SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector

India is a land of rivers having prevalently a farming-based economy. Agriculture is the fundamental supporter of most of the general population in India and water is the most significant contribution to crop generation. The accomplishment of agriculture relies on the sufficiency and timely event of precipitation. Yet, the precipitation in India is frequently meagre, uneven and there is indeed, even all out disappointment in certain districts and during certain periods. Downpour is bound to a couple of months in a year and it shifts from year to year and district to-area which makes enormous pieces of the nation defenceless against drought. In this manner, natural distribution of water is lacking both spatially and transiently. Aside from the distinction in money saving advantage of good irrigation in various mouzas and diverse irrigation systems, the spatial example is likewise uneven at small scale level for example one irrigation framework to another irrigation framework. The Z-Score an incentive if there should be an occurrence of Co-employable RLI (+1.80) scored most astounding which shows the greatest net benefit for boro development. The most minimal score which is seen in the STW (leased) (- 1.42) poor inundated zone shows minimal benefit for boor development.

1 of 5
Download to read offline
International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF)
ISSN: 2456-8635
[Vol-7, Issue-3, May-Jun, 2023]
Issue DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3
Peer-Reviewed Journal
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.)
https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 1
Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and
Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector
Rajkaran Shukla, Surajbhan Singh
Sunrise University, Alwar, Rajasthan, India
Received: 08 May 2023; Received in revised form: 14 Jun 2023; Accepted: 21 Jun 2023; Available online: 30 Jun 2023
©2023 The Author(s). Published by AI Publications. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Abstract— India is a land of rivers having prevalently a farming-based economy. Agriculture is the fundamental
supporter of most of the general population in India and water is the most significant contribution to crop generation.
The accomplishment of agriculture relies on the sufficiency and timely event of precipitation. Yet, the precipitation in
India is frequently meagre, uneven and there is indeed, even all out disappointment in certain districts and during
certain periods. Downpour is bound to a couple of months in a year and it shifts from year to year and district to-
area which makes enormous pieces of the nation defenceless against drought. In this manner, natural distribution of
water is lacking both spatially and transiently. Aside from the distinction in money saving advantage of good
irrigation in various mouzas and diverse irrigation systems, the spatial example is likewise uneven at small scale level
for example one irrigation framework to another irrigation framework. The Z-Score an incentive if there should be
an occurrence of Co-employable RLI (+1.80) scored most astounding which shows the greatest net benefit for boro
development. The most minimal score which is seen in the STW (leased) (- 1.42) poor inundated zone shows minimal
benefit for boor development.
Keywords— farming-based, natural, distribution, territory, capital salary
I. INTRODUCTION
Irrigation is the utilization of water misleadingly to the land
or soil. Irrigation is a significant method for the harvests to
get water at perfect time. It is utilized to help the
development of farming yields and in the upkeep of scenes
during the times of lacking precipitation. Irrigation means
watering the fields using any and all means other than
sprinkling his investigation has built up that presentation of
irrigation in a specific territory builds ranch generation as
well as melds the physical and the social situations in men
supports in this way expanding the per capital salary.
The arrangement of irrigation practices fluctuates in various
pieces of the world all in all as in our nation specifically.
The territory of Jharkhand is no special case to this. Ranchi
locale is essentially subject to storm precipitation. The
rainstorm precipitation isn't ordinary. As an outcome, the
accomplishment of horticulture is impacted by the irrigation
offices. There are a few kinds of irrigation practice. The real
kinds of irrigation are as per the following I) Shallow Tube
Well (STW), II) River Lift Irrigation (RLI), III) Deep Tube
Well (DTW), IV) Dug Well, V) Canal Irrigation and VII)
Tank Irrigation. In Ranchi District the irrigation is drilled
for the most part in the winter season.
India's all out territory under irrigation is 64.7 million
hectares; the primary Indian Irrigation Commission (1901-
03) directed a fairly nitty gritty enquiry into the issue and
on the possibility of irrigation in the different areas of India.
Be that as it may, in the states like Jharkhand, the irrigation
was perceived after India's freedom in 1947 and worried
after during the late 1960s with the usage of New
Agricultural Strategy. About 35% of the cultivable territory
is under irrigation in Ranchi District. Among the different
kinds of irrigation shallow cylinder well is the most
practical and mainstream irrigation technique among the
ranchers of this locale. Ground water in the locale is
available in both water table and in kept states of the springs
extending top to bottom from around 2 metres(m) to 303
mbgl (meter subterranean level).
Burrowed wells and medium to uncompromising irrigation
cylinder wells are in used to tap the ground water. They
change inside and out from around 2 m to 8 mbgl. During
the field study, it is seen that the diverse irrigation
Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF)
7(3)-2023
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.)
https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 2
frameworks and agrarian practices face a few issues in the
region. In the event that the issues can be tended to
appropriately, at that point the future advancement of
irrigation framework will flourish in the area.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Ram Kumar (2016) - Drip irrigation is an irrigation
strategy that spares water and fertilizer by allowing water to
drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the dirt surface
or legitimately onto the root zone through a network of
valves, pipes, tubing and producers. It is done through
limited cylinders that deliver water legitimately to the base
of the plant. However, India has the biggest irrigation
network, the irrigation effectiveness does not surpass 40%.
The average precipitation in Uttar Pradesh is 650 mm as
against the average precipitation of 1200 mm in the nation.
Because of water shortage, the accessible water resources
ought to be in all respects successfully used through water
saving irrigation innovations. Broadening of cropping
design especially for vegetable crops is getting to be
prominent among ranchers because vegetables are most
significant segment in a decent eating regimen. Be that as it
may, enhancement of zone from field crops to floriculture
to satisfy the need isn't alluring. The greatest yield of crop
900 gm/plant and least of yield 600 gm/plant what's more,
absolute yield 52270 gm (52.270 kg). The increment in
water use productivity for drip irrigation framework.
Among the drip irrigation levels, the highest field water use
productivity (6148.31kg ha-1 cm-1) was found at 65%
irrigation level, demonstrating relatively increasingly
efficient use of irrigation water with a plausibility of water
saving of 35% water by embracing brinjal plot (1.58-liter
plant-1day-1).
Sohoni (2013) in his study presumes that the exhibition of
watershed development projects depends inconceivably on
the presentation of unit watershed mediations like
energizing a well through treatment in upper catchment,
terracing of a real estate parcel on slants, building water
gathering structure or a bund and so forth. The
accomplishment of these unit intercessions rely upon a lot
of good practices. These practices incorporate
comprehension and displaying of 45 needs of the nearby
individuals pursued by arranging and plan of arrangement
which is the most fitting in the given circumstance which is
then trailed by usage. Advancement of such practices is an
iterative and steady procedure with consistent connection
with the neighbourhood individuals who assess and approve
the practices. The final result of the entire procedure is age
of information.
Shashidhara. K.K. also, B.S. Reddy (2012) the Study
uncovers that consciousness of environmental change is
significant part of homestead level selection that
temperature has expanded throughout the years; rainfall is
described by huge reception. The study additionally
uncovers that temperature has expanded throughout the
years; rainfall is described by huge entomb yearly
fluctuation with valuable three years being exceptionally
dry. To be sure the investigation demonstrated that farmer's
observations on environmental change are in accordance
with the climatic information records. Nonetheless, greater
part of farmers has balanced their cultivating practices to
account the effect of environmental change. Absence of
access to credit was referred to by respondents as the
primary factor repressing selection. A significant strategy
message from these outcomes is that upgraded access
homestead level adjustment. Government approaches
should bolster innovative work on fitting advances to assist
farmers with adopting the progressions in climatic
conditions like yield development, improving atmosphere
data estimating and advancing suitable structure level
adjustment estimates, for example, utilization of irrigation
advances.
Ajay K Jha (2016) - Improved irrigation use productivity
is a significant device for escalating and expanding
agriculture in Nepal, bringing about higher economic yield
from flooded farmlands with a base contribution of water.
Research was directed to assess the impact of irrigation
strategy (wrinkle versus trickle) on the profitability of
nutritious fodder species during off-storm dry periods in
various height zones of focal Nepal. A split-square factorial
structure was used. The components considered were
treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation strategy.
Ordinarily used nearby agronomical practices were
followed in all regards with the exception of irrigation
strategy. Results uncovered that location impact was
noteworthy (p < 0.01) with highest fodder profitability seen
for the center height site, Syangja. Species impacts were
additionally huge, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana)
having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).
Krishna Reddy Chittedi (2012) clarified the 'Open
Expenditure on Irrigation and its Impact on Agriculture
Production: Evidence from an Indian State.' In this study he
presumed that, irrigation is the significant contribution for
farming growth and having positive connection with the
yield per hectare. His study depends on optional
information, gathered from the undertaking reports of
irrigation plans and development reports of the Andhra
Pradesh. For this study has utilized factors like, open
consumption on irrigation, Gross zone watered, rain fall,
creation of rice and profitability of rice from 1979-80 to
2008-09. In this study has discovered that there is a
noteworthy positive connection between open consumption
and irrigation development over the timeframe in Andhra
Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF)
7(3)-2023
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.)
https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 3
Pradesh and the resulting increment in gross zone
developed. There likewise change in editing designs in the
state because of development in irrigation office. Especially
rice developed zone expanded. Gross edited region likewise
expanded because of irrigation office. Additionally,
discovered that creation and profitability of harvests are
emphatically identified with irrigation.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Satellite imageries, Google earth, and Bhuban platform etc.
were used to generate the maps. The thematic layers were
finally integrated using Arc GIS 10.3. Collected data have
been presented with different cartographic technique and a
statistical method was used.
Growth Rate
The Growth rate of irrigated area and different irrigation
system was measured with help of the following method-
Density of Irrigation System
The density of Shallow tube well was calculated and using
the following formula.
Standard Deviation
The standard deviation concept was introduced by Karl
Pearson in 1823. Standard deviation is the square root of the
arithmetic average of the squares of all the deviations taken
from mean. The standard deviation measures the absolute
dispersion; the greater value of standard deviation, for the
greater will be the magnitude of the deviations of the values
from their mean.
Where,𝜎 = Standarddeviation
x² = X =𝑋
̅ (Deviation of the item from the mean)
N = Number of the observation
Estimation of Variability (CV)
It’s a measure of relative dispersions. For each variable,
mean and standard deviation values are computed first,
from which variability can be found using the following
formula –
Where, CV= Coefficient of Variation
𝜎 = Standard Deviation
𝜇 = Mean
Karl Pearson Co-efficient of Co-relation (1896)
The co-efficient of co-relation formulae according to Karl
Pearson (1896) has been used to obtain the relationship
between irrigation and cropping pattern.
X= Deviation from x series, Y= Deviation from y series.
Z Test
Z score is the number of standard deviation (SD) from the
population mean, it measures the how many SD below or
above the population mean. It is also known as standard
score and it can be represented on a normal distribution
curve. Z scores value range from -3SD to +3SD. Zero value
of Z score indicates the exact value of the population
means.
Where, Z= Z score, = Population means, = Sample mean, =
Standard Deviation.
Kendall’s Co-efficient of Concordance (Kendall’s W)
To measure the level of understanding between the rankings
of limitations gone up against by the ranchers related with
irrigation, Kendall's Co-productive of Concordance
(Kendall's W) was connected. Kendall's test is a non-
parametric factual technique used to measure a given
arrangement of imperatives from the most influenced to the
least influenced just as to measure the level of eagerness or
concordance among the respondents. Kendall's W worth
extents from 0 to 1. The worth 0 implies no understanding
and 1 is finished understanding. The imperatives were
positioned based on the most impacted to least affected
utilizing numerals 1, 2, 3….n all together. The entirety of
the rank score for every limitation was processed and
requirements with the least score were positioned as the
most squeezing imperative though the higher score was
positioned as the least limitation. The absolute position was
utilized to decide the Kendall's 'W'. It measures the level of
understanding between respondents in positioning. The
equation of Kendall's Co-proficient of Concordance
(Kendall's W) is figured below-
Where W= Kendall’s Co-efficient of Concordance, n=Total
Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF)
7(3)-2023
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.)
https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 4
number of constraints being rank, m=No. of judges or
respondents (farmer) ranking the object. The Coefficient of
Concordance (W) has been tested for significance in terms
of the Friedman’s χ2.
Friedman’s χ2 = m (n-1) W Degree of freedom (df) = n-1
“W value ranges from 0 to1. If the W is 1, then all the
respondents have been fully agreed, and each respondent
has decided the same order to list of concerns. If W is 0,
then there is no agreement among the respondent. In
between the values of 0 to 1 indicate a higher or lower
degree of unanimity among the respondent” (Legendre,
2005).
→ Null Hypothesis (H0)
The respondents do not agree about the constraints which
lead them to change the cropping pattern.
→ Null Hypothesis (H0)
There is no agreement or consensus among the respondents
over their rating or ranking of the problems in regard to
irrigation. The null hypothesis is rejected if the calculated
χ2 value exceeds the tabulated χ2 value; it means that
farmers agree with each other on the ranking of the
constraints.
→ Dominant Distinctive Function
Dominant distinctive function has been applied for
analyzing the cropping pattern and their distributional
characteristics in of the study area.
“Water is life, no water no life" an unfading discourse in all
living being. When water is utilized for plant development
and improvement at that point turned into an inquiry is it
reasonable for the developed land and yields? Since water
is a barren asset for developing plants, by weight, are
contained 90-95 percent water. Low quality water may
influence inundated yields by causing collect of salts in the
root zone, loss of penetrability of the dirt because of
abundance sodium or calcium draining, containing
pathogens, explicit particle harmfulness and a gathering of
different incidental issues, which are straightforwardly
lethal to plants or to those expending them regularly
requires improvement before it is worthy for a given use.
IV. CONCLUSION
The present examination is an endeavor that has taken by
the analyst to investigate the effect of water system on
horticulture, socio-monetary state of the farmer of the
Ranchi area and is to distinguish the issues identified with
water system. After the serious investigation and
examination of the information (both essential and optional)
and discourse with the possibility of water system, this work
has raised some positive estimates which will prompt the
advancement of the socio-monetary states of the farmer of
the region. Ranchi locale is viewed as agrarian financial
aspects as about 67% of the all-out specialists are cultivators
and rural workers as uncovered in evaluation 2011. The area
is a low-lying plain where various waterways, wetlands,
beels, and lakes are bounteous. Yet at the same time, the
region faces a few issues in water system. About 47.71
percent region is watered (DCHB, 2011-12). It is uncovered
from the investigation that the vast majority of the
administration water system activities lost its significance.
It is seen from the investigation that region is inadequate in
the supply of sufficient watering for boro development
during rabi season by the current water system framework.
The inadequately inundated region consistently merits a
sufficient of water for development. Water system assumes
a significant job in the editing practice however the water
system isn't the only one assumes the huge job in changing
the trimming design in the region.
REFERENCES
[1] Ram Kumar (2016) – “effect of drip irrigation on yield and
water use efficiency on brinjal (solanum melongena) cv. Pant
samrat”, ISSN: 2277-9655 [Kumar* et al., 5(10): October,
2016] Impact Factor: 4.116 IC™ Value: 3.00 CODEN:
IJESS7
[2] Sohoni D.K. (1973) “Benefit Cost Analysis of Agricultural
Projects”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.
28(4), p.285.
[3] Shashidhara K K and B.S Reddy, “Farmers Perception and
Adoption about Changing Climate and its Variability in UKP
Area of Karnataka”, Indian Research Journal of Extension
Education, Vol-I, Issue-I, Jan 2012.
[4] Ajay K Jha (2016) – “Impact of Irrigation Method on Water
Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal”,
Climate 2016, 4, 4; doi:10.3390/cli4010004
www.mdpi.com/journal/climate
[5] Navaneeth B.S, “Performance of Minor Irrigation in Krishna
Basin of Karnataka: An Economic Perspective” University of
Agriculture Dharwad, for the Award of M.Sc August-2007.
[6] Bala Raju Nikku (2003) “Irrigation Reforms, Institutions and
Livelihoods Opportunities and Challenges Case of Andhra
Pradesh, South India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra,
Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for
Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New
Delhi, p. 343.
[7] Navadkar D.S. Birari K.S. and Kasar D.V. (2003), “A Boon
for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Maharastra”,
Agricultural Situation in India, Vol. LIX, No. 3, June, p.141-
145.
[8] Bala Raju Nikku (2003) “Irrigation Reforms, Institutions and
Livelihoods Opportunities and Challenges Case of Andhra
Pradesh, South India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra,
Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for
Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New
Delhi, p. 343.
Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF)
7(3)-2023
Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.)
https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 5
[9] Singh C.J. (2003), “Efficient Use of Water in Canal
Command of Punjab”, edited by Kanchan Chopra,
Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for
Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New
Delhi, p.175.
[10] Sharma, Shyam Sunder Prasad, Managing Water Scarcity
and Rural Conflicts in India 2003.
[11] Joshi, P.K, Tewari, L, Jha A.K and Shiyani R.L, Impact of
watershed program and people's participation. National
Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research,
(NCAP), New-Delhi, India 2003.
[12] Dinesh K. Marothia (2003), “Enhancing Sustainable
Management of Water Resource in Agriculture Sector: The
Role of Institutions”, Indian Journal of Agricultural
Economics, Vol.58, No. 3, July-September, pp. 410-414.
[13] Diwan (2003) “Conflict Resolution in Water Sector through
Institutional Development” edited Kamata Prasad, ‘Water
Resources and Sustainable Development Challenges of 21st
Century’, Shipra Publications, Delhi, pp.348-349.
[14] Dinesh Kumar M. (2003), “Demand Management in the Face
of Growing Water Scarcity and Conflicts in India
Institutional and Policy Alternatives for Future” edited by
Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha
Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept
Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp.115-124.
[15] Jayanta Bandyopadhyay and Bidisha Mallik (2003),
“Ecology and Economics in Sustainable Water Resource
Development in India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra,
Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for
Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New
Delhi, pp.67-68.
[16] Vayas, V.S. (2003), “India’s Agrarian Structure, Economic
Policies and Sustainable Development”, Academic
Foundation, New Delhi, pp.102-103.
[17] Verma, A.R., Solanki, S., Policies for Sustainable Watershed
Development Programme in Tribal district Dhar of Madhya
Pradesh, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 58,
No.3, July-Sept. 2003. p.502.

Recommended

Need to replace Furrow Irrigation system by Drip Irrigation system to Improve...
Need to replace Furrow Irrigation system by Drip Irrigation system to Improve...Need to replace Furrow Irrigation system by Drip Irrigation system to Improve...
Need to replace Furrow Irrigation system by Drip Irrigation system to Improve...ijsrd.com
 
Geospatial Analysis of Irrigation Challenges and Opportunities in Jharkhand
Geospatial Analysis of Irrigation Challenges and Opportunities in JharkhandGeospatial Analysis of Irrigation Challenges and Opportunities in Jharkhand
Geospatial Analysis of Irrigation Challenges and Opportunities in JharkhandAI Publications
 
AN OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED THEORY OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY AND UNIFORMITY AND ...
AN OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED THEORY OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY AND UNIFORMITY AND ...AN OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED THEORY OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY AND UNIFORMITY AND ...
AN OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED THEORY OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY AND UNIFORMITY AND ...Venkataraju Badanapuri
 
Dewas rainwater harvesting impacts
Dewas rainwater harvesting impactsDewas rainwater harvesting impacts
Dewas rainwater harvesting impactsrajeevserp
 
Monitoring Of Water Logged Areas in Krishana Canal Command Using Gis Techniques
Monitoring Of Water Logged Areas in Krishana Canal Command Using Gis TechniquesMonitoring Of Water Logged Areas in Krishana Canal Command Using Gis Techniques
Monitoring Of Water Logged Areas in Krishana Canal Command Using Gis TechniquesIJERA Editor
 
Impact of drip irrigation system in Bikaner district of Rajasthan
Impact of drip irrigation system in Bikaner district of RajasthanImpact of drip irrigation system in Bikaner district of Rajasthan
Impact of drip irrigation system in Bikaner district of Rajasthanhindagrihorticulturalsociety
 
19 sustainability of wrm mym
19   sustainability of wrm mym19   sustainability of wrm mym
19 sustainability of wrm mymMahbubul Hassan
 

More Related Content

Similar to Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector

IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...ijceronline
 
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...ijceronline
 
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...Alexander Decker
 
Smart cultivation system report
Smart cultivation system reportSmart cultivation system report
Smart cultivation system reportASHISHKUMARSAROJ1
 
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiences
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiencesAgricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiences
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiencesSuyog Khose
 
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...science journals
 
alternate irrigation for arid region
alternate irrigation for arid regionalternate irrigation for arid region
alternate irrigation for arid regionEr. Ahmad Ali
 
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...Alexander Decker
 
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...IRJET Journal
 
Watershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthan
Watershed and Agriculture Management in RajasthanWatershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthan
Watershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthanijtsrd
 
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)IJERD Editor
 
Micro Irrigation Systems
Micro Irrigation SystemsMicro Irrigation Systems
Micro Irrigation SystemsAmit Pundir
 
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed Mohammed Badiuddin Parvez
 
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghumEffect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghumAlexander Decker
 
Rain Water Harvesting
Rain Water HarvestingRain Water Harvesting
Rain Water HarvestingIRJET Journal
 
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...IRJET Journal
 

Similar to Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector (20)

IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
 
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineerin...
 
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...
An impact of irrigation project on agriculture land holding a comparative stu...
 
Smart cultivation system report
Smart cultivation system reportSmart cultivation system report
Smart cultivation system report
 
ugc journal
ugc journalugc journal
ugc journal
 
Oec2013
Oec2013Oec2013
Oec2013
 
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiences
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiencesAgricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiences
Agricultural drainage from waterlogged soils and indian experiences
 
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...
Land treatment-as-viable-solution-for-waste-water-treatment-anddisposal-in-in...
 
alternate irrigation for arid region
alternate irrigation for arid regionalternate irrigation for arid region
alternate irrigation for arid region
 
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...
Comparison of water use savings and crop yields for clay pot and furrow irrig...
 
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...
Sustainable Water Management by Conjunctive use of Ground and Surface Water o...
 
Watershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthan
Watershed and Agriculture Management in RajasthanWatershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthan
Watershed and Agriculture Management in Rajasthan
 
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
Welcome to International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
 
Micro Irrigation Systems
Micro Irrigation SystemsMicro Irrigation Systems
Micro Irrigation Systems
 
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed
Estimation of Crop water Requirement for Kolar Taluk Sub watershed
 
Resource conservation technology.ppt
Resource conservation technology.pptResource conservation technology.ppt
Resource conservation technology.ppt
 
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghumEffect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum
Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum
 
Watershed management
Watershed managementWatershed management
Watershed management
 
Rain Water Harvesting
Rain Water HarvestingRain Water Harvesting
Rain Water Harvesting
 
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...
Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Buildings with Stiffness Irregularity...
 

More from AI Publications

Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...
Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...
Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...AI Publications
 
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...AI Publications
 
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”AI Publications
 
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...AI Publications
 
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...AI Publications
 
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...AI Publications
 
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...AI Publications
 
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...AI Publications
 
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A Review
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A ReviewNeuroprotective Herbal Plants - A Review
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A ReviewAI Publications
 
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...AI Publications
 
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonense
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonenseA phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonense
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonenseAI Publications
 
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...AI Publications
 
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...AI Publications
 
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...AI Publications
 
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...AI Publications
 
Imaging of breast hamartomas
Imaging of breast hamartomasImaging of breast hamartomas
Imaging of breast hamartomasAI Publications
 
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...AI Publications
 
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...AI Publications
 
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...AI Publications
 
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...AI Publications
 

More from AI Publications (20)

Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...
Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...
Analysis of Value Chain of Cow Milk: The Case of Itang Special Woreda, Gambel...
 
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...
Minds and Machines: Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Investment Decisions ...
 
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”
Lung cancer: “Epidemiology and risk factors”
 
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...
Further analysis on Organic agriculture and organic farming in case of Thaila...
 
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...
Current Changes in the Role of Agriculture and Agri-Farming Structures in Tha...
 
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...
Growth, Yield and Economic Advantage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties in R...
 
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...
Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal plants l...
 
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...
Evaluation of In-vitro neuroprotective effect of Ethanolic extract of Canariu...
 
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A Review
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A ReviewNeuroprotective Herbal Plants - A Review
Neuroprotective Herbal Plants - A Review
 
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...
A review of the botanical, convectional applications, phytochemical constitue...
 
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonense
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonenseA phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonense
A phytochemical and pharmacological review on canarium solomonense
 
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...
Evaluation of effects of Curcuma amada extracts on 6-OHDA-induced behavioral ...
 
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...
Influences of Digital Marketing in the Buying Decisions of College Students i...
 
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...
A Study on Performance of the Karnataka State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural...
 
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...
Study of the process of activation of aluminum sulfate coagulant solutions du...
 
Imaging of breast hamartomas
Imaging of breast hamartomasImaging of breast hamartomas
Imaging of breast hamartomas
 
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...
A retrospective study on ovarian cancer with a median follow-up of 36 months ...
 
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...
More analysis on environment protection and sustainable agriculture - A case ...
 
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...
Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Twelve Different Rice Varieties...
 
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...
Cultivating Proactive Cybersecurity Culture among IT Professional to Combat E...
 

Recently uploaded

We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdf
We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdfWe have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdf
We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdflinks2daymegastore
 
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentation
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures PresentationPecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentation
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentationlancepinn45
 
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffgrest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffyaredabera7
 
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS. BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS.  BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS.  BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS. BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.nadiakozma
 
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmmlec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmmRawalRafiqLeghari
 
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证l2ngjfo
 
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalala
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalalaPDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalala
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalalayaredabera7
 
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptx
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptxWEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptx
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptxjanicemonchiguing34
 
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentations
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures PresentationsPecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentations
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentationslancepinn45
 
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTSMEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTSchahattyagi200
 

Recently uploaded (12)

We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdf
We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdfWe have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdf
We have quality products here at 2day Mega Store.pdf
 
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentation
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures PresentationPecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentation
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentation
 
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffgrest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
grest chickn.pdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
 
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS. BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS.  BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS.  BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.
TOP 2024 EASTER IDEAS. BAKE, DECORATE, CREATE MEMORIES.
 
Mam Mam Uc Uc Volume 2 Vietnam Menu A5 web.pdf
Mam Mam Uc Uc Volume 2 Vietnam Menu A5 web.pdfMam Mam Uc Uc Volume 2 Vietnam Menu A5 web.pdf
Mam Mam Uc Uc Volume 2 Vietnam Menu A5 web.pdf
 
Spirited Indulgence Menu at Makara Da Nang A5 web.pdf
Spirited Indulgence Menu at Makara Da Nang A5 web.pdfSpirited Indulgence Menu at Makara Da Nang A5 web.pdf
Spirited Indulgence Menu at Makara Da Nang A5 web.pdf
 
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmmlec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm
 
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证
斯旺西大学毕业证制作流程Swansea毕业证文凭英国学历学位认证
 
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalala
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalalaPDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalala
PDFsam_merge.pdfthe grand aplalalalalala
 
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptx
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptxWEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptx
WEEK 4 STORE AND RECONSTITUTE STOCKS,SAUCES AND SOUPS (4).pptx
 
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentations
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures PresentationsPecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentations
Pecan Creek Winery 2023 in Pictures Presentations
 
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTSMEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
MEANING OF NUTRACEUTICALS ,DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
 

Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector

  • 1. International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF) ISSN: 2456-8635 [Vol-7, Issue-3, May-Jun, 2023] Issue DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3 Peer-Reviewed Journal Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.) https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 1 Geographical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Jharkhand's Irrigation Sector Rajkaran Shukla, Surajbhan Singh Sunrise University, Alwar, Rajasthan, India Received: 08 May 2023; Received in revised form: 14 Jun 2023; Accepted: 21 Jun 2023; Available online: 30 Jun 2023 ©2023 The Author(s). Published by AI Publications. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Abstract— India is a land of rivers having prevalently a farming-based economy. Agriculture is the fundamental supporter of most of the general population in India and water is the most significant contribution to crop generation. The accomplishment of agriculture relies on the sufficiency and timely event of precipitation. Yet, the precipitation in India is frequently meagre, uneven and there is indeed, even all out disappointment in certain districts and during certain periods. Downpour is bound to a couple of months in a year and it shifts from year to year and district to- area which makes enormous pieces of the nation defenceless against drought. In this manner, natural distribution of water is lacking both spatially and transiently. Aside from the distinction in money saving advantage of good irrigation in various mouzas and diverse irrigation systems, the spatial example is likewise uneven at small scale level for example one irrigation framework to another irrigation framework. The Z-Score an incentive if there should be an occurrence of Co-employable RLI (+1.80) scored most astounding which shows the greatest net benefit for boro development. The most minimal score which is seen in the STW (leased) (- 1.42) poor inundated zone shows minimal benefit for boor development. Keywords— farming-based, natural, distribution, territory, capital salary I. INTRODUCTION Irrigation is the utilization of water misleadingly to the land or soil. Irrigation is a significant method for the harvests to get water at perfect time. It is utilized to help the development of farming yields and in the upkeep of scenes during the times of lacking precipitation. Irrigation means watering the fields using any and all means other than sprinkling his investigation has built up that presentation of irrigation in a specific territory builds ranch generation as well as melds the physical and the social situations in men supports in this way expanding the per capital salary. The arrangement of irrigation practices fluctuates in various pieces of the world all in all as in our nation specifically. The territory of Jharkhand is no special case to this. Ranchi locale is essentially subject to storm precipitation. The rainstorm precipitation isn't ordinary. As an outcome, the accomplishment of horticulture is impacted by the irrigation offices. There are a few kinds of irrigation practice. The real kinds of irrigation are as per the following I) Shallow Tube Well (STW), II) River Lift Irrigation (RLI), III) Deep Tube Well (DTW), IV) Dug Well, V) Canal Irrigation and VII) Tank Irrigation. In Ranchi District the irrigation is drilled for the most part in the winter season. India's all out territory under irrigation is 64.7 million hectares; the primary Indian Irrigation Commission (1901- 03) directed a fairly nitty gritty enquiry into the issue and on the possibility of irrigation in the different areas of India. Be that as it may, in the states like Jharkhand, the irrigation was perceived after India's freedom in 1947 and worried after during the late 1960s with the usage of New Agricultural Strategy. About 35% of the cultivable territory is under irrigation in Ranchi District. Among the different kinds of irrigation shallow cylinder well is the most practical and mainstream irrigation technique among the ranchers of this locale. Ground water in the locale is available in both water table and in kept states of the springs extending top to bottom from around 2 metres(m) to 303 mbgl (meter subterranean level). Burrowed wells and medium to uncompromising irrigation cylinder wells are in used to tap the ground water. They change inside and out from around 2 m to 8 mbgl. During the field study, it is seen that the diverse irrigation
  • 2. Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF) 7(3)-2023 Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.) https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 2 frameworks and agrarian practices face a few issues in the region. In the event that the issues can be tended to appropriately, at that point the future advancement of irrigation framework will flourish in the area. II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Ram Kumar (2016) - Drip irrigation is an irrigation strategy that spares water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the dirt surface or legitimately onto the root zone through a network of valves, pipes, tubing and producers. It is done through limited cylinders that deliver water legitimately to the base of the plant. However, India has the biggest irrigation network, the irrigation effectiveness does not surpass 40%. The average precipitation in Uttar Pradesh is 650 mm as against the average precipitation of 1200 mm in the nation. Because of water shortage, the accessible water resources ought to be in all respects successfully used through water saving irrigation innovations. Broadening of cropping design especially for vegetable crops is getting to be prominent among ranchers because vegetables are most significant segment in a decent eating regimen. Be that as it may, enhancement of zone from field crops to floriculture to satisfy the need isn't alluring. The greatest yield of crop 900 gm/plant and least of yield 600 gm/plant what's more, absolute yield 52270 gm (52.270 kg). The increment in water use productivity for drip irrigation framework. Among the drip irrigation levels, the highest field water use productivity (6148.31kg ha-1 cm-1) was found at 65% irrigation level, demonstrating relatively increasingly efficient use of irrigation water with a plausibility of water saving of 35% water by embracing brinjal plot (1.58-liter plant-1day-1). Sohoni (2013) in his study presumes that the exhibition of watershed development projects depends inconceivably on the presentation of unit watershed mediations like energizing a well through treatment in upper catchment, terracing of a real estate parcel on slants, building water gathering structure or a bund and so forth. The accomplishment of these unit intercessions rely upon a lot of good practices. These practices incorporate comprehension and displaying of 45 needs of the nearby individuals pursued by arranging and plan of arrangement which is the most fitting in the given circumstance which is then trailed by usage. Advancement of such practices is an iterative and steady procedure with consistent connection with the neighbourhood individuals who assess and approve the practices. The final result of the entire procedure is age of information. Shashidhara. K.K. also, B.S. Reddy (2012) the Study uncovers that consciousness of environmental change is significant part of homestead level selection that temperature has expanded throughout the years; rainfall is described by huge reception. The study additionally uncovers that temperature has expanded throughout the years; rainfall is described by huge entomb yearly fluctuation with valuable three years being exceptionally dry. To be sure the investigation demonstrated that farmer's observations on environmental change are in accordance with the climatic information records. Nonetheless, greater part of farmers has balanced their cultivating practices to account the effect of environmental change. Absence of access to credit was referred to by respondents as the primary factor repressing selection. A significant strategy message from these outcomes is that upgraded access homestead level adjustment. Government approaches should bolster innovative work on fitting advances to assist farmers with adopting the progressions in climatic conditions like yield development, improving atmosphere data estimating and advancing suitable structure level adjustment estimates, for example, utilization of irrigation advances. Ajay K Jha (2016) - Improved irrigation use productivity is a significant device for escalating and expanding agriculture in Nepal, bringing about higher economic yield from flooded farmlands with a base contribution of water. Research was directed to assess the impact of irrigation strategy (wrinkle versus trickle) on the profitability of nutritious fodder species during off-storm dry periods in various height zones of focal Nepal. A split-square factorial structure was used. The components considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation strategy. Ordinarily used nearby agronomical practices were followed in all regards with the exception of irrigation strategy. Results uncovered that location impact was noteworthy (p < 0.01) with highest fodder profitability seen for the center height site, Syangja. Species impacts were additionally huge, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana) having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Krishna Reddy Chittedi (2012) clarified the 'Open Expenditure on Irrigation and its Impact on Agriculture Production: Evidence from an Indian State.' In this study he presumed that, irrigation is the significant contribution for farming growth and having positive connection with the yield per hectare. His study depends on optional information, gathered from the undertaking reports of irrigation plans and development reports of the Andhra Pradesh. For this study has utilized factors like, open consumption on irrigation, Gross zone watered, rain fall, creation of rice and profitability of rice from 1979-80 to 2008-09. In this study has discovered that there is a noteworthy positive connection between open consumption and irrigation development over the timeframe in Andhra
  • 3. Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF) 7(3)-2023 Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.) https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 3 Pradesh and the resulting increment in gross zone developed. There likewise change in editing designs in the state because of development in irrigation office. Especially rice developed zone expanded. Gross edited region likewise expanded because of irrigation office. Additionally, discovered that creation and profitability of harvests are emphatically identified with irrigation. III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Satellite imageries, Google earth, and Bhuban platform etc. were used to generate the maps. The thematic layers were finally integrated using Arc GIS 10.3. Collected data have been presented with different cartographic technique and a statistical method was used. Growth Rate The Growth rate of irrigated area and different irrigation system was measured with help of the following method- Density of Irrigation System The density of Shallow tube well was calculated and using the following formula. Standard Deviation The standard deviation concept was introduced by Karl Pearson in 1823. Standard deviation is the square root of the arithmetic average of the squares of all the deviations taken from mean. The standard deviation measures the absolute dispersion; the greater value of standard deviation, for the greater will be the magnitude of the deviations of the values from their mean. Where,𝜎 = Standarddeviation x² = X =𝑋 ̅ (Deviation of the item from the mean) N = Number of the observation Estimation of Variability (CV) It’s a measure of relative dispersions. For each variable, mean and standard deviation values are computed first, from which variability can be found using the following formula – Where, CV= Coefficient of Variation 𝜎 = Standard Deviation 𝜇 = Mean Karl Pearson Co-efficient of Co-relation (1896) The co-efficient of co-relation formulae according to Karl Pearson (1896) has been used to obtain the relationship between irrigation and cropping pattern. X= Deviation from x series, Y= Deviation from y series. Z Test Z score is the number of standard deviation (SD) from the population mean, it measures the how many SD below or above the population mean. It is also known as standard score and it can be represented on a normal distribution curve. Z scores value range from -3SD to +3SD. Zero value of Z score indicates the exact value of the population means. Where, Z= Z score, = Population means, = Sample mean, = Standard Deviation. Kendall’s Co-efficient of Concordance (Kendall’s W) To measure the level of understanding between the rankings of limitations gone up against by the ranchers related with irrigation, Kendall's Co-productive of Concordance (Kendall's W) was connected. Kendall's test is a non- parametric factual technique used to measure a given arrangement of imperatives from the most influenced to the least influenced just as to measure the level of eagerness or concordance among the respondents. Kendall's W worth extents from 0 to 1. The worth 0 implies no understanding and 1 is finished understanding. The imperatives were positioned based on the most impacted to least affected utilizing numerals 1, 2, 3….n all together. The entirety of the rank score for every limitation was processed and requirements with the least score were positioned as the most squeezing imperative though the higher score was positioned as the least limitation. The absolute position was utilized to decide the Kendall's 'W'. It measures the level of understanding between respondents in positioning. The equation of Kendall's Co-proficient of Concordance (Kendall's W) is figured below- Where W= Kendall’s Co-efficient of Concordance, n=Total
  • 4. Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF) 7(3)-2023 Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.) https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 4 number of constraints being rank, m=No. of judges or respondents (farmer) ranking the object. The Coefficient of Concordance (W) has been tested for significance in terms of the Friedman’s χ2. Friedman’s χ2 = m (n-1) W Degree of freedom (df) = n-1 “W value ranges from 0 to1. If the W is 1, then all the respondents have been fully agreed, and each respondent has decided the same order to list of concerns. If W is 0, then there is no agreement among the respondent. In between the values of 0 to 1 indicate a higher or lower degree of unanimity among the respondent” (Legendre, 2005). → Null Hypothesis (H0) The respondents do not agree about the constraints which lead them to change the cropping pattern. → Null Hypothesis (H0) There is no agreement or consensus among the respondents over their rating or ranking of the problems in regard to irrigation. The null hypothesis is rejected if the calculated χ2 value exceeds the tabulated χ2 value; it means that farmers agree with each other on the ranking of the constraints. → Dominant Distinctive Function Dominant distinctive function has been applied for analyzing the cropping pattern and their distributional characteristics in of the study area. “Water is life, no water no life" an unfading discourse in all living being. When water is utilized for plant development and improvement at that point turned into an inquiry is it reasonable for the developed land and yields? Since water is a barren asset for developing plants, by weight, are contained 90-95 percent water. Low quality water may influence inundated yields by causing collect of salts in the root zone, loss of penetrability of the dirt because of abundance sodium or calcium draining, containing pathogens, explicit particle harmfulness and a gathering of different incidental issues, which are straightforwardly lethal to plants or to those expending them regularly requires improvement before it is worthy for a given use. IV. CONCLUSION The present examination is an endeavor that has taken by the analyst to investigate the effect of water system on horticulture, socio-monetary state of the farmer of the Ranchi area and is to distinguish the issues identified with water system. After the serious investigation and examination of the information (both essential and optional) and discourse with the possibility of water system, this work has raised some positive estimates which will prompt the advancement of the socio-monetary states of the farmer of the region. Ranchi locale is viewed as agrarian financial aspects as about 67% of the all-out specialists are cultivators and rural workers as uncovered in evaluation 2011. The area is a low-lying plain where various waterways, wetlands, beels, and lakes are bounteous. Yet at the same time, the region faces a few issues in water system. About 47.71 percent region is watered (DCHB, 2011-12). It is uncovered from the investigation that the vast majority of the administration water system activities lost its significance. It is seen from the investigation that region is inadequate in the supply of sufficient watering for boro development during rabi season by the current water system framework. The inadequately inundated region consistently merits a sufficient of water for development. Water system assumes a significant job in the editing practice however the water system isn't the only one assumes the huge job in changing the trimming design in the region. REFERENCES [1] Ram Kumar (2016) – “effect of drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency on brinjal (solanum melongena) cv. Pant samrat”, ISSN: 2277-9655 [Kumar* et al., 5(10): October, 2016] Impact Factor: 4.116 IC™ Value: 3.00 CODEN: IJESS7 [2] Sohoni D.K. (1973) “Benefit Cost Analysis of Agricultural Projects”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 28(4), p.285. [3] Shashidhara K K and B.S Reddy, “Farmers Perception and Adoption about Changing Climate and its Variability in UKP Area of Karnataka”, Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, Vol-I, Issue-I, Jan 2012. [4] Ajay K Jha (2016) – “Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal”, Climate 2016, 4, 4; doi:10.3390/cli4010004 www.mdpi.com/journal/climate [5] Navaneeth B.S, “Performance of Minor Irrigation in Krishna Basin of Karnataka: An Economic Perspective” University of Agriculture Dharwad, for the Award of M.Sc August-2007. [6] Bala Raju Nikku (2003) “Irrigation Reforms, Institutions and Livelihoods Opportunities and Challenges Case of Andhra Pradesh, South India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p. 343. [7] Navadkar D.S. Birari K.S. and Kasar D.V. (2003), “A Boon for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Maharastra”, Agricultural Situation in India, Vol. LIX, No. 3, June, p.141- 145. [8] Bala Raju Nikku (2003) “Irrigation Reforms, Institutions and Livelihoods Opportunities and Challenges Case of Andhra Pradesh, South India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p. 343.
  • 5. Shukla and Singh International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science (IJHAF) 7(3)-2023 Article DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.7.3.1 (Int. j. hortic. agric. food sci.) https://aipublications.com/ijhaf/ Page | 5 [9] Singh C.J. (2003), “Efficient Use of Water in Canal Command of Punjab”, edited by Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p.175. [10] Sharma, Shyam Sunder Prasad, Managing Water Scarcity and Rural Conflicts in India 2003. [11] Joshi, P.K, Tewari, L, Jha A.K and Shiyani R.L, Impact of watershed program and people's participation. National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, (NCAP), New-Delhi, India 2003. [12] Dinesh K. Marothia (2003), “Enhancing Sustainable Management of Water Resource in Agriculture Sector: The Role of Institutions”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.58, No. 3, July-September, pp. 410-414. [13] Diwan (2003) “Conflict Resolution in Water Sector through Institutional Development” edited Kamata Prasad, ‘Water Resources and Sustainable Development Challenges of 21st Century’, Shipra Publications, Delhi, pp.348-349. [14] Dinesh Kumar M. (2003), “Demand Management in the Face of Growing Water Scarcity and Conflicts in India Institutional and Policy Alternatives for Future” edited by Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp.115-124. [15] Jayanta Bandyopadhyay and Bidisha Mallik (2003), “Ecology and Economics in Sustainable Water Resource Development in India”, edited by Kanchan Chopra, Hanumantha Rao Ramprasad Senguptha Indian Society for Ecological Economics, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp.67-68. [16] Vayas, V.S. (2003), “India’s Agrarian Structure, Economic Policies and Sustainable Development”, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp.102-103. [17] Verma, A.R., Solanki, S., Policies for Sustainable Watershed Development Programme in Tribal district Dhar of Madhya Pradesh, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 58, No.3, July-Sept. 2003. p.502.