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Sir John Sinclair, the county surveysand the collection and dissemination             of knowledge            Heather Holmes
Sir John Sinclair
General view of the agriculture of ‘x’
The Pyramid of Statistical Inquiries                         1.               The Code of Agriculture                   In...
The ‘original’ surveys
Publication of the Scottish surveysYear   No. surveys   Surveys       published1793   2             Ayr, Midlothian1794   ...
Subject areas in the ‘original’ surveysNo. Subject                     No. Subject                          No. Subject1. ...
The quarto format
The ‘corrected’ or ‘revised’ surveys
Differences in geographical scope of      the ‘original’ and the ‘revised’ surveysChanges in                ‘original’ and...
Surveyors of both the ‘original’ and           ‘reprinted’ surveysSurveyor           Scottish Survey    Surveyor          ...
Plan of the ‘revised’ reportsChapter   Chapter heading              Chapter   Chapter headingnumber                       ...
The octavo format
Publication of the ‘original’ surveysYear    No. Scottish    No. English   No. Welsh surveys   Total no. surveys        su...
Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (1)Year   No. Scottish   No. English surveys    No. Welsh   Total no.       surveys      ...
Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (2)Year   No. Scottish   No. English surveys           No. Welsh   Total no. surveys     ...
Publication of ‘revised’ Scottish surveysYear      No. surveys   Surveys1795      1             Midlothian1798      3     ...
Price of the revised Scottish surveys -1st                        ednsPrice of survey Survey4s             Clydesdale (179...
Edinburgh, London and Dublin              booksellersEdinburgh              London                                   Dubli...
Regional and local centres of                 distributionand saleBook        Surveys         Surveys published between 18...
Phases in the distribution of the      Scottish ‘revised’ surveysPeriod      Character of distribution1795-1804   •Use of ...
Distribution of the subscribers to     the ‘revised’ Peebles surveySubscribers    AnalysisGeographical   • Towns and villa...
Social and occupational groups ofsubscribers to the ‘revised’ Peebles               surveyGroups                AnalysisSo...
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Sir John Sinclair, the county surveys and the collection and dissemination of knowledge

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Sir John Sinclair, the county surveys and the collection and dissemination of knowledge

  1. 1. Sir John Sinclair, the county surveysand the collection and dissemination of knowledge Heather Holmes
  2. 2. Sir John Sinclair
  3. 3. General view of the agriculture of ‘x’
  4. 4. The Pyramid of Statistical Inquiries 1. The Code of Agriculture In one volume 2 The General Report of Scotland In 3 vols (and 2 appendixes) 3. The county surveys of Great Britain Containing 85 Districts 4. The Statistical Account of Scotland. Containing 938 Parishes
  5. 5. The ‘original’ surveys
  6. 6. Publication of the Scottish surveysYear No. surveys Surveys published1793 2 Ayr, Midlothian1794 22 Aberdeen, Angus, Argyll and western Inverness-shire, Banff, Berwick, Clydesdale, Dumbarton, Dumfries, East Lothian, Elgin or Moray lying between the Spey and the Findhorn, Fife, Galloway, Hebrides, Nairn and the east coast of Inverness- shire and part of Elgin and Forres, Carse of Gowrie, Southern districts of Perth, Central Highlands, Renfrew, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Tweedale, West Lothian1795 3 Clackmannan, Kincardine, Northern counties and Islands,1796 1 (+ Stirling, Midlothian (private appendix) appendix to MLO)1797 1 Kinross
  7. 7. Subject areas in the ‘original’ surveysNo. Subject No. Subject No. Subject1. Soil and climate 13. Seed time and harvest 25. Price of provisions2. Land ownership 14. Inclosures 26. State of roads3. Occupation of land 15. Advantages from inclosing land 27. State of farm houses and offices4. Land use 16. Size and nature of inclosures 28. Nature of leases5. Grass cultivation; species 17. Impact on inclosure on 29. Extent of commerce or manufacturesof stock; status of breeds population in the district6. Watering of land 18. Common fields 30. Practices in the district applicable to other districts7. Types of grains cultivated 19. Difference in rent common 31. Societies for the improvement of fields/inclosure agriculture8. Rotation of crops 20. Extent of waste lands 32. Spirit of improvement and its excitement9. Fallowing 21. Wage rates; price of labour; 33. Improvements to be undertaken in work hours livestock or husbandry10. Use of manures 22. Draining of land 34. Obstacles to improvement11. Ploughs, carts and other 23. Paring and burning 35. The most active farmers who couldimplements correspond with the Board of Agriculture12. Use of oxen and horses 24. Woodlands
  8. 8. The quarto format
  9. 9. The ‘corrected’ or ‘revised’ surveys
  10. 10. Differences in geographical scope of the ‘original’ and the ‘revised’ surveysChanges in ‘original’ and ‘revised’ surveysgeographical areaSame survey area Aberdeen, Angus, Ayrshire, Banffshire,Berwickshire, Clackmannan, Dumbarton, Dumfries, East Lothian, Kinross, Moray, Fife, Galloway, Hebrides, Mearns, Clydesdale, Midlothian, Tweedale, Renfrew, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Stirling, West LothianCounties and parts of a Argyll and the Western Coasts of Inverness - (Argyll)county brought within a Nairn and Eastern part of Inverness - (Nairn)survey area Monteath and Strathern in Perthshire, Interior districts in the Highlands and Carse of Gowrie - (Perth)A group of counties Northern counties - (Ross-shire, Sutherland, Caithness,given their own survey Orkney Isles, Shetland Isles)New survey Bute
  11. 11. Surveyors of both the ‘original’ and ‘reprinted’ surveysSurveyor Scottish Survey Surveyor English SurveyJames Naismith Clydesdale John Bailey and Cumberland, (Lanarkshire) George Culley Northumberland, WestmorelandGeorge Robertson Midlothian John Boys KentJames Trotter West Lothian John Holt LancasterJames Robertson Pt of Perthshire Nathaniel Kent Norfolk Robert Lowe Nottingham John Billingsley Somerset William Pitt Stafford Arthur Young Suffolk Thomas Davis Wiltshire John Tuke North Riding of Yorkshire Messrs Rennie, West Riding of Yorkshire Shirreff& Broun
  12. 12. Plan of the ‘revised’ reportsChapter Chapter heading Chapter Chapter headingnumber number Preliminary observations 10. Woods and plantations1. Geographical state and 11. Wastes circumstances2. State of property 12. Improvements3. Buildings 13. Live stock4. Mode of occupation 14. Rural economy5. Implements 15. Political economy, as connected with or affecting agriculture6. Inclosing – fences - gates 16. Obstacles to improvement7. Arable land 17. Miscellaneous observations8. Grass Conclusion9. Gardens and orchards Appendix
  13. 13. The octavo format
  14. 14. Publication of the ‘original’ surveysYear No. Scottish No. English No. Welsh surveys Total no. surveys surveys surveys published published published published1793 2 5 0 71794 22 42 12 761795 3 2 0 51796 1 (+ appendix 2 1 4 to MLO)1797 1 0 0 1Total 29 51 13 93
  15. 15. Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (1)Year No. Scottish No. English surveys No. Welsh Total no. surveys surveys surveys1795 1 1 0 21796 0 3 0 31797 0 5 0 51798 3 2 (+2ndedn)(+3rdedn) 0 5 (+ edns)1799 1 2 0 31800 1 1 (+ edn) 0 2 (+ edn)1801 0 0 0 01802 1 0 0 11803 0 1 0 11804 0 1 (+3rdedn) (2nd 0 1 (+ edn) (2nd survey) survey)1805 1 (+2ndedn) 1 (+2ndedn)(+3rdedn) 0 2 (+ edns)
  16. 16. Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (2)Year No. Scottish No. English surveys No. Welsh Total no. surveys surveys surveys1806 0 (+2ndedn) 0 0 0 (+ edns)1807 0 2 (+2ndedn) 0 2 (+ edns)1808 1 4 (+2ndedn), (+2ndedn) 0 5 (+ edns)1809 1 6 0 71810 4 4 1 91811 5 5 (+ 1 vol in 3 vols, 1811, 0 10 (+ edns) 1815, 1817)1812 6 3 0 91813 1 (+2ndedn) 0 0 1 (+ edns)1814 3 0 1 41815 0 2 (+ vol 2) (2nd survey) 0 2 (+ vol 2) (2nd survey)1816 1 0 0 11817 0 0 (+ vol 3) 0 0 (+ vol 3)
  17. 17. Publication of ‘revised’ Scottish surveysYear No. surveys Surveys1795 1 Midlothian1798 3 Argyll, Clydesdale, Roxburgh and Selkirk1799 1 Perth1800 1 Fife1802 1 Peebles1805 1 (+2ndedn) East Lothian, Argyll (2ndedn)1806 0 (+2ndedn) Clydesdale (2ndedn)1808 1 Inverness1809 1 Berwick1810 4 Galloway, Hebrides, Kincardine, Ross & Cromarty1811 5 Aberdeen, Ayr, Dumbarton, Moray and Nairn, West Lothian1812 6 Banff, Caithness, Dumfriesshire, Renfrew, Stirling, Sutherland1813 2 (+2ndedn) Angus, Perth (2ndedn), Shetland Islands1814 3 Clackmannan, Kinross, Orkney Islands1816 1 Bute
  18. 18. Price of the revised Scottish surveys -1st ednsPrice of survey Survey4s Clydesdale (1798)5s East Lothian (1805)6s Argyll (1798), Fife (1800), Midlothian (1795), Perth (1799), Roxburgh and Selkirk (1798)7s Peebles (1802)9s Dumbarton (1811), Galloway (1810), Ross and Cromarty (1810), West Lothian (1811)10s 6d Banff (1812), Kincardine (1810), Orkney and Shetland Islands (1814), Renfrew (1812)12s Berwick (1809), Sutherland (1812)14s Inverness (1808), Moray and Nairn (1811)15s Aberdeen (1811), Caithness (1812)18s Ayrshire (1811), Dumfries (1812)L1 1 0 Hebrides (1810)
  19. 19. Edinburgh, London and Dublin booksellersEdinburgh London DublinA. Constable& Co. Faulder& Son, Bond Street John ArcherW. Creech J. Harding, St James’s Street M. KeeneT. Bryce & Co. J. Asperne, CornhillSilvesterDoig Black, Parry and Kingsbury, Leadenhall StreetJohn Ballantyne& Co. Richard Phillips, Bridge StreetAndrew Stirling Cadell& Davies, Strand Reyolds, Oxford Street G. & W. Nicoll, Pall-Mall G. & J. Robinson, Paternoster Row Robinson &Wilkie, Paternoster Row Sherwood, Neely & Jones, Paternoster Row
  20. 20. Regional and local centres of distributionand saleBook Surveys Surveys published between 1805-11 Surveys publishedCentre published 1812-16 1795-1804 1805-8 1810-11Glasgow Argyll, Argyll, Clydesdale, East Ayr, Dumbarton, Bute, Moray and Nairn, Roxburgh and Lothian, Inverness Kincardine, Moray and Renfrew, Roxburgh and Selkirk Nairn SelkirkPerth Inverness, Nairn and Inverness MorayAberdeen Roxburgh and Argyll, Clydesdale, Kincardine, Moray and Kincardine, Moray and Selkirk East Lothian, Inverness Nairn, Nairn,Roxburgh and SelkirkDundee Inverness Moray and NairnInverness Inverness Moray and Nairn, Ross Banff, Caithness, Inverness, and Cromarty Moray and Nairn, Ross and Cromarty, SutherlandStirling AyrAyr AyrPaisley RenfrewGreenock Renfrew
  21. 21. Phases in the distribution of the Scottish ‘revised’ surveysPeriod Character of distribution1795-1804 •Use of key bookselling centres. • The surveys were primarily sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. • Only in exceptional cases were surveys sold by regional or local booksellers.1805-11 •Development and use of a more extensive network of booksellers. • The surveys were sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. • The surveys weredistributed by a larger number of booksellers in regional and local centres.1812-16 •Use of two broad patterns of bookselling networks. • Some surveys that were published for the first time were only sold by (a smaller number of) booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. • Some surveys were sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin and were also sold in regional and local centres.
  22. 22. Distribution of the subscribers to the ‘revised’ Peebles surveySubscribers AnalysisGeographical • Towns and villages and other places in Peebleshirelocation • Farms and estates in Peebleshire •Neighbouring counties (egLanarkshire, Midlothian, Edinburgh, East Lothian) • Counties farther afield in other parts of Scotland (egClackmannan, Fife, Perth, Inverness, Elgin, Ayr, Glasgow, Renfrewshire, Dumfries) • Outside Scotland (specific locations in England, Wales and Ireland)
  23. 23. Social and occupational groups ofsubscribers to the ‘revised’ Peebles surveyGroups AnalysisSocial and • Landed classes and landownersoccupational groups • Farmers • Members of Parliament • Honorary members of the Board of Agriculture • Surveyors to the Board of Agriculture • Agricultural writers • Educationalists (university, college, parish school) • Professions (law, medicine, education, military, ministry) • Others associated with agriculture (saddler, land surveyor) • Public officials (provosts, sheriffs, collectors of taxes) • Other occupational groups (merchant, accountant, banker, insurance-broker)
  24. 24. Thank you!

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