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The EU INSPIRE Directive and what it might mean for UK academia


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Presentation given by James Reid of EDINA at the INSPIRE for Social Science workshop, Colchester, October 2011

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The EU INSPIRE Directive and what it might mean for UK academia

  1. 1. The EU INSPIRE Directive.And what it might mean for UK academia...
  2. 2. INSPIRE - AimsThe AIM of the INSPIRE Directive is to: create a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) to improve the sharing of spatial information between public authorities and improve accessibility to the public.This will allow the EC and Member States to design and deliver better environmental policies that will result inimproved environmental outcomes.*INSPIRE will improve the quantity and quality of spatial information and enable information from differentsources to be more easily combined.* While it is intended for use in environmental policy making in the first instance, the intention is that it will be extended wider.
  3. 3. "Whether or not a data set falls under the INSPIRE obligations does notdepend on the scale, the specificity of the data sets, or the level ofgovernment involved in their management.When the data sets, at any level of government, are relevant fordeveloping, implementing or monitoring laws or regulations which mayhave an impact on the environment, INSPIRE obligations should apply.Such conditions could equally apply to data sets collected by aresearch project activity as the INSPIRE Directive makes no distinctionbetween ‘operational’ and ‘research’ data sets.INSPIRE could be considered a positive incentive to safeguard valuableresearch data sets after the ending of a project."
  4. 4. What are the issues and opportunities for opening up content? INSPIRE activities in the UK have to be set alongside wider initiatives at UK government and EU level which provide simultaneously both obligations and opportunities, specifically: The UK Location Programme- a cross domain, public sector effort to Establish the UK SDI and to partially realize UK obligations under: INSPIRE - A pan- European Directive for the establishment of an Infrastructure for Spatial Information (SDI) in the EU The aim of INSPIRE is to: improve the sharing of spatial information between public authorities and improve accessibility to the public. INSPIRE will improve the quality of spatial information and enable information from different sources to be more easily combined
  5. 5. What are the issues and opportunities for opening up content? The definition of ‘public authority’ (as per FoI) includes universities and Research Councils - the upshot of this is that Universities are required to comply with the Directive*. Implications of this depend on which perspective we take: Academia as Data Provider/Creator Academia as Data User In reality, it is likely that BOTH perspectives will pertain!!* Public Task has been defined for most public sector bodies in relation to the Re-use of Public Sector Information. But thePSI does not apply to Universities so there has been no need to create a statement of public task for that legislation.Guidance on public task places the onus on the Body to create the statement and it is reliant on both declared activities and“custom and practice” and it is open to challenge if outside parties disagree with the statement.The Scottish Information Commissioner has noted:“I would question, however, whether it is possible to say that a university will never have public tasks for the purposes of[INSPIRE] is not unknown for EU Law to deal with universities on the basis that they do discharge public functions. ”
  6. 6. UK HFE as INSPIRE Data ProviderFor university institutions it is unlikely that much of the geospatial data they hold would come under INSPIRE – certainly for the Annex I & II Themes .However, there are two caveats to this: 1. As the focus shifts to the third annex, it is possible that data held within universities might come within scope e.g. species distribution, habitats, atmospheric conditions. 2. Studies of environmental change require an understanding of how phenomena change over time. This requires access to historic data and earlier editions of data which may be held only by universities (or rather researchers and research teams within universities). In both cases, Universities would be required* to make these data available.The Commission has stated that it is “a fundamental right of third parties to enrich theEuropean Spatial Data Infrastructure with data sets currently hidden or difficult to find”.This philosophy also underpins the UK LP (aka UK SDI)* see earlier comment on public task
  7. 7. So what does that mean in practice? Data harmonization (information will adhere to specified common specifications) Provision of online services such as: discovery (find out what data exists), view (to display viewable spatial data sets) download (to obtain the data) transform (to enable data interoperability) Licensing arrangements that allow information to be shared, accessed and used in accordance with FOI legislation, EIR and the PSI RegulationsIt won’t necessarily be free… Monitoring mechanisms to demonstrate that the information is being made available Co-ordination mechanisms to ensure effective operation
  8. 8. Whats in scope? The grouping of themes in Annex II and Annex III represents a grouping for addressing different actions concerning harmonisation, dissemination and other actions formulated in the Directive. Different time schedules are linked to the data in the three annexes I, II and III. There is no thematic hierarchy in the INSPIRE Directive, however each theme represents a cluster/collection of different data sets.Data specifications already published
  9. 9. Annex III Themes of possible interest to social science?Population distribution – demographyGeographical distribution of people, including population characteristics and activitylevels, aggregated by grid, region, administrative unit or other analytical unit.Important feature types and attributes:The definition in the Directive specifies kinds of features relevant to demography: The definition includesthe term "aggregated". Non-aggregated data about population is excluded. The mentioned examples of aggregationare by grid, region, administrative unit or other analytical unit.Underneath are examples. Important attributes however, can be very diverse and aregenerally referred to as socio-economic attributes. Different variables can be relevant for differentaggregation levels.administrative unit, e.g. from the LAU2 level. settlement – small settlement, village, block, township, town, city • id • id • socio-economic attributes • socio-economic attributes as mentioned abovegrid, e.g. 1x1 km, 100x100m physical region/area within settlement • id • category • socio-economic attributes functional region/area within settlementcensus districts • category • id • socio-economic attributes as mentioned above Can also give population figures at other regional aggregations,small area statistics "free" regionalisation • id • socio-economic attributes
  10. 10. Annex III Themes of possible interest to social science?Human health and safetyGeographical distribution of dominance of pathologies (allergies, cancers, respiratory diseases, etc.),information indicating the effect on health ( biomarkers, decline of fertility, epidemics) or well-being ofhumans (fatigue, stress, etc.) linked directly (air pollution, chemicals, depletion of the ozone layer, noise, etc.)or indirectly (food, genetically modified organisms, etc.) to the quality of the environment.Important feature types and attributes:To illustrate kinds of geographical information which can be included in this INSPIRE theme, someexamples on medical statistics and medical geography can be given: General statistics on health - change over time Incidence data on specific diseases or other health issues Causes of poor or good health – risk factors - exposures Geographical distribution over exposure elements Human well-being Security Health servicesScope, use examples:• Health planning and management• Monitoring of marine foods or marine algal blooms that could cause harm to human health• Research on causes of illness and death: Through medical geography and geographical epidemiology different health issues can be analysed in a geographical context.• Emergency management• Security management: Over the last decade the criminal justice community has begun to reap the valuable analytic benefits of geographic information systems (GIS) technology. The powerful technology enhances the ability of researchers and practitioners to identify hot spots, analyse spatial patterns of crime and criminal behaviour, and to share disparate data sets across jurisdictional boundaries.
  11. 11. Data Specifications – Relevant Document Relationships “Data Specifications will provide a detailed definition of data content by means of application schema and feature catalogue. Furthermore the Data Specifications will specify requirements to data quality, data consistency, reference systems and metadata. The theme description, scopes and examples in this deliverable D2.3 may serve as a starting point for the development of the Data Specifications.”
  12. 12. Data Specifications (DS) - DetailWhat is a DS?The guideline contains detailed technical documentation of thedata specification highlighting the mandatory and therecommended elements related to the implementation of INSPIRE.Data Specifications document structureEach DS starts with two executive summaries:1. Interoperability of Spatial Data Sets and Services – General Executive Summarya quick overview of the INSPIRE data specification process in general2. {specific theme} – Executive Summarythe general content of the data specification on {the specific theme}.These are designed for managers, decision makers, and all thosenew to the INSPIRE process and/or information modelling as astarting point.
  13. 13. Data Specifications (DS) – Document Structure Detail1 Scope 6 Reference systems2 Overview 6.1 Coordinate reference systems2.1 Name and acronyms 6.1.1 Datum2.2 Informal description 6.1.2 Coordinate reference systems2.3 Normative References 6.1.3 Display2.4 Information about the creation of the specification 6.1.4 Identifiers for coordinate reference systems2.5 Terms and definitions 6.2 Temporal reference system2.6 Symbols and abbreviations2.7 Notation of requirements and recommendations2.8 Conformance Reminding us of the generic reference systems that are appropriate for the specific theme or expanding on thisthe reference statements of the document where the theme needs to3 Specification scopes 7 Data qualityNormally just a brief statement but... This chapter includes a description of data quality elements andthe specification of a data product may not be sub-elements as well as the associated data quality measures. Thehomogeneous across the whole data product, but may selected data quality measures are used to evaluate quality ofvary for different parts of the data. Each part shall datasets for a specific data quality element / sub-element. Thecorrespond to a specification scope. evaluation can be performed at the level of spatial object, spatial object type, dataset or dataset series.4 Identification information 8 Dataset-level Metadata Orientation information – the top level what 8.1 Mandatory and conditional metadata elements is this theme all about 8.2 Optional metadata elements 8.3 Guidelines on using metadata elements defined in Regulation 1205/2008/EC However, this may be removed from Annex II Metadata can be reported for each individual spatial object (spatial & III specifications (and a blank section object-level metadata) or once for a complete dataset or dataset inserted). series (dataset-level metadata). Spatial object-level metadata is any info then would be: fully described in the application schema (section 5). If data quality elements are used at spatial object level, the • for “managers” in the executive summary, documentation refers to the appropriate definition in section 7. This • for “domain/data experts” in Chapter 2, section only specifies dataset-level metadata elements. • for “technical experts” in Chapter 5 9 Delivery5 Data content and structure 9.1 Delivery medium 9.2 Encodings THE NITTY GRITTY OF THE DS!! (see next) How the specification is exposed through network services and encoding Includes a GML schema for each theme.
  14. 14. Data Specifications (DS) – Document Structure Detail10 Data Capture Data capturing rules are the main element todefine the targeted level of detail. For instance,there may be a need for transport networks on twolevels of detail (at the European level, scale about1:1000000 and at the local level, scale about1:10000) with very similar feature catalogues. However, the data will be very different. BibliographyThis difference is a result of different capturingrules / selection criteria for both levels of detail. Annex A (normative) Abstract Test Suite11 Portrayal Place holder for future conformance test suite11.1 Layer types11.2 Default Styles Annex B - E (informative)11.3 Other Well-defined Styles11.4 Layers organization These include a description of the use cases on There is no requirement in the Directive which the data specification is basedabout portrayal, but to guarantee that spatial datais portrayed consistently from the different MSsome rules are thought necessary. The section defines the rules for layers andstyles to be used for portrayal of the spatial objecttypes defined for the theme. The majority of these (currently) are blackand white and so there will be work required aspart of the developing maintenance process.
  15. 15. Data Specifications (DS) – Ch 5 – Application Schema5.2 Application Schema5.2.1 Description Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Identifier Management Modelling of Object References Geometry Representation Temporality Representation This section provides you with a more detailed overview of each individual application class Area Management, Restriction and Regulation Zon... schema comprising the data specification «featureT ype» ManagementRestrictionOrRegulationZoneCollection + inspireID: Identifier [0..1] + legalBasi s: LegislationReference [0..1] constraints {legalBasi s mandatory if not provided on ManagementRestrictionOrRegulationZone} «dataType» AlternateIdentifier Provides a set of UML diagrams which + identifier: CharacterString + identifierScheme: CharacterString Encoding recommendation 1: legalBasis the legalBasis shall be defi ned as a minimum at the highest level +relatedZone +member 1..* of Legislation (e.g. EC). 0..* «codeList» summarise the application schema «featureType» T hi s is required to enable European scale data discovery. ZoneTypeCode ManagementRestrictionOrRegulationZone + airQualityManagementZone Encoding recommendation 2: LegalBasis + inspireID: Identifier It i s recommended that if the legi sl ation has been transposed i nto + noiseManagementZone + thematicID: AlternateIdentifier [0..*] Member State or regional l egisl ation these legislations shoul d be + avi anInfluenzaRestricti onZone + geometry: GM_Object provi ded. + bluetongueRestrictionZone + prospectingAndMiningPermitArea «voidable» + regulatedFairwayAtSeaOrLargeInlandWater + name: GeographicalName [0..*] + restrictedZonesAroundContaminatedSites + zoneType: ZoneT ypeCode + areaForDumpingOfWaste + speci alisedZoneType: SpecialisedZoneT ypeCode [0..1] /* One of ei ther managementInformation or + coastalZoneManagementArea + validTime: T M_Period restrictionOrRegulationInformation is mandatory */ + restrictedAreaAroundDri nkingWater + competentAuthority: CI_ResponsibleParty inv: self.managementInformation->notEmpty() or + nitrateVulnerableZone + legal Basis: Legisl ationReference [0..1] self.restrictionOrRegulationInformation->notEmpty() What is UML? + riverBasinDistrict «voidable, lifecycl eInfo» + marineRegion + beginLifespanVersion: DateT ime + bathingWater A + endLifespanVersi on: DateT ime [0..1] /* T ype of geometry shall be GM_Surface or constraints GM_Multi Surface */ {legal Basis mandatory if not provided on SpatialDataSet level} +managementInformation 0..1 inv: geometry.oclIsKindOf(GM_Surface) or {Geometry shall be surface or multi-surface} «voidable» geometry.ocl IsKindOf(GM_MultiSurface) {Either managementInformation or controlledActi vity is mandatory} «dataT ype» ManagementInformation Formal, graphical modelling language for «voidabl e» «codeList» «codeList» + managementPlan: CI_Citation [1..*] «union» ControlledActiv ityType DayTypeCode RestrictedPeriod + agri cul tureAquacultureAndForestry + monday +controlledActivity + environmental Pollution + tuesday «voidable» 0..* + validTi me: TM_Period «codeList» + scheduledPeriod: Schedule + resourceExtraction + wednesday SpecialisedZoneTypeCode «dataT ype» + fishingHuntingOrCollecting + thursday defining conceptual data models and ControlledActiv ityInformation + transportation + friday + landUseAndPlanning + saturday + controlMeasure: ControlTypeCode «enumeration» + riskManagement + sunday + activity: ControlledActi vityT ype [1..*] «dataT ype» ControlTypeCode + conservation + weekdays «voidable» Schedule + weekends «codeList» permitted + publicHoliday + specialisedActi vity: Speciali sedActivityT ypeCode [0..*] + day: DayT ypeCode restricted SpecialisedActivityTypeCode + descri ption: CharacterString [0..1] additional business rules. All documentation + startT ime: T M_Position prohibited + restrictionPeriod: RestrictedPeriod [0..*] + endTi me: TM_Positi on promoted + activityLegalBasis: LegislationReference [0..1] and implementation schemas (e.g. XSDs) are automatically generated from UML Slide content courtesy Debbie Wilson, Snowflake Software
  16. 16. Consistency & Identifiers5.2 Application Schema This section shall define any requirements or recommendations to ensure consistency and5.2.1 Description interoperability. Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Examples sub-sections include: Identifier Management Consistency along boundaries Modelling of Object References Geometry Representation Consistency at the same level of detail Temporality Representation Consistency between different spatial objects in the same area Consistency between spatial objects from different themes No requirement under INSPIRE legislation to mandate that Annex III themes are assigned a unique, persistent identifier5.2 Application Schema Each theme has identified requirements for identifiers and their management if they5.2.1 Description use the Identifier type from GCM Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Requirement for making identifiers mandatory in Annex III include: Identifier Management Modelling of Object References Linking other information to the object e.g. Management Plans Geometry Representation Defining relationships to other spatial objects e.g. inclusion of references to monitoring facilities in Temporality Representation observations Some themes may also define additional identifiers (backwards compatibility) and should describe any management issues for these too
  17. 17. Object References5.2 Application Schema5.2.1 Description Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Identifier Management Modelling of Object References Geometry Representation Temporality Representation Provides guidance to understand how associations to other spatial objects should be implemented within the scope of the theme Content of this section varies across the data specifications Examples from Annex I:  Objects shall carry a thematic identifier to enable linkage with information in national registers  If the same real-world object is exchanged in more than one Hydro application schema then they shall carry the same name or hydroID  Each lower level admin unit shall be linked to an upper level unit
  18. 18. Geometry Representation5.2 Application Schema5.2.1 Description Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Identifier Management Modelling of Object References Geometry Representation Temporality Representation This section shall define any requirements, recommendations and additional guidance describing how the geometry shall be encoded:  Restrict geometry encodings to Simple Features profile  Define which geometries shall be provided where the geometry type is the high level GM_Object type  Geometric/Topological constraints  Geometry must be explicitly defined even if derived from another spatial object vs using referencing for encoding shared geometries
  19. 19. Temporal Representation5.2 Application Schema5.2.1 Description Narrative Description & UML Overview Consistency Between Datasets Identifier Management Modelling of Object References Geometry Representation Temporality Representation This section shall define any requirements/recommendation or guidelines for understanding how to implement any temporal properties:  Implementing INSPIRE lifecycleInfo properties:  beginLifespanVersion  endLifespanVersion NOTE: Guidance for lifecycleInfo properties same for all data specifications  Real-world temporal validity properties  validFrom/validTo  startTime/endTime
  20. 20. Feature Catalogue5.2.2 Feature Catalogue – consists of tables Feature Catalogue Metadata Types defined in the Feature Catalogue Spatial Object Types Data Types Code lists Informative section – description of types imported from external schemas The Feature Catalogue is the key section to read as it provides definitions and descriptions of:  Class types (Feature types, data types, code lists/enumerations)  Property/Attribute values  Associations  Constraints
  21. 21. Timeline
  22. 22. UK HFE as INSPIRE Data ConsumerAcademics and researchers in a wide range of fields arelikely to benefit directly by easier access to datafacilitated by the Directive. The vast majority of collection development expenditure by JISC and the research councils has focused on the UK and on core reference data sets.Much UK research is about places outside the UK. Researchers can face real difficulty in getting access to geospatial data in other countries. The ability to make seamless connections across the wide range of data types and thematic areas will, as well as reducing the barriers to accessing data, also open up new opportunities for understanding all kinds of change processes and enable national and international comparisons.
  23. 23. More Info Draft IR: 03-21 September 2012Done by JRC data specification team with support from TWGs Until then: Still time and need to participate!!
  24. 24. More Info More Info on INSPIRE at: More info on UK LP at: More info on INSPIRE&UKLP for HE/FE at: S ReidGeoservices, EDINAUniversity of +44 (0)131 651 1383m: 0759 5116988sk: indolentJtw: @sixfootdestiny
  25. 25. What is a Directive?An EU Directive is a European Union legal instruction orsecondary European legislation which is binding on all MemberStates but which must be implemented through nationallegislation within a prescribed time-scale.INSPIRE was translated into the UK legal framework via theINSPIRE Regulations in December 2009.The clock for delivering key milestones is ticking...
  26. 26. INSPIRE – an European SDI A little more on the policy drivers...Implementation of INSPIRE in the UK will deliver a step change in datamanagement, data interoperability and data sharing across the public sector,supported by better integration with mainstream information services. “citizens will have ready access to the information they need to go about their daily lives,whether at home, in business, in research or in government. Doing this will exploit the full value of the UK’s spatial information.” Specifically, this will allow us to:Know what data we have, and avoid duplicating it;Use common reference data so we know we are talking about the same places;Share spatial information easily through a common infrastructure of standards, technology and business relationships.