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Best Practice for Social Media in Teaching & Learning Contexts - Nicola Osborne

  1. Best Practice for Social Media in Teaching & Learning Contexts #AbTLEJan2017 Nicola Osborne Digital Education Manager, EDINA @suchprettyeyes
  2. Overview • Why use social media in teaching and learning? • Best practices in using social media in teaching and learning. – How to effectively engage students in social media. – What does it mean to participate in public online? • Examples of use in teaching and learning. – Activity: how can you use/better use social media in your own teaching practice? • Your students’ digital footprint and how your practice can support a positive digital footprint • Risk Management, professional bodies’ guidance and eProfessionalism 2
  3. About Me • Digital Education Manager, leading EDINA’s work in this area and developing new digital and mobile projects and services. • Over 10 years experience of blogging and using social media, and over 7 years of advising others on the use of social media in communications, public engagement, marketing, and in research and teaching contexts. • Co-Investigator of the Managing Your Digital Footprint (research strand) project (2014-15) and “A Live Pulse”: Yik Yak for understanding teaching, learning and assessment at Edinburgh (2016-17). Also: • One of Jisc’s “50 most influential higher education (HE) professionals using social media” (2015). • Creator of the Social Media module for the MSc in Science Communication & Public Engagement (and lecturer for that course 2012-15). • Guest Tutor for “Digital Tracks and Traces” for the MSc in Digital Education IDEL Module. • Co-chair of the European Conference on Social Media 2017 Education Mini Track (2016/7) – join us in Vilnius, Lithuania this July! 3
  4. What are social media? • Social Media are any websites that allow you to contribute, to engage, to connect with others and are “Web 2.0” tools (O’Reilly 2005). • Examples include: – Blogs (WordPress, Blogger, Tumblr, Medium etc.) – Twitter – YouTube and Vimeo, Vine, Periscope, Meerkat – Facebook (and Facebook Live) – Google+ (and Google Hangouts) – Snapchat, WhatsApp, YikYak, Jodel and other social mobile apps. – Flickr, Instagram, Pinterest, Giphy, ThingLink, etc. – LinkedIn,, etc. – Reddit, Mendeley, Delicious, Diigo, etc. – FigShare, GitHub, ResearchGate – Stack Overflow, Jelly – And, to an extent, discussion boards and comments sections, messaging apps, etc. Instagram and other Social Media Apps by Flickr user, Jason Howie (CC-BY)
  5. This time it’s personal… • Social media are about people, personality and quirkiness. • They allow use of links, images, video, audio, and other multimedia to bring a topic to life. • They are designed to nurture communities, networks, peer support, sharing, participation and collaboration. • They are often updated and engaged with via mobile phones – crossing personal and professional spaces, places and times. • And that means they can present exceptional access and contact with your students (and colleagues) - but they can also be risky spaces to engage. “Username: LauraGil4 on Snapchat (Education Storytelling)” by Flickr user Laura Gilchrist (CC-BY).
  6. Why use social media in teaching and learning? You and your students are already using these spaces every day! They… • Connect and expose your students to the wider (global) professional field, topical issues in their field, interest areas. • Offer new and lively ways to tell stories, to engage in dialogue, to excite your students – and provide new ways for your students to share their excitement about their subject! • Rank highly on Google, Bing, etc. so can help your students raise their profile and build a great online presence. • Provide direct access to key people, influencers, communities, including experts beyond your immediate physical context. • Can provide more familiar and authentic ways (vs. e.g. Moodle or Blackboard) to connect, and to build peer communities. • May generate unexpected opportunities such as real world projects and collaborations.
  7. How to effectively engage students through social media Social media can be fun and creative spaces for learning and teaching through… • Enabling/building peer communities of students in spaces they already use (for benefits see Hallam Goodman et al, 2011). • Reflective practices such as blogging, peer feedback on texts, artefacts, etc. • Opportunities to contextualise learning with wider resources, communities, conversations e.g. through use of hashtags, contribution to communities etc. • Skills development and experimentation with format, style, presentation through video, animation, creative storytelling, etc. • Co-creation and/or collaborative activities including wikis, collaborative curation of references or materials, enabling group work even at distance or asynchronously. • Professional skills development around presentation of self, developing portfolio of work, networking with others beyond the institution, etc. • Promotion and profile raising for you and your program through building a vibrant presence around your course and your research, e.g. articles for The Conversation, blogging, videos. 7
  8. And Social Media are full of fun interesting people! 8 @jar, @chrisspeed, @williamjnixon, @hjrea, @urbaneprofessor talking academic social media, at an event organised via social media, for Social Media Week 2011
  9. Expansive Opportunities • Co-creation of learning in these spaces can mean a greater sense of ownership and agency, improved confidence in using the online learning spaces or tools, a greater sense of community (as discussed in Delahunty et al 2013). • The diversity of student contexts can create serendipitous opportunities and unexpected perspectives… • Safe online spaces can mean quieter or more shy students engage more actively or vocally, emboldened by the differing etiquette and affordances of these spaces and tools. • Peers may support each other beyond official teaching and learning times, or beyond the bounds of a module or course. • Peers may form social communities which can be productive and constructive (although not always). See Hallam et al (2011).
  10. What does it mean to participate in public online? • Posting something online to friends and colleagues doesn’t necessarily mean it is “private” to them. • Posting something open to the world doesn’t necessarily mean you wanted it to be public, to be global, to be seen by everyone. • Public and private blur (boyd 2010), particularly in online learning spaces and social media spaces – “context collapse” is a genuine concern and we are often just a Google or an unexpected “like” away from our identities merging.
  11. “In Public” can also be about student context Participating via social media (and apps) can mean participating in public or semi-public spaces, with viewers, distractions, restrictions, overhearing, being observed.. There are (unseen) shifting personal and technical contexts… Home Office – relaxing mode by Flickr user jholster / Jaakko Holster Cindarella’s Using WiFi by Flickr user CarbonNYC / David Goehring
  12. What is “Participation” here? • Participation may range from asking questions and engaging in discussions through to elaborate collaborative projects or peer learning activities. • Negotiating roles and contribution may look different, social media activities can mean: – Absence of obvious physical cues and indicators of participation dynamics - who is dominating/who is left behind. – Lurking students or absent students making group construction and bonding challenging. – Backchannels, direct messaging and other less visible chatter (and potentially issues). – Greater distractions for time and student preference for assessed activity (especially activities outside scheduled classes). – Contributing can mean overwriting or editing others’ work in a very direct way (e.g. wikis, collaborative documents). Yoly, Peter, Holly & Rob by Flickr user joeflintham / Joe Flintham Presenting to the group by Flickr user epredator / Ian Hughes
  13. Examples of use in teaching and learning. There are many examples and case studies out there – explore, see what you like (or don’t like). I’ll be talking about some of the biggest and most used spaces: • Blogs (+ videos/YouTube) • Twitter • Facebook • Instagram • Snapchat • Wikipedia 13
  14. Are blogs still “a thing”? Blogs quietly power the web in 2016, with many having influence and impact, shaping public debate and mainstream media priorities. Mainstream news and media includes blogging as a key source and format for output. Many sites also borrow from blog formats and writing styles, presenting informal short form content alongside commenting and discussion space. Blog posts – often as stand alone pieces of writing or content – make up a huge amount of the content shared across social networks of all kinds. Video (YouTube or Vimeo or organisational spaces) can also be used as a blogging and reflective medium with similar approaches and teaching uses – many of the most popular YouTube channels have blog-like content. Blogs are a great way to practice writing for different audiences and find your own non-academic voice.
  15. Blogs are widely used in teaching & learning… • As a space for (assessed and non-assessed) self-reflection to capture changes in approach and understanding over time: – these can be private or public (or both - medics at Edinburgh University undertake specific assessed open educational resource projects kept public until they are reviewed by tutors, then published); – they can be archived relatively easily; – they can help students develop their understanding and build confidence in their (academic) writing skills; – they can provide a space for dialogue between student and tutor. • As spaces to enable and support development of a peer learning community (open or closed) with feedback, discussion, and development and exchange of ideas. • As self-managed portfolios – using tags, categories and/or titles to tie posts to chartership criteria, or key concepts. • As a place to develop professional skills, communication and public engagement skills and experience, to build a positive digital presence related to their studies or experience of student life. See: Sinclair (2016); Kerawalla et al (2008); Farmer, Yue & Brooks (2008); Bennett et al (2012); Ellison and Wu (2008); Oravec (2003); Top (2012); Killeavy and Moloney (2010); Xie, Ke and Sharma (2008). 15
  16. Blogging can be collaborative and/or very personal learning spaces #curiouscolab
  17. Twitter in Teaching & Learning • Activity can focus around a course or topic hashtag, “Twittorials” (see Sinclair 2016), scheduled Twitter Chats (e.g. #LTHEchat). • Network building and development as part of class or assessed work, such as eliciting feedback or contribution to a piece of work, directly contacting a key figure for comment, collaboratively creating a piece of work through Twitter, professional skills tasks. • Writing and storytelling tasks encouraging creative response, work within tight character restrictions, creative play or character adoption/parody (e.g. @AdultTrump @cdarwin, etc.) • Original research – gathering responses to formal surveys or informal Twitter polls through Twitter that feeds into other work. • Subject specific critical reflection on developing public discourse and news agenda around current events and/or trends or memes, discussion of information and content sharing patterns, data analysis using tools and/or coding with the API, etc. 17
  18. Twitter is a powerful tool… It can be productive, supportive and playful but it can also be a troll-ridden environment for sensitive topics and needs to be used with appropriate awareness/thoughtfulness. • Be thoughtful about the kinds of appropriate tasks you set for students and/or in guiding students who are undertaking their own projects in the space. • Provide guidance to students on when to engage/when to walk away • Understand the space yourself so that you are able to answer questions and support your students in case of issues. • Engage and recognise and reward good practice, scaffold poor or problematic behaviours (as you would in any other space). • Know and make students aware of processes for blocking or reporting users if necessary. Red-throated Blue Bird --- [Explore Front Page] by Flickr user Rachel Samanyi (CC-BY)
  19. Facebook in Teaching & Learning • Works well for publicising events and sharing news associated with courses (not core course information). • Can be effective as a peer learning space for e.g. revision (with caveats: misinformation can propagate; students can be excluded accidentally or intentionally; IPR of past papers, etc). • Opportunities for use in collaborative projects as a collaboration space, for marketing or creating events, pages, etc. • Classwork and/or student-led research within the space with appropriate boundaries, ethical considerations, anonymisation and guidance. (Personal and ethnographic reflections are more appropriate than direct data collection even of public posts). • Facebook Live (video streaming) could be used for class-arranged events, guest lectures from a figure with wider interest, informal sessions/tutorials, and other non-standard tasks. Unlikely to be appropriate for core teaching or properly two-way activities. 19
  20. Facebook Challenges Facebook is very widely used but… • Audiences and contexts mix which can be problematic for student comfort, for duty of care, etc. • Students often don’t want to connect with staff or University in a social space (and often vice versa). • Important issues of access/trust/ surveillance for some international students • Cohort/group preferences can make it an effective space one year, then problematic the next. • The space changes regularly and is difficult to control – especially around visibility of content. 20 Facebook by Flickr user Mambembe Arts and Crafts (CC-BY)
  21. Instagram • Feeds off popularity of Facebook – lots of opportunity for visual projects and creative tasks and/or visual analysis. • Specific community dynamics and etiquette – Content and ads merge without issue (as with YouTube) – Younger users “Like” all posts. – Hashtags are used much more heavily. – Emoji are heavily used as part of comments and posts. • Insta-meets – community meet ups around Instagram - are used by cultural heritage organisations, in public engagement, and could be used in teaching and learning contexts. • Activities similar to Twitter around hashtags and peer networking can work where sharing of images and/or very short video, and/or commentary works as a focus; or where community/subject matter fit the space (e.g. health and wellbeing, fashion, art and design, food and nutition, etc). • Huge potential for visual analysis and data analysis work (see Kaufer, 2015). • In wide use for promotional, community building and corporate communications (see Heick 2012), also alumni, recruitment, etc. Less use but good potential for teaching. See Kofoed and Larsen (2016), Heick (2012), Kaufer (2015), and Al-Ali (2014). 21 A learning task featured in Al-Ali (2014) trialling various tasks in Instagram.
  22. Snapchat • Increasingly mainstream especially amongst teens, young adults and undergraduate students. • Limitations trigger creativity – images and short videos are ephemeral and playful. • Challenges over consent for images, potential longer retention of Snaps (though users are alerted if their Snaps are screenshot). • Useful for inductions, bonding and building personal connections and communities (e.g. Waxman 2014). • Requires lateral thinking to create brief productive content. See Lee (2016) and 22 See Kofoed and Larsen (2016), Lee (2016), Albeanu (2014), Will (2016), @aiaddysonzhang (2017) and Waxman (2014) Snapchat image by Michael Britt (@mbritt), used in his introduction to psychology lectures. See Lee (2016).
  23. Wikipedia (Not social media per see though highly collaborative and built by users.) Widely used in educational organisations, including in teaching such as: • Information literacy and critical thinking assignments – reviewing, critiquing, or contributing content (contributions can be tracked). • Research and group projects to address gaps in coverage, develop Wikipedia articles, etc. Including work with Wikimedians in Residence at cultural heritage, university, etc. organisations. • Computer science and data analysis projects – Wikipedia content is available in various human and machine readable formats. • Discourse and translation studies – see McAndrew (2017) for an innovative Edinburgh Translation Studies assignment using Wikipedia. • Skills development tasks – editing is simple but requires understanding of standard writing style, format, etiquette, etc. Challenges of this space include the initial style/etiquette barriers; the risk and confidence impact of having contributions changed or deleted. However, successfully creating a public useful contribution is a very rewarding experience. See Lim and Simon (2011), Highton (2016), McAndrew (2017) 23
  24. LinkedIn • Best used for developing professional skills and building portfolios (including course related and extra curricular activities). • Works well for developing professional networks, and understanding professional connections. Groups enable current awareness around interest areas and particular professional groups and employers. • In use as part of employability content in the curriculum at Abertay (ask your colleagues about this!) • Careers Services tend to provide really useful guidance and content here. E.g: for-work/social-media/linkedin 24
  25. Activity: How can you use/better use social media in your own teaching practice? Identify one activity (classroom or assessed) in your current teaching that you think could be translated into a relevant and engaging social media task. Think & discuss for 10 mins then share your 30 second pitch/summary. You might want to consider: • If/how you already using social media in your teaching? • What tools your students respond to. • How you would manage expectations and provide guidance in advance. • How you would moderate/manage the activity whilst taking place. 25
  26. What is your digital footprint? It's the data you leave behind when you go online. It's what you've said, what others have said about you, where you've been, images you're tagged in, personal information, social media profiles and much more… What does your digital footprint look like to…your friends, future employers, your family? Workshops, resources and more can be found at Sign up for our forthcoming #dfmooc: Twitter: @UoEDigitalFoot Blog: Facebook: Email: YouTube:
  27. Your students’ digital footprint and how your practice can support a positive digital footprint • What are our responsibilities towards our students when we use social media sites? • How well do we, and they, understand the impact of tracks and traces that may be left behind? • The University of Edinburgh Managing Your Digital Footprint project has been investigating students’ understanding of their Digital Footprint. See the website, associated resources and forthcoming #dfmooc. • See also: – danah boyd (2014) “It’s Complicated”: – Jon Ronson’s (2015) “So, You’ve Been Publicly Shamed”:
  28. Tracks, Traces and (Lack of) Anonymity • In the classroom students (largely) elect who to expose full names to… • Wikis track and record every change attributing changes to specific users and timestamps. Errors are public. Corrections are public. • Facebook and many other sites request or require the use of real names. • Pseudonyms can become problematic and much less protective once associated with real identities (e.g. in a class activity). • Facebook have repeatedly re-set privacy settings to default to “public”, most recently with search changes in October 2013 (see Constine 2013). • Twitter updates are public. Even “private” accounts can be accessed via the API. • Snapchat posts, deleted Tweets, Messenger conversations etc. are easily screen captured... • Social media activity can impact on filtering, reputation, etc. making playful and risky tasks potentially more threatening. • Social media and internet activities are increasingly monitored by the state, e.g. in visa application processes (currently voluntary for ESTA visas for the US for example) Teaching and Learning with social media means understanding and acknowledging the more public and exposed nature of these spaces.
  29. Tool Choices + Terms and Conditions • Making informed choices is central to use of social media and non-institutional online spaces and tools… • What type of spaces or experiences are appropriate to your students, their context, their professional aspirations or experience (e.g. see professional bodies guidance). • Are the spaces you are using and the types of activity you are proposing appropriate for your students’ locations and family or national context/culture? (e.g. some social media spaces are both blocked and/or monitored by China) • You need to know what you asking your students to do: – Are you requiring them to register for new sites/spaces? Is that appropriate or justifiable? – Understand what data they will be sharing and what might happen to it – engage with the Terms of Service for any tool you use. – What happens if students do not want to use a particular space, particularly a third party/commercially operated space? – How will you ensure your teaching and learning activity is accessible, or a suitable alternative is accessible, to your students?
  30. What can you do to create a safe social media space for participation? • Provide guidance in course handbooks (see Digital Footprint resources for a CC licensed example). • Link to any appropriate local or professional bodies guidance or social media policies • Set out clear expectations about participation (or non participation) – What will you do if a student does not want to, or does not feel able to, participate? • Know and be ready to justify why you are using social media rather than organisational spaces. • Ensure YOU know about the spaces you are using including: – understanding who will (and will not) have access to your space/content. – processes to moderate comments or deal with spam comments/posts – block or report other users, deal with trolls – take action if any serious issue- from bullying to plagiarism to criminal activity – understand IPR/licensing issues and can point students to support information. • How will you negotiate your own online identity or identities as you interact in your teaching and learning spaces? 30
  31. Professional bodies’ guidance and eProfessionalism eProfessionalism is the way you engage yourself online in relation to your profession, including your attitudes, actions and your adherence to relevant professional codes of conduct. • Depending on subject area/course students may be expected to act as professionals from day one of their course (e.g. Royal College of Nursing[1]). • Students need to be made aware of the appropriate professional bodies guidance for their field, and the expectations of appropriate conduct. • In some cases students on placement/in research projects will also need to be aware of privacy, non-disclosure agreements (e.g. games design students), etc. that apply to them and their use of social media. • Teaching activities should align with appropriate professional bodies’ guidance as well as local organisational policies and requirements. • Creating an effective digital footprint online is relevant whether or not there are professional bodies guidance documents for a student’s area of study – there may also be other forms of community etiquette and expectations (e.g. artists and designers’ web and social media presences and cultures). [1] 31
  32. Example: GMC (2013) Guidance The GMC Guidance is broadly supportive of social media, stating: “Doctors’ use of social media can benefit patient care by: – a. engaging people in public health and policy discussions – b. establishing national and international professional networks – c. facilitating patients’ access to information about health and services.” However, they also have clear guidance on limitations and boundaries…
  33. GMC: Doctors’ use of social media (2013) “When communicating publicly, including speaking to or writing in the media, you must maintain patient confidentiality. You should remember when using social media that communications intended for friends or family may become more widely available.” “Many improper disclosures are unintentional. You should not share identifiable information about patients where you can be overheard, for example, in a public place or in an internet chat forum…” “Many doctors use professional social media sites that are not accessible to the public. Such sites can be useful places to find advice about current practice in specific circumstances. However, you must still be careful not to share identifiable information about patients.”
  34. GMC Guidance: Boundaries “Using social media also creates risks, particularly where social and professional boundaries become unclear. You must follow the guidance in Maintaining a professional boundary between you and your patient.” “If a patient contacts you about their care or other professional matters through your private profile, you should indicate that you cannot mix social and professional relationships and, where appropriate, direct them to your professional profile.” Full detailed guidance can be found here: http://www.gmc-
  35. Summary / TL;DR • Be creative but pedagogically relevant (don’t use social media for novelty). • Be inspired but feel able to borrow ideas from others too. • Make thoughtful informed choices around social media tools and activities. • Make sure you understand how to use any social media space you use! • Support your students to get involved – make it easy, fun, engaging for them to take part. • Respect your students’ preferences and concerns. • Think about your students’ and your own digital footprint. • Be aware of guidance on social media use by professional bodies. • Review, reflect, change approach when appropriate, try things out…
  36. Questions • Follow up questions via email ( or Twitter (@suchprettyeyes) are also welcomed. • All references are on these slides which will be distributed and also available via the EDINA Slideshare presence. 36
  37. Further Resources • Social Media for Educators Wiki (a work in progress): • Managing Your Digital Footprint: Resources and Guidance: development/about-us/projects/digital-footprint/resources • Managing Your Digital Footprint: Resources for educators: development/about-us/projects/digital-footprint/resources-educators • Managing Your Digital Footprint: eProfessionalism: development/about-us/projects/digital-footprint/eprofessionalism • Managing Your Digital Footprint Social Media for Educators Wiki: • “A Live Pulse”: Yik Yak for Understanding Teaching Learning and Assessment at Edinburgh (blog): • University of Edinburgh Teaching Matters blog: • EDINA Social Media Guidelines (available under CC license): • University of Edinburgh Social Media Guidelines: support/guidelines/social-media 37
  38. Further Reading: General • Barbour, K. and Marshall, D., 2012. The academic online: Constructing persona through the World Wide Web. In First Monday, 17 (9), 3 September 2012. Available from: • boyd, d., 2014. It’s Complicated: the social lives of networked teens. New Haven: Yale University Press. Available from: • Brake, D.R. (2014). Sharing Our Lives Online: Risks & Exposure in Social Media. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. • Delahunty, J., Verenikina, I. and Jones, P., 2013. Socio-emotional connections: identity, belonging and learning in online interactions. A literature review. In Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Available from: • Farnham, S.D. and Churchill, E.F. (2011) Faceted identity, faceted lives: social and technical issues with being yourself online. In Proceedings of the ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 359-368. Available from: • Greenhow, C. And Robelia, B., 2008. Informal learning and identity formation in online social networks. In Learning, Media and Technology, 34 (2). Available from: • Guardian: The Dark Side of Guardian Comments (12th April 2016): guardian-comments • Kieslinger, B., 2015. Academic peer pressure in social media: Experiences from the heavy, the targeted and the restricted user. In First Monday, 20 (6), 1 June 2015. Available from: • Osborne, N 2014, 'Learning from others mistakes: how social media etiquette distorts informal learning online.'. in A Rospigliosia & S Greener (eds), Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Media University of Brighton UK 10-11 July 2014. The Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Media, Academic Conferences and Publishing International (acpi), Reading, UK, pp. 369-377, European Conference on Social Media, Brighton, United Kingdom, 10-11 July. Available from: how-social-media-etiquette-distorts-informal-learning-online(a04e8df7-f76d-4ce2-aba3-a2b644dab42f).html. • Roth, A., Davis, R. and Carver, B., 2013. Assigning Wikipedia editing: Triangulation toward understanding university student engagement. In First Monday, 18 (6), 3 June 2013. Available from: • Rubens, I. (2015) Mobile app Yik Yak becomes source of abuse from Bournemouth students. In Buzz: News from Bournemouth and beyond [website], 10th December 2015. Available from: • Thielman, S. (2015) Yik Yak warns anonymous users they can be arrested after Missouri threats. In The Guardian, 11th November 2015. Available from: 38
  39. Further Reading: Facebook & Social Networking Sites • Boyd, d. and Ellison, N.B., 2007. “Social network sites: Definition, history, scholarship,” Journal of Computer–Mediated Communication, 13 (1). Available from: • Ellison, N.B., Steinfeld, C. and Lampe, C., 2007. “The benefits of Facebook ‘friends’: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites,” Journal of Computer–Mediated Communication, 12 (4). Available from: 6101.2007.00367.x • Ferdig, R., et al. (2008). Medical students’ and residents’ use of online social networking tools: Implications for teaching professionalism in medical education. First Monday, 13 (9). Available from: • Hallam Goodband, J., et al. (2012). Limits and potentials of social networking in academia: case study of the evolution of a mathematics Facebook community. Learning, Media and Technology, 37(3), 236-252. Available from: • Lego Muñoz, C. and Towner, T., 2011. Back to the “wall”: How to use Facebook in the college classroom. In First Monday, 16 (12), 5 December 2011. Available from: • Pasek, J., more, e. and Hargittai, E., 2009. Facebook and academic performance: Reconciling a media sensation with data. In First Monday, 14 (5), 4 May 2009. Available from: 39
  40. Further Reading: Blogs • Bennett, S., Bishop, A., Dalgarno, B., Waycott, J., and Kennedy, G., 2012. Implementing Web 2.0 technologies in higher education: A collective case study. In Computers & Education, 59 (2), pp. 524-534. Available from: • Ellison, N. B. and Wu, Y., 2008. Blogging in the classroom: A preliminary exploration of student attitudes and impact on comprehension. In Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17(1), pp. 99-122. Available from: • Farmer, B., Yue, A. and Brooks, C., 2008. Using blogging for higher order learning in large cohort university teaching: A case study. In Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24 (2). Available from: • GDS Digital Engagement blog: You know why we blog, here’s how we blog (10th December 2015): • Kerawalla, L., Minocha, S., Kirkup, G. and Conole, G., 2008. An empirically grounded framework to guide blogging in higher education. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (1), pp. 31-42. Available from: • Killeavy, M. and Moloney, A., 2010. Reflection in a social space: Can blogging support reflective practice for beginning teachers? In Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(4), pp. 1070-1076. Available from: • Oravec, J. A., 2003. Blending by Blogging: weblogs in blended learning initiatives. In Journal of Educational Media, 28 (2-3), pp. 225-233. Available from: • Sinclair, C. 2016. Making the connection: blogging withing and about the MSc in Digital Education. In, Teaching Matters (blog), 4th April 2016. Available from: • Top, E., 2012. Blogging as a social medium in undergraduate courses: Sense of community best predictor of perceived learning. In The Internet and Higher Education, 15 (1), pp. 24-28. Available from: • Xe, Y., Ke, F. and Sharma, P., 2008. The effect of peer feedback for blogging on collect students’ reflective learning processes. In Internet and Higher Education, 11, pp. 18-25. Available from: 40
  41. Further Reading: Twitter • Almuhimedia, H., Wilson, S., Liu, B., Sadeh, N. and Acquisti, A., 2013. Tweets are forever: A large- scale quantitative analysis of deleted Tweets. Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Antonio, Texas, February 23-27, 2013. Available from: • Daniels, J., 2013. From Tweet to blog post to peer-reviewed article: How to be a scholar now. In LSE Maximising the impact of academic research (blog), 25th September 2013. Available from: • Jacquemin SJ, Smelser LK and Bernot MJ (2014). Twitter in the Higher Education Classroom: A Student and Faculty Assessment of Use and Perception. Journal of College Science Teaching, 43(6), 22-27. Available from: • Terras, M., 2011. What happens when you tweet an Open Access Paper. In Melissa Terras’ Blog, 7th November 2011. Available from: when-you-tweet-open-access.html • Vlieghe, J., Page, K. L. and Rutten, K. “Twitter, the most brilliant tough love editor you’ll ever have.” Reading and writing socially during the Twitter Fiction Festival. In First Monday, 21 (4), 4 April 2016. Available from: 41
  42. Further Reading: Digital Footprint & eProfessionalism • boyd, d. and Crawford, K., 2011. Six Provocations for Big Data. A Decade in Internet Time: Symposium on the Dynamics of the Internet and Society, 21 September 2011. Available at SSRN: • Chester, A., Kienhuis, M., Pisani, H., Shahwan-Akl, L. & White, K. (2013). Professionalism in student online social networking: the role of educators, E-Learning and Digital Media. 10 (1), 30-39. Available from: • Connelly, L & Osborne, N 2016, 'Student identities in transition: social media experiences, curation and implications for Higher Education'. in Sheffield Hallam University - SocMedHE Blog: SocMedHE15 Proceedings. SocMedHE15, Sheffield, United Kingdom, 18-18 December. Available from: experiences-curation-and-implications-for-higher-education(cb850713-2d01-4c23-8bb9-1ca85a3923d1)/export.html. • Fenwick T. (2016). Social media, professionalism and higher education: a sociomaterial consideration. Studies in Higher Education. 41(4), 664-677. Available from: • Hansson, K. Controlling singularity: The Role of online communication for young visual artists’ identity management. In First Monday, 20 (5), 4 May 2015. Available from: • Howarth, A. and Martínez Fernández, G., 2014. Governing risks and benefits: Mobile communication technologies in British Universities. In First Monday, 19 (2), 3 Feb 2014, Available from: • Osborne, N. and Connelly, L. (2015). Managing your digital footprint: possible implications for teaching and learning. In: Mesquita A and Peres P (eds) 2nd European Conference on Social Media ECSM 2015. Portugal. Available from: • Osborne, N & Connelly, L 2016, 'Students’ Digital Footprints: Curation of Online Presences, Privacy and Peer Support' Paper presented at European Conference on Social Media (ECSM 2016), Caen, France, United Kingdom, 11/07/16 - 12/07/16. Available from: • Ronson, J., 2015. So, You’ve Been Publicly Shamed. London: Picador. 42
  43. Further Reading: Snapchat • @aiaddysonzhang, 2017. 5 ways to use Snapchat as a teaching and learning tool in higher education. In iSocialFanz (blog). Available from: higher-education/. • Albeanu, C., 2014. C4 News to use Snapchat, Whatsapp in #indyref coverage. In, 17th September 2014. Available from: and-whatsapp-in-indyref-coverage/s2/a562493/. • Kofoed, J. and Larsen, M. C., 2016. A snap of intimacy: Photo-sharing practices among young people on social media. In First Monday, 21 (11), 7 November 2016. Available from: • Lee, J., 2016. 10 Seconds at a time, a teacher tries Snapchat to engage students. In NPREd, 29th March 2016. Available from: • Waxman, O. B., 2014. Snapchat grows up: How college officials are using the app. In Time Magazine (website), 31st March 2014. Available from: officials-are-using-the-app/ • Will, M., 2016. Teachers are starting to use Snapchat. Should you? In Teaching Now, 10th June 2016. Available from: 43
  44. Further Reading: Instagram • Al-Ali, S., 2014. Embracing the selfie craze: Exploring the possible use of Instagram as language mLearning tool. In UAiR: the University of Arizona Issues and Trends in Educational Technology, 2 (2). Available from: • Heick, T., 2012. How 10 colleges are using instagram. In teachthought (website), 11th October 2012. Available from: using-instagram/. • Kaufer, E., 2015. Instagram: The next big (academic) thing? In Oxford Internet Institute (blog), 12th February 2015. Available from: academic-thing/. • Kofoed, J. and Larsen, M. C., 2016. A snap of intimacy: Photo-sharing practices among young people on social media. In First Monday, 21 (11), 7 November 2016. Available from: 44
  45. Further Reading: Wikipedia • Highton, M., 2016. wor wikimedian. In Melissa Highton: Light out for the territory ahead of the rest (blog), 26th February 2016. Available from: • Lim, S. and Simon, C., 2011. Credibility judgement and verification behaviour of college students concerning Wikipedia. In First Monday, 16 (4), 4 April 2011. Available from: • McAndrew, E., 2017. Wikipedia assignment – Translation studies MSc. In Wikimedian in Residence blog, 5th January 2017. Available from: translation-studies-msc/ 45

Editor's Notes

  1. First, let’s define what we mean by a digital footprint