.php/P%
C3%A1gina_principa...
MORElab’s website
http://www.morelab.deusto.es

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Introduc...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Quest...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
User Interfaces is the space where interaction between
humans and machines occurs.
The goal of th...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more

Evolution:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
User Interfaces

3...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
Graphical User Interfaces are a type of user interface that
allows users to interact with electro...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more

Adaptive User Interfaces are a type of user interface that
change their layout and elements to t...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more

It is becoming more and more difficult to distinguish between
user interfaces, graphical and adap...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
Beyond – Collapsible Input Device for Direct 3D Manipulation
beyond the Screen

http://vimeo.com/...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
Samsung Galaxy Note 3 display adaptability

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive Use...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more

Mobile physical adaptive display (fake)

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User ...
UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more
inFORM - Interacting With a Dynamic Shape Display

http://vimeo.com/79179138

Past, Present and R...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Adaptive User Interfaces
From the Imhotep framework. . .
. . . To N...
Adaptive User Interfaces (I)

Each user has his own preferences.
Moreover, there are some groups of users who have special...
Adaptive User Interfaces (II)

One of the main objectives of Adaptive User Interfaces is to
reduce the interaction problem...
Adaptive User Interfaces (III)

Limitations:
Adaptive systems solutions are very domain dependent.
Airport scenarios for r...
Adaptive User Interfaces (IV)

Limitations:
Unrelated models (users, context, devices. . . ).
They usually are considered ...
Adaptive User Interfaces (V)

Limitations:
External server dependency.
Static information about the user or the device.
.....
The Imhotep Framework (I)
Imhotep3 is a framework that tries to ease the development of
accessible and adaptable user inte...
The Imhotep Framework (II)
Imhotep:

Preprocessor directives:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Inte...
Example: AssistedCity

a) Adapted user interface for a tour-guide application
for a blind user configuration profile. The in...
The Imhotep Framework (III)

Imhotep main limitations:
Static.
External server dependency.
Pre-known and static user and d...
User’s Context Disabilities
There are several groups of people who suffer from several
disabilities: people with disabilit...
User’s Context Disabilities

Example:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research
Personal...
Research Objectives (I)

Now, regarding all these problems, what is my research
about?
To reduce the users’ context disabi...
Research Objectives (II)
Main goals:
1. To design a methodology where users, context and devices
evolve because of the con...
Areas of research

This research tackles the following areas:
Context-awareness
Human-Computer Interaction
Adaptive user i...
Areas of research

This research tackles the following areas:
Context-awareness
Human-Computer Interaction
Adaptive user i...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Interdependences
Models
Adaptation Process
Evaluation...
Interdependences (I)
An analysis of the
context/user and
device/user influence.
For example, which
context parameters
affec...
Interdependences (II)
An influence association between entities (user, context,
device) and the final adaptation of each UI ...
Models
A user, context and device model which is:
Domain independent. It gathers most of the most significant
models in the...
Literature Context Models (I)

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

63 / 99
Context Model (II)
Proposed model:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

64 / ...
Context Model (III)

Divided into two main groups:
Primary:
Physical context : Environment information from sensors
(e.g.,...
Context Model (IV-a)

Secondary:
Environment metadata : Environment knowledge is
associated to sensors. A sensor can provi...
Context Model (IV-b)

Secondary:
Virtual environment : Combining the knowledge of the
categories above it is possible to e...
Context Model (V)

Stressful conditions :
We need something more to characterize the
current situation that involves user,...
Context Model (VI)

Stressful conditions :
Activities help to understand the current user,
context and device situation.
A...
Context Model (VII)

Several groups of activities that should be considered:
Activities that limit the use of the hands.
A...
Literature user models

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

71 / 99
User model (I)

Proposed model:
Modeling users’ concrete disabilities is troublesome (we are
no doctors) 4 .
Instead of th...
User model (II)

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

73 / 99
User model (III)
The model is categorized as follows:
Interface : which models the I/O “preferences” (e.g., if the
user is...
Device Model (I)
Proposed model:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

75 / 99
Device Model (II)

It models several dynamic capabilities (“Status”).
These capabilities should be taken into account when...
Models’ granularity (I)

“The performance of a model depends critically on the
granularity, for example the choice of prec...
Models’ granularity (II)
How do I tackle this?
Each modeled entity is considered separately:
Context:
Different levels (lo...
User’s model granularity

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

79 / 99
Context’s model granularity

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

80 / 99
Device’s model granularity

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

81 / 99
Modeling technique

The power of the mark-up language
The power of semantics
So. . . Ontologies Vs. XML
The problem with o...
Usability (I)
A usability model is proposed to collect the user interaction
data with the adapted user interface.
This mod...
Usability (II)

The idea is to get a % of the compatibility between the user
and the adapted user interface.
The user is h...
Usability (III)

The % of the compatibility is calculated comparing a best
situation scenario with the adapted user interf...
Usability (IV)
The user-interaction “configurator”:

https://github.com/edlectrico/dynamic-capability-tester
Past, Present ...
Adaptation Process (I)
Dynamic process:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Contributions

...
Adaptation Process (II)
Context Manager : It gathers data from the environment.
User Capabilities Reasoner : It “mixes” co...
Adaptation Process (III)
Historical adaptation.
Standard UI.

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Inter...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Questions And Feedback
Evaluation (I)

Of the model:
Scenarios definition.
Not adapted Vs. adapted user interfaces.
Android accessibility user int...
Evaluation (II)
Spanish Blind Organization:

Basque Deaf Organization:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive ...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Questions And Feedback
Contributions status (I)
Objective: To reduce user’s context disabilities by using an
adaptive user interface dynamic proc...
Contributions status (II)
A usability matrix (based on usability metrics) which allows
to analyze the interaction between ...
Contributions status (III)
Updated methodology:

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Conclus...
Outline
Introduction
User Interfaces
Personal research
Contributions
Evaluation
Conclusions
Questions And Feedback
Questions And Feedback

...?

Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces
Questions And Feedback

98...
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Past, Present and Research Challenge in Adaptive User Interfaces

  1. 1. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Eduardo Castillejo, PhD. student DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto http://www.morelab.deusto.es December 9, 2013
  2. 2. Outline Introduction
  3. 3. Outline Introduction User Interfaces
  4. 4. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research
  5. 5. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions
  6. 6. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation
  7. 7. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions
  8. 8. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  9. 9. Outline Introduction University of Deusto User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  10. 10. University of Deusto - Bilbao Campus Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 4 / 99
  11. 11. University of Deusto 997 staff > 12 K students (15% international) 125 anniversary in 2012 2 campus: Bilbao & San Sebastian Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 5 / 99
  12. 12. DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology Associated to Faculty of Engineering, it belongs to ´ Fundacion Deusto 150 people divided in 7 research units Representing DeustoTech-INTERNET, a.k.a. MORElab – envisioning future Internet research group http://www.morelab.deusto.es Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 6 / 99
  13. 13. DeustoTech-INTERNET Motto: “User-centred Intelligent Services for Anything, Anywhere at Anytime” Areas of research: Context-aware Mobile Computing for Enhanced User-Environment Interaction Semantic Middleware for Embedded Wirelessly-connected Devices Smart Environments of Augmented Internet-connected Objects Ambient Assisted Living (AAL): adaptive accessible interfaces and social robotics Future Internet: Internet of Services, Internet/Web of Things and Web of Data Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 7 / 99
  14. 14. DeustoTech-INTERNET Unit Principal researcher: ´ ˜ Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina/ It comprises: 4 lecturers 4 PostDoc 6 full-time researchers 7 PhD grant holders 3 MSc grant holders 24 people Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 8 / 99
  15. 15. DeustoTech-INTERNET Performance Scientific: 2012: 66 publications 8 JCRs, 12 book chapters, 33 indexed conferences, 13 other publications 2011: 48 publications 8 JCRs, 13 book chapters, 3 indexed conferences, 24 other publications Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 9 / 99
  16. 16. Active projects European projects: 1. Go-Lab: Global Online Science Labs for Inquiry Learning at School (FP7-ICT-2011-8, Nr. 317601, IP project) 2. IES CITIES: Internet-Enabled Services for the Cities across ´ Europe, FP7, Comision Europea, CIP-ICT-PSP-2012-6, Pilot Type B - CIP-ICT-PSP-P 3. SONOPA: SOcial Networks for Older adults to Promote an Active life (AAL-2012-5-187 and AAL-010000-2013-13), AAL call 5. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 10 / 99
  17. 17. Active projects Spanish projects (mostly applied research): 1. THOFU: Future Hotel Technologies, CENIT 2010, Spanish IP-like project 2. ADAPTA. Adapting, validating and integrating open data for governments and companies, IPT-2011-0949-430000 3. Social Awareness Based Emergency Situation Solver. SABESS, IPT-2011-1052-390000 4. Migration towards the Cloud - mCLOUD, IPT-2011-1558-430000 5. TALIS+ENGINE: Hybrid Cooperative and Semantic Reasoning for Service Orchestration in Assistive Environments (TIN2010-20510-C04-03), Basic Research project Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 11 / 99
  18. 18. Active projects Basque projects (mostly basic research): 1. DYNUI: Capability and Context-aware Dynamic Adaptation of User Interfaces for Ambient Assisted Living (PC2012-73A) 2. UCADAMI: User and Context-aware Dynamically Adaptable Mobile Interfaces (S-PE12FD006) 3. SmarTUR: Tourism in Smart Intelligent Environments 4. DEUSTEK3: Research group recognized by the Basque University system (IT745-13) 5. . . . upto 8 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 12 / 99
  19. 19. What we actually do? Remote Labs & Internet-connected Objects: GO-LAB – federation of remote labs to enable cross-organization remote experiments WebLab-Deusto – open platform to ease the deployment of remote labs Enabling Smart Assistive Environments: THOFU – creating the ICT infrastructure for next generation hotels and tourism including smart objects and sentiment analysis SONOPA – activity-aware social networks to promote social interaction among elderlies TALIS+ENGINE – fostering personal autonomy by ambiguous context modeling, reasoning and services coordination through triple spaces DYNUI – user interfaces adaptable to user context, capabilities and devices Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 13 / 99
  20. 20. What we actually do? Social Data Mining & Opinion Mining: SABESS – extracting structured knowledge about emergencies from social networks THOFU – analysing information about hotel reviews to perform sentiment analysis Linked Data & Linked Data Apps: IES CITIES – urban app ecosystems based on council and government open data where users prosume data ADAPTA – enabling a holistic LinkedData platform to adapt, validate and exploit open data (dataset recommendation) SmarTUR – tourism related LinkedData Apps (LinkedQR) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 14 / 99
  21. 21. What we actually do? Semantic Embedded Middleware: TALIS+ENGINE – coordination of distributed embedded objects through Triple Spaces Sustainable IoT – persuasive interfaces and cooperation among smart connected objects to foster sustainability Cloud Computing: mCLOUD – migration of enterprise applications to the Cloud Mobile Computing for Enhanced User-Environment Interaction: Q-Apps - Quality-in-use assessment framework for mobile apps KONTATU - Context-Aware Communication Means Recommendation LaguNFC - Enabling access to the digital world to the elderly Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 15 / 99
  22. 22. What we actually do? More info about our projects: Projects page: http://www.morelab.deusto.es Semantic searcher and RDF descriptions Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 16 / 99
  23. 23. Sentiment analysis: Hotel review analysis THOFU project Localization data fusion Reality Mining from user data Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 17 / 99
  24. 24. Social trends analysis Imhotep project What do we consider a “big” screen for a mobile phone? Would a Japan individual consider the same screen “big”? Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 18 / 99
  25. 25. Web of Data: Waste-related LinkedStats http://helheim.deusto.es/linkedstats/ Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 19 / 99
  26. 26. SABESS: Social Data Mining for Emergency Detection Data gathered from social networks NLP Alarms triggering Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 20 / 99
  27. 27. Federating Labs for Remote Experimentation using the Web http://www.weblab.deusto.es Scalable, web-based and experiment-agnostic remote laboratory management system: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 21 / 99
  28. 28. Social Coffee https://twitter.com/Social_Coffee Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 22 / 99
  29. 29. Collaborative Eco-aware Everyday Things Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 23 / 99
  30. 30. Persuasive Eco-aware Everyday Things Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 24 / 99
  31. 31. PhDs defended in the group “CONCERT: A new framework for contextual computing in tourism to support human mobility”, by Carlos Lamsfus, ´ ˜ supervised by Diego Lopez-de-Ipina y Aurkene Alzua, 29/10/2010 “Middleware Framework for the Configuration and Personalisation of Ubiquitous Environments by the Final ´ ˜ User” by Aitor Uribarren, supervised by Diego Lopez-de-Ipina and Rosa Iglesias, 01/07/2011 “The web as a suitable execution platform to precisely represent audio-visual contents and registering user interaction” by Pablo Garaizar, supervised by Dr. Diego ´ ´ ˜ Lopez-de-Ipina y Dr. Miguel Angel Vadillo, 29/04/2013 “New protocols for the discovery and automatic composition of services in ad hoc mobile networks”, by Unai Aguilera, ´ ˜ supervised by Dr. Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, 3/05/2013 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 25 / 99
  32. 32. PhDs defended in the group “Transitive and Scalable Federation Model for Remote ˜ ´ Laboratories” by Pablo Orduna Fernandez, supervised by Dr. Javier Garc´a Zubia, 31/05/2013 ı “Plataforma web y metodolog´a para el desarrollo de ı ´ sistemas sensibles al contexto basada en la colaboracion entre programadores y expertos en el dominio” by David ´ ˜ Mart´n del Canto, supervised by Dr. Diego Lopez-de-Ipina y ı Dra. Aurkene Alzua, 7/6/2013 “Towards more Reliable and Efficient Intelligent Environments: Uncertainty, Vagueness and Reasoning Distribution” by Aitor Almeida Escondrillas, supervised by Dr. ´ ˜ Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, 10/06/2013 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 26 / 99
  33. 33. Some selected publications User-Aware Location Management of Prosumed ´ ˜ Micro-services. Bernhard Klein, Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, ´ Christian Guggenmos and Jorge Perez. Interacting with Computers, ACCEPTED, in press, ISSN:0953-5438, JCR Impact Factor (2012): 1.158, Q2(COMPUTER SCIENCE, CYBERNETICS), ranked 10/21, OXFORD UNIV PRESS Towards federated interoperable bridges for sharing ˜ educational remote laboratories. Pablo Orduna, Philip H ´ ˜ Bailey, Kimberly DeLong, Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, Javier Garcia-Zubia. Computers in Human Behavior (Journal), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.029, ISSN 0747-5632, JCR Impact Factor (2011): 2.293, Q1(PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY), ranked 22/125, PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, March 2013. Software Engineering Aspects of Ubiquitous Computing and ´ ˜ Ambient Intelligence. Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, Sergio F. Ochoa ´ and Jose Bravo. Science of Computer Programming, Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 27 / 99
  34. 34. Some selected publications Assessing Ambiguity of Context Data in Intelligent Environments: Towards a More Reliable Context Managing ´ ˜ System, Aitor Almeida and Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, Sensors (Journal). Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 4934-4951. MDPI. JCR Impact Factor (2011): 1.739, Q1(INSTRUMENTS&INSTRUMENTATION), ranked 14/58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s120404934. April 2012 Imhotep: an approach to user and device conscious mobile ˜ applications, Aitor Almeida, Pablo Orduna, Eduardo ˜ ´ Castillejo, Diego Lopez-de-Ipina, Marcos Sacristan, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (Journal). Springer. Vol. 15, no.4. pp.419-429. JCR Impact Factor (2011): 0.938, Q2(COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION SYSTEMS), ranked 66/133. ISSN: 1617-4909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00779-010-0359-8. January 2011 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 28 / 99
  35. 35. Some selected publications For more details look at: http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina/ publications.html http://www.morelab.deusto.es/labman/publications/ Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 29 / 99
  36. 36. Other achievements 1 spin-off came up from the research group, http://www.symplio.com/ Open source contributions: Imhotep framework (Apache license): http://www.morelab.deusto.es/imhotep/ WebLabDeusto – https://www.weblab.deusto.es/web/ Otsopack – http://code.google.com/p/otsopack/ Zxing – databar – http://code.google.com/p/zxing/ (Barcode Scanner - Android) Open dataset released in CKAN about MORElab’s people, projects and publications: http://ckan.linkeddata.es/dataset/morelab Our datasets are scheduled to appear in next http://lod-cloud.net/ ˜ MORElab researcher Pablo Orduna was awarded MIT TR35 SPAIN in 2012 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 30 / 99
  37. 37. Activities Organized @ MORElab Open Hack Day 2013: http://dev.morelab.deusto.es/hackathon/index.php/P% C3%A1gina_principal#Resultados Random Hacks for Kindness @Bilbao http: //www.morelab.deusto.es/index.php/news-287822021/ past-news/405-random-hacks-for-kindness-bilbao AppCircus in Bilbao http://appcircus.com/event/appcircus-en-bilbao Apps4BetterWorld http://www.morelab.deusto.es/concurso/index.html Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 31 / 99
  38. 38. MORElab’s website http://www.morelab.deusto.es Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Introduction 32 / 99
  39. 39. Outline Introduction User Interfaces UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  40. 40. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more User Interfaces is the space where interaction between humans and machines occurs. The goal of this interaction is effective operation and control of the machine on the user’s end, and feedback from the machine. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 34 / 99
  41. 41. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Evolution: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 35 / 99
  42. 42. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Graphical User Interfaces are a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators The actions in GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 36 / 99
  43. 43. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Adaptive User Interfaces are a type of user interface that change their layout and elements to the needs of the user or context and is similarly alterable by each user. Examples. PC web browsing Vs. mobile (content adaptation) Accessibility tools for mobile devices SW tools menus personalization ... Adaptive Vs. Adaptable. Adaptable: Android brightness control, Office menus, etc. No context-aware... Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 37 / 99
  44. 44. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more It is becoming more and more difficult to distinguish between user interfaces, graphical and adaptive user interfaces Technology and interaction boundaries allow researches to seek for alternatives For example: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 38 / 99
  45. 45. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Beyond – Collapsible Input Device for Direct 3D Manipulation beyond the Screen http://vimeo.com/11015834 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 39 / 99
  46. 46. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Samsung Galaxy Note 3 display adaptability Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 40 / 99
  47. 47. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more Mobile physical adaptive display (fake) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 41 / 99
  48. 48. UIs, GUIs, AUIs and more inFORM - Interacting With a Dynamic Shape Display http://vimeo.com/79179138 Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces User Interfaces 42 / 99
  49. 49. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Adaptive User Interfaces From the Imhotep framework. . . . . . To New Research Challenges Addressed Research Areas Contributions Evaluation Conclusions
  50. 50. Adaptive User Interfaces (I) Each user has his own preferences. Moreover, there are some groups of users who have special needs and capabilities: people with disabilities and the elderly. Furthermore, people with the same disability do not react in the same way. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 44 / 99
  51. 51. Adaptive User Interfaces (II) One of the main objectives of Adaptive User Interfaces is to reduce the interaction problems that these groups suffer. In Europe the share of people aged 65 represent a 17% of the current population. By the year 2060 this figure is projected to rise to 30% 1 . In fact, the European Commission states, “the EU would move from having four people of working-age to each person aged over 65 years to about two people of working-age” 1 http://ec.europa.eu/economy finance/articles/structural reforms/2012-0515 ageing report en.htm Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 45 / 99
  52. 52. Adaptive User Interfaces (III) Limitations: Adaptive systems solutions are very domain dependent. Airport scenarios for recommending services (users and devices are modeled), smart homes for controlling and share information between devices (again, users and devices), desktop to mobile web content adaptation (user’s preferences). . . But it is true that sometimes it is inevitable. . . (e.g., medical environments). This means: similar entities considered but using different models, techniques, approaches. . . Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 46 / 99
  53. 53. Adaptive User Interfaces (IV) Limitations: Unrelated models (users, context, devices. . . ). They usually are considered like independent entities. But. . . Context might affect user’s capabilities. Devices can bother the user. There is no standardization for designing these systems. Not for the models. Not for the methodology. Only for several quality and usability goals (ISO 9126-I, ISO 9241-II. . . ). Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 47 / 99
  54. 54. Adaptive User Interfaces (V) Limitations: External server dependency. Static information about the user or the device. ... In fact, there are several accessibility tools in mobile devices (Android, iPhone. . . ) The problem is that they are not adaptative. They are adaptable. It requires the user intervention for configuring the model2 . They do not evolve through time. They are static. No learning. 2 Heckmann, D., 2005. Ubiquitous user modeling. IOS Press. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 48 / 99
  55. 55. The Imhotep Framework (I) Imhotep3 is a framework that tries to ease the development of accessible and adaptable user interfaces taking into account both the user capabilities and the device characteristics. Preprocessor directives within the application’s source code evaluated in the server. User’s disability (e.g., blindness) is configured in a configuration mobile application. The configured profile is sent to the server, which compiles the application’s source code taking into account the received user profile and the defined preprocessor directives. Once the binaries have been generated by the server, the adapted application is sent back to the user’s device. 3 ˜ ´ ˜ ´ Almeida, A., Orduna, P., Castillejo, E., Lopez-de-Ipina, D., Sacristan, M., 2011. Imhotep: an approach to user and device conscious mobile applications. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 15, 419–429. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 49 / 99
  56. 56. The Imhotep Framework (II) Imhotep: Preprocessor directives: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 50 / 99
  57. 57. Example: AssistedCity a) Adapted user interface for a tour-guide application for a blind user configuration profile. The interaction channel is mainly conducted by voice commands and text-to-speech. b) Default tour-guide application, where the interaction channel is mostly visual. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 51 / 99
  58. 58. The Imhotep Framework (III) Imhotep main limitations: Static. External server dependency. Pre-known and static user and device capabilities. Unreal user capabilities: What (sight) graduation is the maximum for justifying a user interface change? 30%? 40%? We are no doctors. . . No context-awareness. New challenges http://www.morelab.deusto.es/imhotep/ Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 52 / 99
  59. 59. User’s Context Disabilities There are several groups of people who suffer from several disabilities: people with disabilities and elder people. These people have conditions which make difficult to carry out diary tasks. But the truth is that all of us suffer from certain disabilities during the day. . . When sunlight reflects on a glossy screen (e.g., our smartphones’ screen) our sight capability is reduced. When we try to call a friend in a concert, in the subway, in a crowded street. . . our hearing capability is “harmed”. User’s context disability depends on how context might affect user’s capabilities when several tasks are being carried out. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 53 / 99
  60. 60. User’s Context Disabilities Example: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 54 / 99
  61. 61. Research Objectives (I) Now, regarding all these problems, what is my research about? To reduce the users’ context disabilities through a dynamic methodology which employs several dynamic models and considers users’ configured capabilities, the set of characteristics which defines the current environment where users actually are and the actual devices they use by adapting mobile applications’ user interfaces to the current situation. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 55 / 99
  62. 62. Research Objectives (II) Main goals: 1. To design a methodology where users, context and devices evolve because of the context variability. 2. To model this evolution through a process which will be able to dynamically adapt the best and most suitable user interface for each precise context situation. 3. To validate the results by capturing the interaction between the user and the adapted user interface. 4. To demonstrate that it is possible to develop dynamic adaptive applications which are able to reduce users’ disabilities taking into account their own characteristics, the devices’ ones and those which belong to the current context. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 56 / 99
  63. 63. Areas of research This research tackles the following areas: Context-awareness Human-Computer Interaction Adaptive user interfaces Inclusive design Considerate computing Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 57 / 99
  64. 64. Areas of research This research tackles the following areas: Context-awareness Human-Computer Interaction Adaptive user interfaces Inclusive design Considerate computing Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces research Personal 58 / 99
  65. 65. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Interdependences Models Adaptation Process Evaluation Conclusions
  66. 66. Interdependences (I) An analysis of the context/user and device/user influence. For example, which context parameters affect users’ capabilities. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 60 / 99
  67. 67. Interdependences (II) An influence association between entities (user, context, device) and the final adaptation of each UI component. DEVICE DV_CONTRAST US_BRIGHTNESS DV_BRIGHTNESS US_OUTPUT BRIGHTNESS US_CONTRAST CTX_TEMPERATURE CTX_LUMINOSITY CONTRAST DV_OUTPUT VIEW_SIZE CONTEXT US_VIEW_SIZE DV_ACCELERATION US_TEXT_COLOR DV_TEXT_COLOR VIEW_COLOR USER US_TEXT_SIZE US_VIEW_COLOR DV_BATTERY TEXT_SIZE DV_ORIENTATION TEXT_COLOR DV_VIEW_SIZE DV_TEXT_SIZE US_INPUT DV_VIEW_COLOR CTX_NOISE DV_VOLUME DV_INPUT VOLUME INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 61 / 99 US_VOLUME
  68. 68. Models A user, context and device model which is: Domain independent. It gathers most of the most significant models in the literature. HCI, Smart Environments, Ubiquitous Computing. . . Physical/medical user’s disabilities independent. The user “configures” his/her capabilities. A usability model (based on usability metrics) which allows to analyze the interaction between the user and the adapted user interface (this model will be necessary for the evaluation). Collect user data Extra: A Java (Android) library for developers to ease the design of dynamic adaptive user interfaces. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 62 / 99
  69. 69. Literature Context Models (I) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 63 / 99
  70. 70. Context Model (II) Proposed model: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 64 / 99
  71. 71. Context Model (III) Divided into two main groups: Primary: Physical context : Environment information from sensors (e.g., temperature, absolute location, time. . . ). High-level context : Physical richen information (e.g., “it’s cold”, “office”, “morning”. . . ). Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 65 / 99
  72. 72. Context Model (IV-a) Secondary: Environment metadata : Environment knowledge is associated to sensors. A sensor can provide information about the temperature (23o C). But this information by itself is poor in a context-aware system. Environment metadata can describe and enrich this knowledge, providing time and location data. For example, “the current temperature at 12:00 AM in Bilbao is 13o C”.. . . Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 66 / 99
  73. 73. Context Model (IV-b) Secondary: Virtual environment : Combining the knowledge of the categories above it is possible to extract high-level information. For example, if a sensor shows that there is a light turned on at office, we can deduce that there are people working. This way, we avoid the usage of other sensors to indicate this activity.. . . “Stressful conditions” : ??? Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 67 / 99
  74. 74. Context Model (V) Stressful conditions : We need something more to characterize the current situation that involves user, its current context and the device. Incongruent adaptations: defined by several environment parameters that induce the platform to perform a certain adaptation for the current conditions. However, the result of this adaptation, although it can be linearly aligned with the context characteristics, can be incongruent. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 68 / 99
  75. 75. Context Model (VI) Stressful conditions : Activities help to understand the current user, context and device situation. Activities enrich the environment information. Manipulating with hands or being at a certain location (like a library, where people are in silence) are aspects that we should consider when we model context. For example, driving or cooking restrict user capabilities momentarily. This way, we can state that these activities impede the user. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 69 / 99
  76. 76. Context Model (VII) Several groups of activities that should be considered: Activities that limit the use of the hands. Activities that limit the use of the voice. Activities that limit the user’s sight capability. Activities that limit the user’s hearing capability. Activities that limit the user’s mobility? (not sure) Activities that limit the user attention. Combinations of these activities. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 70 / 99
  77. 77. Literature user models Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 71 / 99
  78. 78. User model (I) Proposed model: Modeling users’ concrete disabilities is troublesome (we are no doctors) 4 . Instead of this, it is possible to let the users to “configure” their disabilities. 4 Casas, R., Blasco Mar´n, R., Robinet, A., Delgado, A., Yarza, A., Mcginn, J., ı Picking, R., Grout, V., 2008. User modelling in ambient intelligence for elderly and disabled people. Computers Helping People with Special Needs 114–122. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 72 / 99
  79. 79. User model (II) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 73 / 99
  80. 80. User model (III) The model is categorized as follows: Interface : which models the I/O “preferences” (e.g., if the user is blind or has any sight problem, he/she would like to interact with gestures, voice control, etc.). Display : for taking care about the orientation, brightness, colors (color blindness). . . Audio : volume, language. . . View : it configures each View or Control displayed in the device’s screen (i.e., a Label, EditText, ComboBox. . . ). Others : which gathers several extra interaction features. Minimum UI Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 74 / 99
  81. 81. Device Model (I) Proposed model: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 75 / 99
  82. 82. Device Model (II) It models several dynamic capabilities (“Status”). These capabilities should be taken into account when facing any adaptation process (e.g., current brightness could be enough to avoid an adaptation, current battery levels might advise against new processing activities. . . ) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 76 / 99
  83. 83. Models’ granularity (I) “The performance of a model depends critically on the granularity, for example the choice of precision of the parameters. Too high precision generally involves modeling of accidental noise and too low precision may lead to confusion of models that should be distinguished” 5 5 ´ Gao, Q., Li, M., Vitanyi, P., 2000. Applying MDL to learn best model granularity. Artificial Intelligence 121, 1–29. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 77 / 99
  84. 84. Models’ granularity (II) How do I tackle this? Each modeled entity is considered separately: Context: Different levels (low-level parameters from sensors Vs. high-level information) “Activities” (stressful conditions) are not considered as a list of specific activities (instead of “cooking” we consider an activity that impedes the use of the hands and distracts user attention) User: Capabilities are not “medical-based”, they are configured Device: As Context, several “physical” data is required (battery levels, screen orientation, available memory. . . ) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 78 / 99
  85. 85. User’s model granularity Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 79 / 99
  86. 86. Context’s model granularity Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 80 / 99
  87. 87. Device’s model granularity Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 81 / 99
  88. 88. Modeling technique The power of the mark-up language The power of semantics So. . . Ontologies Vs. XML The problem with ontologies is to find those that already model those parameters that I’m interested in (e.g., the temperature, luminosity, etc.) Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 82 / 99
  89. 89. Usability (I) A usability model is proposed to collect the user interaction data with the adapted user interface. This model is based on several “quality of use” metrics focused on usability: Task effectiveness. Task completion. Error frequency. Task time: Time to start the task. Time to finish the task. Satisfactory clicks. Error clicks. ... ISO/IEC 9126-4. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 83 / 99
  90. 90. Usability (II) The idea is to get a % of the compatibility between the user and the adapted user interface. The user is his own “expert”. This way the platform learns from the interaction refining the UI results. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 84 / 99
  91. 91. Usability (III) The % of the compatibility is calculated comparing a best situation scenario with the adapted user interface. The best scenario is the one on which the user can perfectly interact and perform the desired task. To “capture” this scenario a mobile user interface configurator has been developed. The idea is to compare the usability metrics between the perfect and the adapted user interfaces. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 85 / 99
  92. 92. Usability (IV) The user-interaction “configurator”: https://github.com/edlectrico/dynamic-capability-tester Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 86 / 99
  93. 93. Adaptation Process (I) Dynamic process: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 87 / 99
  94. 94. Adaptation Process (II) Context Manager : It gathers data from the environment. User Capabilities Reasoner : It “mixes” context and user’s capabilities (user’s context capabilities) to generate an updated user capabilities profile using the context-user influence taxonomy. UI Reasoner : With the updated user capabilities and the device’s ones it search for the best user interface for the current situation. It searches in a repository for previous similar configurations to avoid unnecessary adaptations. It uses several rules to recommend the best configuration. UI Adaptation Engine : It is a dynamic Android module which performs on-the-fly user interface adaptations. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 88 / 99
  95. 95. Adaptation Process (III) Historical adaptation. Standard UI. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Contributions 89 / 99
  96. 96. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  97. 97. Evaluation (I) Of the model: Scenarios definition. Not adapted Vs. adapted user interfaces. Android accessibility user interface Vs. adapted user interfaces. ... State of the art models comparison. the resulting UIs. Of the generated/adapted UI: Through the interaction model (Best case Vs. Adapted case) Usability models. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Evaluation 91 / 99
  98. 98. Evaluation (II) Spanish Blind Organization: Basque Deaf Organization: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Evaluation 92 / 99
  99. 99. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  100. 100. Contributions status (I) Objective: To reduce user’s context disabilities by using an adaptive user interface dynamic process. Contributions: 1. An analysis of the context/user and device/user influence. Status : First version. 2. An interdependency table that shows how each entity (user, context, device) affects the final adaptation. Status : First version. 3. A user, context and device dynamic model for adaptive user interface domains. Status : First XML versions. Integrated with the Android process. Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Conclusions 94 / 99
  101. 101. Contributions status (II) A usability matrix (based on usability metrics) which allows to analyze the interaction between the user and the adapted user interface. Status : Not started. First: analyze which usability/productivity metrics are needed (ISO 9126-4). A dynamic process which using these models and interdependencies allows developers to design adaptive applications. Status : A first operative Android version (next slide). The evaluation scenarios definition. Status : Not started yet. . . Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Conclusions 95 / 99
  102. 102. Contributions status (III) Updated methodology: Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Conclusions 96 / 99
  103. 103. Outline Introduction User Interfaces Personal research Contributions Evaluation Conclusions Questions And Feedback
  104. 104. Questions And Feedback ...? Past, Present and Research Challenges in Adaptive User Interfaces Questions And Feedback 98 / 99

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