Best Practice for Social Media in Teaching & Learning Contexts - Nicola Osborne
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Best Practice for Social Media in Teaching & Learning Contexts, slides accompanying a presentation by Nicola Osborne, EDINA Digital Education Manager, for Abertay University (Dundee). The hashtag for this event was #AbTLEJan2017.
Best Practice for Social Media in Teaching & Learning Contexts - Nicola Osborne
Best Practice for Social Media in
Teaching & Learning Contexts
Digital Education Manager, EDINA
• Why use social media in teaching and learning?
• Best practices in using social media in teaching and learning.
– How to effectively engage students in social media.
– What does it mean to participate in public online?
• Examples of use in teaching and learning.
– Activity: how can you use/better use social media in your own
• Your students’ digital footprint and how your practice can
support a positive digital footprint
• Risk Management, professional bodies’ guidance and
• Digital Education Manager, leading EDINA’s work in this area and
developing new digital and mobile projects and services.
• Over 10 years experience of blogging and using social media, and over 7
years of advising others on the use of social media in communications,
public engagement, marketing, and in research and teaching contexts.
• Co-Investigator of the Managing Your Digital Footprint (research strand)
project (2014-15) and “A Live Pulse”: Yik Yak for understanding teaching,
learning and assessment at Edinburgh (2016-17).
• One of Jisc’s “50 most influential higher education (HE) professionals using social media”
• Creator of the Social Media module for the MSc in Science Communication & Public
Engagement (and lecturer for that course 2012-15).
• Guest Tutor for “Digital Tracks and Traces” for the MSc in Digital Education IDEL Module.
• Co-chair of the European Conference on Social Media 2017 Education Mini Track (2016/7) –
join us in Vilnius, Lithuania this July!
What are social media?
• Social Media are any websites that allow you to contribute, to engage, to connect with
others and are “Web 2.0” tools (O’Reilly 2005).
• Examples include:
– Blogs (WordPress, Blogger, Tumblr, Medium etc.)
– YouTube and Vimeo, Vine, Periscope, Meerkat
– Facebook (and Facebook Live)
– Google+ (and Google Hangouts)
– Snapchat, WhatsApp, YikYak, Jodel and
other social mobile apps.
– Flickr, Instagram, Pinterest, Giphy, ThingLink, etc.
– LinkedIn, Academia.edu, etc.
– Reddit, Mendeley, Delicious, Diigo, etc.
– FigShare, GitHub, ResearchGate
– Stack Overflow, Jelly
– And, to an extent, discussion boards and
comments sections, messaging apps, etc.
Instagram and other Social Media Apps by
Flickr user, Jason Howie (CC-BY)
This time it’s personal…
• Social media are about people, personality and
• They allow use of links, images, video, audio, and
other multimedia to bring a topic to life.
• They are designed to nurture communities,
networks, peer support, sharing, participation and
• They are often updated and engaged with via
mobile phones – crossing personal and
professional spaces, places and times.
• And that means they can present exceptional
access and contact with your students (and
colleagues) - but they can also be risky spaces to
“Username: LauraGil4 on
Storytelling)” by Flickr user Laura
Why use social media in
teaching and learning?
You and your students are already using these spaces every day! They…
• Connect and expose your students to the wider (global) professional field, topical
issues in their field, interest areas.
• Offer new and lively ways to tell stories, to engage in dialogue, to excite your
students – and provide new ways for your students to share their excitement about
• Rank highly on Google, Bing, etc. so can help your students raise their profile and
build a great online presence.
• Provide direct access to key people, influencers, communities, including experts
beyond your immediate physical context.
• Can provide more familiar and authentic ways (vs. e.g. Moodle or Blackboard) to
connect, and to build peer communities.
• May generate unexpected opportunities such as real world projects and
How to effectively engage students
through social media
Social media can be fun and creative spaces for learning and teaching through…
• Enabling/building peer communities of students in spaces they already use (for benefits
see Hallam Goodman et al, 2011).
• Reflective practices such as blogging, peer feedback on texts, artefacts, etc.
• Opportunities to contextualise learning with wider resources, communities,
conversations e.g. through use of hashtags, contribution to communities etc.
• Skills development and experimentation with format, style, presentation through video,
animation, creative storytelling, etc.
• Co-creation and/or collaborative activities including wikis, collaborative curation of
references or materials, enabling group work even at distance or asynchronously.
• Professional skills development around presentation of self, developing portfolio of
work, networking with others beyond the institution, etc.
• Promotion and profile raising for you and your program through building a vibrant
presence around your course and your research, e.g. articles for The Conversation,
And Social Media are full of fun interesting people!
@jar, @chrisspeed, @williamjnixon, @hjrea, @urbaneprofessor talking academic
social media, at an event organised via social media, for Social Media Week 2011
• Co-creation of learning in these spaces can mean a greater sense of
ownership and agency, improved confidence in using the online
learning spaces or tools, a greater sense of community (as discussed in
Delahunty et al 2013).
• The diversity of student contexts can create serendipitous opportunities
and unexpected perspectives…
• Safe online spaces can mean quieter or more shy students engage more
actively or vocally, emboldened by the differing etiquette and
affordances of these spaces and tools.
• Peers may support each other beyond official teaching and learning
times, or beyond the bounds of a module or course.
• Peers may form social communities which can be productive and
constructive (although not always). See Hallam et al (2011).
What does it mean to participate in
• Posting something online to friends and colleagues doesn’t
necessarily mean it is “private” to them.
• Posting something open to the world doesn’t necessarily mean
you wanted it to be public, to be global, to be seen by everyone.
• Public and private blur (boyd 2010), particularly in online
learning spaces and social media spaces – “context collapse” is a
genuine concern and we are often just a Google or an
unexpected “like” away from our identities merging.
“In Public” can also be about student context
Participating via social media (and apps) can mean participating in public or
semi-public spaces, with viewers, distractions, restrictions, overhearing, being
observed.. There are (unseen) shifting personal and technical contexts…
Home Office – relaxing mode by Flickr user jholster / Jaakko Holster Cindarella’s Using WiFi by Flickr user CarbonNYC / David Goehring
What is “Participation” here?
• Participation may range from asking questions and
engaging in discussions through to elaborate
collaborative projects or peer learning activities.
• Negotiating roles and contribution may look
different, social media activities can mean:
– Absence of obvious physical cues and indicators of
participation dynamics - who is dominating/who is left
– Lurking students or absent students making group
construction and bonding challenging.
– Backchannels, direct messaging and other less visible
chatter (and potentially issues).
– Greater distractions for time and student preference for
assessed activity (especially activities outside scheduled
– Contributing can mean overwriting or editing others’ work
in a very direct way (e.g. wikis, collaborative documents).
Yoly, Peter, Holly & Rob by Flickr user joeflintham / Joe Flintham
Presenting to the group by Flickr user epredator / Ian Hughes
Examples of use in teaching and
There are many examples and case studies out there –
explore, see what you like (or don’t like). I’ll be talking
about some of the biggest and most used spaces:
• Blogs (+ videos/YouTube)
Are blogs still “a thing”?
Blogs quietly power the web in 2016, with many having influence and impact,
shaping public debate and mainstream media priorities.
Mainstream news and media includes blogging as a key source and format for
output. Many sites also borrow from blog formats and writing styles, presenting
informal short form content alongside commenting and discussion space.
Blog posts – often as stand alone pieces of writing or content – make up a huge
amount of the content shared across social networks of all kinds.
Video (YouTube or Vimeo or organisational spaces) can also be used as a blogging
and reflective medium with similar approaches and teaching uses – many of the
most popular YouTube channels have blog-like content.
Blogs are a great way to practice writing for different audiences and find your own
Blogs are widely used in
teaching & learning…
• As a space for (assessed and non-assessed) self-reflection to capture changes in
approach and understanding over time:
– these can be private or public (or both - medics at Edinburgh University undertake specific
assessed open educational resource projects kept public until they are reviewed by tutors,
– they can be archived relatively easily;
– they can help students develop their understanding and build confidence in their (academic)
– they can provide a space for dialogue between student and tutor.
• As spaces to enable and support development of a peer learning community (open
or closed) with feedback, discussion, and development and exchange of ideas.
• As self-managed portfolios – using tags, categories and/or titles to tie posts to
chartership criteria, or key concepts.
• As a place to develop professional skills, communication and public engagement
skills and experience, to build a positive digital presence related to their studies or
experience of student life.
See: Sinclair (2016); Kerawalla et al (2008); Farmer, Yue & Brooks (2008); Bennett et al (2012); Ellison and Wu
(2008); Oravec (2003); Top (2012); Killeavy and Moloney (2010); Xie, Ke and Sharma (2008).
Blogging can be collaborative and/or
very personal learning spaces
Twitter in Teaching & Learning
• Activity can focus around a course or topic hashtag, “Twittorials” (see
Sinclair 2016), scheduled Twitter Chats (e.g. #LTHEchat).
• Network building and development as part of class or assessed work, such
as eliciting feedback or contribution to a piece of work, directly contacting
a key figure for comment, collaboratively creating a piece of work through
Twitter, professional skills tasks.
• Writing and storytelling tasks encouraging creative response, work within
tight character restrictions, creative play or character adoption/parody
(e.g. @AdultTrump @cdarwin, etc.)
• Original research – gathering responses to formal surveys or informal
Twitter polls through Twitter that feeds into other work.
• Subject specific critical reflection on developing public discourse and news
agenda around current events and/or trends or memes, discussion of
information and content sharing patterns, data analysis using tools and/or
coding with the API, etc.
Twitter is a powerful tool…
It can be productive, supportive and playful but it can also be a troll-ridden
environment for sensitive topics and needs to be used with appropriate
• Be thoughtful about the kinds of appropriate tasks
you set for students and/or in guiding students who
are undertaking their own projects in the space.
• Provide guidance to students on when to
engage/when to walk away
• Understand the space yourself so that you are able
to answer questions and support your students in
case of issues.
• Engage and recognise and reward good practice,
scaffold poor or problematic behaviours (as you
would in any other space).
• Know and make students aware of processes for
blocking or reporting users if necessary.
Red-throated Blue Bird --- [Explore
Front Page] by Flickr user Rachel
Facebook in Teaching & Learning
• Works well for publicising events and sharing news associated with
courses (not core course information).
• Can be effective as a peer learning space for e.g. revision (with caveats:
misinformation can propagate; students can be excluded accidentally or
intentionally; IPR of past papers, etc).
• Opportunities for use in collaborative projects as a collaboration space, for
marketing or creating events, pages, etc.
• Classwork and/or student-led research within the space with appropriate
boundaries, ethical considerations, anonymisation and guidance.
(Personal and ethnographic reflections are more appropriate than direct
data collection even of public posts).
• Facebook Live (video streaming) could be used for class-arranged events,
guest lectures from a figure with wider interest, informal
sessions/tutorials, and other non-standard tasks. Unlikely to be
appropriate for core teaching or properly two-way activities.
Facebook is very widely used but…
• Audiences and contexts mix which can be problematic for student
comfort, for duty of care, etc.
• Students often don’t want to
connect with staff or University
in a social space (and often
• Important issues of access/trust/
surveillance for some international
• Cohort/group preferences can make
it an effective space one year, then
problematic the next.
• The space changes regularly and is
difficult to control – especially around visibility of content.
Facebook by Flickr user Mambembe Arts and Crafts (CC-BY)
• Feeds off popularity of Facebook – lots of opportunity for
visual projects and creative tasks and/or visual analysis.
• Specific community dynamics and etiquette
– Content and ads merge without issue (as with YouTube)
– Younger users “Like” all posts.
– Hashtags are used much more heavily.
– Emoji are heavily used as part of comments and posts.
• Insta-meets – community meet ups around Instagram - are
used by cultural heritage organisations, in public engagement,
and could be used in teaching and learning contexts.
• Activities similar to Twitter around hashtags and peer
networking can work where sharing of images and/or
very short video, and/or commentary works as a focus;
or where community/subject matter fit the space
(e.g. health and wellbeing, fashion, art and design, food and nutition, etc).
• Huge potential for visual analysis and data analysis work (see Kaufer, 2015).
• In wide use for promotional, community building and corporate communications (see
Heick 2012), also alumni, recruitment, etc. Less use but good potential for teaching.
See Kofoed and Larsen (2016), Heick (2012), Kaufer (2015), and Al-Ali (2014).
A learning task featured in Al-Ali (2014)
trialling various tasks in Instagram.
• Increasingly mainstream especially
amongst teens, young adults and
• Limitations trigger creativity – images
and short videos are ephemeral and
• Challenges over consent for images,
potential longer retention of Snaps
(though users are alerted if their
Snaps are screenshot).
• Useful for inductions, bonding and
building personal connections and
communities (e.g. Waxman 2014).
• Requires lateral thinking to create
brief productive content. See Lee
See Kofoed and Larsen (2016), Lee (2016), Albeanu
(2014), Will (2016), @aiaddysonzhang (2017) and
Snapchat image by Michael Britt (@mbritt), used in his
introduction to psychology lectures. See Lee (2016).
(Not social media per see though highly collaborative and built by users.)
Widely used in educational organisations, including in teaching such as:
• Information literacy and critical thinking assignments – reviewing, critiquing, or contributing
content (contributions can be tracked).
• Research and group projects to address gaps in coverage, develop Wikipedia articles, etc.
Including work with Wikimedians in Residence at cultural heritage, university, etc.
• Computer science and data analysis projects – Wikipedia content is available in various
human and machine readable formats.
• Discourse and translation studies – see McAndrew (2017) for an innovative Edinburgh
Translation Studies assignment using Wikipedia.
• Skills development tasks – editing is simple but requires understanding of standard writing
style, format, etiquette, etc.
Challenges of this space include the initial style/etiquette barriers; the risk and confidence impact
of having contributions changed or deleted. However, successfully creating a public useful
contribution is a very rewarding experience.
See Lim and Simon (2011), Highton (2016), McAndrew (2017)
• Best used for developing professional skills and building
portfolios (including course related and extra curricular
• Works well for developing professional networks, and
understanding professional connections. Groups enable
current awareness around interest areas and particular
professional groups and employers.
• In use as part of employability content in the curriculum at
Abertay (ask your colleagues about this!)
• Careers Services tend to provide really useful guidance and
content here. E.g: http://www.ed.ac.uk/careers/looking-
Activity: How can you use/better use social
media in your own teaching practice?
Identify one activity (classroom or assessed) in your current teaching
that you think could be translated into a relevant and engaging social
Think & discuss for 10 mins then share your 30 second pitch/summary.
You might want to consider:
• If/how you already using social media in your teaching?
• What tools your students respond to.
• How you would manage expectations and provide guidance in
• How you would moderate/manage the activity whilst taking place.
What is your digital footprint?
It's the data you leave behind when you go online. It's what you've said,
what others have said about you, where you've been, images you're
tagged in, personal information, social media profiles and much more…
What does your digital footprint look like to…your friends, future
employers, your family?
Workshops, resources and more can be found at www.ed.ac.uk/iad/digitalfootprint
Sign up for our forthcoming #dfmooc: http://eepurl.com/cciXEX
Your students’ digital footprint and how your
practice can support a positive digital footprint
• What are our responsibilities towards our students
when we use social media sites?
• How well do we, and they, understand the impact
of tracks and traces that may be left behind?
• The University of Edinburgh Managing Your Digital
Footprint project has been investigating students’
understanding of their Digital Footprint. See the
website, associated resources and forthcoming
• See also:
– danah boyd (2014) “It’s Complicated”: http://www.danah.org/itscomplicated/
– Jon Ronson’s (2015) “So, You’ve Been Publicly Shamed”:
Tracks, Traces and (Lack of) Anonymity
• In the classroom students (largely) elect who to expose full names to…
• Wikis track and record every change attributing changes to specific users and
timestamps. Errors are public. Corrections are public.
• Facebook and many other sites request or require the use of real names.
• Pseudonyms can become problematic and much less protective once associated with
real identities (e.g. in a class activity).
• Facebook have repeatedly re-set privacy settings to default to “public”, most recently
with search changes in October 2013 (see Constine 2013).
• Twitter updates are public. Even “private” accounts can be accessed via the API.
• Snapchat posts, deleted Tweets, Messenger conversations etc. are easily screen
• Social media activity can impact on filtering, reputation, etc. making playful and risky
tasks potentially more threatening.
• Social media and internet activities are increasingly monitored by the state, e.g. in visa
application processes (currently voluntary for ESTA visas for the US for example)
Teaching and Learning with social media means understanding and acknowledging the
more public and exposed nature of these spaces.
Tool Choices + Terms and Conditions
• Making informed choices is central to use of social media and non-institutional online
spaces and tools…
• What type of spaces or experiences are appropriate to your students, their context,
their professional aspirations or experience (e.g. see professional bodies guidance).
• Are the spaces you are using and the types of activity you are proposing appropriate
for your students’ locations and family or national context/culture? (e.g. some social
media spaces are both blocked and/or monitored by China)
• You need to know what you asking your students to do:
– Are you requiring them to register for new sites/spaces? Is that appropriate or justifiable?
– Understand what data they will be sharing and what might happen to it – engage with the
Terms of Service for any tool you use.
– What happens if students do not want to use a particular space, particularly a third
party/commercially operated space?
– How will you ensure your teaching and learning activity is accessible, or a suitable
alternative is accessible, to your students?
What can you do to create a safe social
media space for participation?
• Provide guidance in course handbooks (see Digital Footprint resources for a CC licensed
• Link to any appropriate local or professional bodies guidance or social media policies
• Set out clear expectations about participation (or non participation)
– What will you do if a student does not want to, or does not feel able to, participate?
• Know and be ready to justify why you are using social media rather than organisational
• Ensure YOU know about the spaces you are using including:
– understanding who will (and will not) have access to your space/content.
– processes to moderate comments or deal with spam comments/posts
– block or report other users, deal with trolls
– take action if any serious issue- from bullying to plagiarism to criminal activity
– understand IPR/licensing issues and can point students to support information.
• How will you negotiate your own online identity or identities as you interact in your teaching
and learning spaces?
Professional bodies’ guidance and
eProfessionalism is the way you engage yourself online in relation to your profession, including
your attitudes, actions and your adherence to relevant professional codes of conduct.
• Depending on subject area/course students may be expected to act as professionals from
day one of their course (e.g. Royal College of Nursing).
• Students need to be made aware of the appropriate professional bodies guidance for their
field, and the expectations of appropriate conduct.
• In some cases students on placement/in research projects will also need to be aware of
privacy, non-disclosure agreements (e.g. games design students), etc. that apply to them
and their use of social media.
• Teaching activities should align with appropriate professional bodies’ guidance as well as
local organisational policies and requirements.
• Creating an effective digital footprint online is relevant whether or not there are
professional bodies guidance documents for a student’s area of study – there may also be
other forms of community etiquette and expectations (e.g. artists and designers’ web and
social media presences and cultures).
Example: GMC (2013) Guidance
The GMC Guidance is broadly supportive of social media, stating:
“Doctors’ use of social media can benefit patient care by:
– a. engaging people in public health and policy discussions
– b. establishing national and international professional networks
– c. facilitating patients’ access to information about health and
However, they also have clear guidance on limitations and
GMC: Doctors’ use of social media
“When communicating publicly, including speaking to or writing in the
media, you must maintain patient confidentiality. You should
remember when using social media that communications intended for
friends or family may become more widely available.”
“Many improper disclosures are unintentional. You should not share
identifiable information about patients where you can be overheard,
for example, in a public place or in an internet chat forum…”
“Many doctors use professional social media sites that are not
accessible to the public. Such sites can be useful places to find advice
about current practice in specific circumstances. However, you must
still be careful not to share identifiable information about patients.”
GMC Guidance: Boundaries
“Using social media also creates risks, particularly where social and
professional boundaries become unclear. You must follow the guidance
in Maintaining a professional boundary between you and your patient.”
“If a patient contacts you about their care or other professional
matters through your private profile, you should indicate that you
cannot mix social and professional relationships and, where
appropriate, direct them to your professional profile.”
Full detailed guidance can be found here: http://www.gmc-
Summary / TL;DR
• Be creative but pedagogically relevant (don’t use social media for
• Be inspired but feel able to borrow ideas from others too.
• Make thoughtful informed choices around social media tools and
• Make sure you understand how to use any social media space you use!
• Support your students to get involved – make it easy, fun, engaging for
them to take part.
• Respect your students’ preferences and concerns.
• Think about your students’ and your own digital footprint.
• Be aware of guidance on social media use by professional bodies.
• Review, reflect, change approach when appropriate, try things out…
• Follow up questions via email
(email@example.com) or Twitter
(@suchprettyeyes) are also welcomed.
• All references are on these slides which will be
distributed and also available via the EDINA
• Social Media for Educators Wiki (a work in progress): https://www.wiki.ed.ac.uk/display/SMFE/
• Managing Your Digital Footprint: Resources and Guidance: http://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-
• Managing Your Digital Footprint: Resources for educators: http://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-
• Managing Your Digital Footprint: eProfessionalism: http://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-
• Managing Your Digital Footprint Social Media for Educators Wiki:
• “A Live Pulse”: Yik Yak for Understanding Teaching Learning and Assessment at Edinburgh (blog):
• University of Edinburgh Teaching Matters blog: http://www.teaching-matters-blog.ed.ac.uk/
• EDINA Social Media Guidelines (available under CC license):
• University of Edinburgh Social Media Guidelines: http://www.ed.ac.uk/website-programme/training-
Further Reading: General
• Barbour, K. and Marshall, D., 2012. The academic online: Constructing persona through the World Wide Web. In First Monday, 17 (9), 3 September
2012. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v0i0.3969.
• boyd, d., 2014. It’s Complicated: the social lives of networked teens. New Haven: Yale University Press. Available from:
• Brake, D.R. (2014). Sharing Our Lives Online: Risks & Exposure in Social Media. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire.
• Delahunty, J., Verenikina, I. and Jones, P., 2013. Socio-emotional connections: identity, belonging and learning in online interactions. A literature
review. In Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Available from:
• Farnham, S.D. and Churchill, E.F. (2011) Faceted identity, faceted lives: social and technical issues with being yourself online. In Proceedings of the
ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 359-368. Available from:
• Greenhow, C. And Robelia, B., 2008. Informal learning and identity formation in online social networks. In Learning, Media and Technology, 34 (2).
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439880902923580.
• Guardian: The Dark Side of Guardian Comments (12th April 2016): https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/12/the-dark-side-of-
• Kieslinger, B., 2015. Academic peer pressure in social media: Experiences from the heavy, the targeted and the restricted user. In First Monday, 20
(6), 1 June 2015. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v20i6.5854
• Osborne, N 2014, 'Learning from others mistakes: how social media etiquette distorts informal learning online.'. in A Rospigliosia & S Greener
(eds), Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Media University of Brighton UK 10-11 July 2014. The Proceedings of the European
Conference on Social Media, Academic Conferences and Publishing International (acpi), Reading, UK, pp. 369-377, European Conference on Social
Media, Brighton, United Kingdom, 10-11 July. Available from: http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/learning-from-others-mistakes-
• Roth, A., Davis, R. and Carver, B., 2013. Assigning Wikipedia editing: Triangulation toward understanding university student engagement. In First
Monday, 18 (6), 3 June 2013. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v18i6.4340.
• Rubens, I. (2015) Mobile app Yik Yak becomes source of abuse from Bournemouth students. In Buzz: News from Bournemouth and beyond [website],
10th December 2015. Available from: http://buzz.bournemouth.ac.uk/yik-yak-abuse-fromstudents/
• Thielman, S. (2015) Yik Yak warns anonymous users they can be arrested after Missouri threats. In The Guardian, 11th November 2015. Available
Further Reading: Facebook & Social
• Boyd, d. and Ellison, N.B., 2007. “Social network sites: Definition, history, scholarship,” Journal of
Computer–Mediated Communication, 13 (1). Available from:
• Ellison, N.B., Steinfeld, C. and Lampe, C., 2007. “The benefits of Facebook ‘friends’: Social capital
and college students’ use of online social network sites,” Journal of Computer–Mediated
Communication, 12 (4). Available from:
• Ferdig, R., et al. (2008). Medical students’ and residents’ use of online social networking tools:
Implications for teaching professionalism in medical education. First Monday, 13 (9). Available from:
• Hallam Goodband, J., et al. (2012). Limits and potentials of social networking in academia: case
study of the evolution of a mathematics Facebook community. Learning, Media and Technology,
37(3), 236-252. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2011.587435.
• Lego Muñoz, C. and Towner, T., 2011. Back to the “wall”: How to use Facebook in the college
classroom. In First Monday, 16 (12), 5 December 2011. Available from:
• Pasek, J., more, e. and Hargittai, E., 2009. Facebook and academic performance: Reconciling a
media sensation with data. In First Monday, 14 (5), 4 May 2009. Available from:
Further Reading: Blogs
• Bennett, S., Bishop, A., Dalgarno, B., Waycott, J., and Kennedy, G., 2012. Implementing Web 2.0 technologies in higher
education: A collective case study. In Computers & Education, 59 (2), pp. 524-534. Available from:
• Ellison, N. B. and Wu, Y., 2008. Blogging in the classroom: A preliminary exploration of student attitudes and impact on
comprehension. In Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17(1), pp. 99-122. Available from:
• Farmer, B., Yue, A. and Brooks, C., 2008. Using blogging for higher order learning in large cohort university teaching: A case
study. In Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24 (2). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.14742/ajet.1215.
• GDS Digital Engagement blog: You know why we blog, here’s how we blog (10th December 2015):
• Kerawalla, L., Minocha, S., Kirkup, G. and Conole, G., 2008. An empirically grounded framework to guide blogging in higher
education. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (1), pp. 31-42. Available from:
• Killeavy, M. and Moloney, A., 2010. Reflection in a social space: Can blogging support reflective practice for beginning
teachers? In Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(4), pp. 1070-1076. Available from:
• Oravec, J. A., 2003. Blending by Blogging: weblogs in blended learning initiatives. In Journal of Educational Media, 28 (2-3),
pp. 225-233. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1358165032000165671.
• Sinclair, C. 2016. Making the connection: blogging withing and about the MSc in Digital Education. In, Teaching Matters
(blog), 4th April 2016. Available from: http://www.teaching-matters-blog.ed.ac.uk/?p=285
• Top, E., 2012. Blogging as a social medium in undergraduate courses: Sense of community best predictor of perceived
learning. In The Internet and Higher Education, 15 (1), pp. 24-28. Available from:
• Xe, Y., Ke, F. and Sharma, P., 2008. The effect of peer feedback for blogging on collect students’ reflective learning processes.
In Internet and Higher Education, 11, pp. 18-25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.11.001.
Further Reading: Twitter
• Almuhimedia, H., Wilson, S., Liu, B., Sadeh, N. and Acquisti, A., 2013. Tweets are forever: A large-
scale quantitative analysis of deleted Tweets. Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Conference on
Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Antonio, Texas, February 23-27, 2013. Available from:
• Daniels, J., 2013. From Tweet to blog post to peer-reviewed article: How to be a scholar now. In LSE
Maximising the impact of academic research (blog), 25th September 2013. Available from:
• Jacquemin SJ, Smelser LK and Bernot MJ (2014). Twitter in the Higher Education Classroom: A
Student and Faculty Assessment of Use and Perception. Journal of College Science Teaching, 43(6),
22-27. Available from: https://www.learntechlib.org/p/156462.
• Terras, M., 2011. What happens when you tweet an Open Access Paper. In Melissa Terras’ Blog, 7th
November 2011. Available from: http://melissaterras.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/what-happens-
• Vlieghe, J., Page, K. L. and Rutten, K. “Twitter, the most brilliant tough love editor you’ll ever have.”
Reading and writing socially during the Twitter Fiction Festival. In First Monday, 21 (4), 4 April 2016.
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i4.6334
Further Reading: Digital Footprint &
• boyd, d. and Crawford, K., 2011. Six Provocations for Big Data. A Decade in Internet Time: Symposium on the Dynamics of the Internet
and Society, 21 September 2011. Available at SSRN: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1926431
• Chester, A., Kienhuis, M., Pisani, H., Shahwan-Akl, L. & White, K. (2013). Professionalism in student online social networking: the role of
educators, E-Learning and Digital Media. 10 (1), 30-39. Available from: https://www.learntechlib.org/p/131459.
• Connelly, L & Osborne, N 2016, 'Student identities in transition: social media experiences, curation and implications for Higher
Education'. in Sheffield Hallam University - SocMedHE Blog: SocMedHE15 Proceedings. SocMedHE15, Sheffield, United Kingdom, 18-18
December. Available from: http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/student-identities-in-transition-social-media-
• Fenwick T. (2016). Social media, professionalism and higher education: a sociomaterial consideration. Studies in Higher Education.
41(4), 664-677. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.942275.
• Hansson, K. Controlling singularity: The Role of online communication for young visual artists’ identity management. In First Monday, 20
(5), 4 May 2015. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v20i5.5626
• Howarth, A. and Martínez Fernández, G., 2014. Governing risks and benefits: Mobile communication technologies in British Universities.
In First Monday, 19 (2), 3 Feb 2014, Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i2.4708
• Osborne, N. and Connelly, L. (2015). Managing your digital footprint: possible implications for teaching and learning. In: Mesquita A and
Peres P (eds) 2nd European Conference on Social Media ECSM 2015. Portugal. Available from:
• Osborne, N & Connelly, L 2016, 'Students’ Digital Footprints: Curation of Online Presences, Privacy and Peer Support' Paper presented
at European Conference on Social Media (ECSM 2016), Caen, France, United Kingdom, 11/07/16 - 12/07/16. Available from:
• Ronson, J., 2015. So, You’ve Been Publicly Shamed. London: Picador.
Further Reading: Snapchat
• @aiaddysonzhang, 2017. 5 ways to use Snapchat as a teaching and learning tool in higher education. In
iSocialFanz (blog). Available from: https://www.isocialfanz.com/5-ways-use-snapchat-teaching-learning-tool-
• Albeanu, C., 2014. C4 News to use Snapchat, Whatsapp in #indyref coverage. In Journalism.co.uk, 17th
September 2014. Available from: https://www.journalism.co.uk/news/channel-4-news-to-use-snapchat-
• Kofoed, J. and Larsen, M. C., 2016. A snap of intimacy: Photo-sharing practices among young people on
social media. In First Monday, 21 (11), 7 November 2016. Available from:
• Lee, J., 2016. 10 Seconds at a time, a teacher tries Snapchat to engage students. In NPREd, 29th March 2016.
Available from: http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/03/29/467091289/how-teachers-are-using-snapchat
• Waxman, O. B., 2014. Snapchat grows up: How college officials are using the app. In Time Magazine
(website), 31st March 2014. Available from: http://time.com/36307/snapchat-grows-up-how-college-
• Will, M., 2016. Teachers are starting to use Snapchat. Should you? In Teaching Now, 10th June 2016.
Available from: http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/teaching_now/2016/06/teachers_snapchat_guide.html.
Further Reading: Instagram
• Al-Ali, S., 2014. Embracing the selfie craze: Exploring the possible use of Instagram as language
mLearning tool. In UAiR: the University of Arizona Issues and Trends in Educational Technology,
2 (2). Available from:
• Heick, T., 2012. How 10 colleges are using instagram. In teachthought (website), 11th October
2012. Available from: http://www.teachthought.com/uncategorized/how-10-colleges-are-
• Kaufer, E., 2015. Instagram: The next big (academic) thing? In Oxford Internet Institute (blog),
12th February 2015. Available from: https://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/instagram-the-next-big-
• Kofoed, J. and Larsen, M. C., 2016. A snap of intimacy: Photo-sharing practices among young
people on social media. In First Monday, 21 (11), 7 November 2016. Available from:
Further Reading: Wikipedia
• Highton, M., 2016. wor wikimedian. In Melissa Highton: Light out for the
territory ahead of the rest (blog), 26th February 2016. Available from:
• Lim, S. and Simon, C., 2011. Credibility judgement and verification
behaviour of college students concerning Wikipedia. In First Monday, 16
(4), 4 April 2011. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v16i4.3263
• McAndrew, E., 2017. Wikipedia assignment – Translation studies MSc. In
Wikimedian in Residence blog, 5th January 2017. Available from:
First, let’s define what we mean by a digital footprint