Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Parsley or Carrot Family • Compound umbel (umbels arranged in umbels, racemes, spikes, or panicles). • Leaves alternate, pinnately or palmately compound to simple, then often deeply dissected or lobed. http://montana.plant-Judd, W.S. et al. 1999. Plant Systematics: A life.org/families/Apiaceae.htm • Fruit a drupe with 2-5 pits, or aPhylogenetic Approach. schizocarp, the 2 dry segments (mericarps). • Mostly restricted to forest and low Arctic (exception Bupleurum triradiatum). http://www.interhomeopathy.org/sumbulus- moschatus-keeping-perfect-control
Family: Apiaceae (Umbellifereae) Heracleum lanatum Common name: Cow parsnip www.larnerseeds.com • http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=He racleum+maximum • Large robust perennial forb, up 1.5 m tall. • Leaves: ternate (3 part) petioles conspicuously inflated. • Flowers: compound umbels of white floweres. • Habitat: moist slopes, streamsides, roadsides mainly south of tundra region and south Alaska.oregonstate.edu
Asteraceae (Compositae) Sunflower or Aster Family • Mostly herbaceous species. • Leaves alternate, simple or compound, without stipules; basal rosettes are common. • Small reduced flowers (florets) are arranged in a composite head that Carolyn Parker, UAF Biol 474 is diagnostic for the family and acts as a single functional blossom. • The head is subtended by imbricated bracts or phyllaries, collectively called the involucre. Composite heads may be solitary or arranged in corymbs, cymes, panicles or racemes on the plant. /http://www.ece.ubc.ca/~ianc/Firth1/
Typical aster family flower • Disk florets are tubular.Ray floret Composite flower head Disk floret • Ray florets consist of a short tube and one long ray or ligule, and often lack stamens. • The sepals on both floret types are reduced to pappus, bristles, or lacking entirely. • Depending on the group, heads may have all ray florets (Taraxacum), all disk florets (Antennaria) or both, typically with disk florets to the inside, surrounded by ray florets (Aster). • Fruit is an achene.http://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Achillea borealisCommon name: Common yarrowhttp://littau.net/pictures/aug03/080303pic.html Stems: simple, or somewhat forked above 20-60 cm tall. Leaves: alternate, 3-15 cm long, lanceolate, 2-4 times pinnate, highly dissected, http://www.essencesonline.com/Alaskan_flowerkit.htm Flowering heads: Numerous in flat or round-topped paniculate- corymbose inflorescence. Involucre bracts with dark margins.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Artemisia arctica Common name: Arctic wormwoodhttp://kaigan.civil.tohoku.ac.jp/~sawamoto/Gallery.HTM Stems: Branching forb, 10-60 cm tall. Leaves: From basal rosette, 5-20 cm long, 2-3 times pinnately divided, blade glabrous, bright green (most Artimisia are heavily tomentose, dull green) Inflorescence: Raceme or panicle of yellow and reddish tinged flowers. Habitat: Colonizing plant on river gravels, also along streams, and rich moist http://people.ucsc.edu/~mikeloso/Image_Gallery.html to dry tundra, alpine meadows.
Artemisia frigida Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Common name: Praire Sagewort http://ww1.clu net.edu/cr/foo t/scientific/fhl- 279.htmNot in teaching collection
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Artemisia tilesii Common name: Tilesius’s Wormwood Lvs: smooth green above, slivery, hairy below http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/curriculum/books/Viereck/viereckwormwood.html http://www.essencesonline.com/Alaskan_flowerkit.htmTall perennial sage to 1 m tall.Leaves: mostly cauline (along stem), 2-10 cm long with 1- or 2- pinnatifid.Inflorescence: paniculate or racemose, nodding heads.Flowers: yellow, often tinged with red.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)Common name: Richardson’s Aster Aster sibiricus http://www.stewo.no/stauder_a2.htm Freely branching erect forb with slender creeping rhizome 20-40+ cm tall. Stems: leafy, to 20-40+ cm tall. Leaves: Lanceolate, sessile, lower cauline leaves shorter than those above, sharply serratede to entire, ciliate. Inflorescence: 1-several compound flowers, with purple ligules, yellow disk flowers, pappus reddish brown. Habitat: Common along streams, gravelly river bars, dry meadows.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)Common name: Coltsfoot, Lapland Petasites frigidus Butterbur http://www.renyswildflowers.com/20807.htmlStems: up to 10-50 cm tall, white tomentum, arising from cord-like rhizome.Leaves: 2-18 cm long, arising from the rhizome basal leaves highly variable shapes,cordate to reniform, sometimes strongly lobed and/or toothed, glabrous above, thick to http://haabet.dk/flora_danica/thinnly tomentose beneath. Long petioles to 30 cm. Main stem has alternating claspingleaf-like bracts.Flowering heads: several to numerous in coymbose clustersFlowers: Involucre bracts, greenish or reddish tinged. Outer flowers, short white ligules.Disk flowers white or reddish tinged.Habitat: Common on mineral soils and disturbed sites where roots have access tomineral soils.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)Common name: Narrow-leafed Saussurea Saussurea angustifolia http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/_ca/www/assaan.htmStems: up to 1040 cm tall, white tomentum, from cord-like rhizome.Leaves: all cauline leaves (along stem), 5-10 long, linear to lanceolate sinnuate or slightlydentate often involute margin , tapering to narrow short petioleFlowering heads: 3-5 in corymbose clustersFlowers: 3-4 rows of involucral bracts. Ligules narrow, purplish, anthres purplish, http://www.saxifraga.de/europa/gesamtartenlistpappus tawny. e.htmlHabitat: moist nonacidic tundra to dry tundra, forb-rich meadows.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)Common name: Black-tipped Groundsel Senecio lugens http://www.agt.net/public/begca/wildflower17.htm • Large genus with many species in Alaska. • Leaves: mainly basal leaves with alternating sessile cauline leaves narrowly oblong lanceolate • Flowering heads: radiate or discoid. Ray and disc flowers yellow. Involucral bracts, http://ww1.clunet.edu/cr/waterton/common/wgf-55.htm prominently black tipped.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)Common name: Northern Goldenrod Solidago multiradiatahttp://jcsemple.uwaterloo.ca/goldenrod_figs.htm http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged %20Photo%20Pages/solidago.htm • Superficially similar to Senecio lugens, but flowering heads relatively small, with dense inflorescence.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Taraxacum officinalisCommon name: Dandelion http://www.robsplants.com/plants/TaraxOffic.php http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Taraxacum_e rythrospermum_page.html Achenes of Taraxacum officinalis.Not in teaching collection
Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Mustard or Crucifer Family • Leaves usually alternate, sometimes in basal rosettes, simple, often pinnately dissected or lobed, or palmately or pinnately compound, entire to serrate. • Inflorescences: indeterminate. Flowers: 4 distinct sepals and petals often forming a cross (henceJudd, W.S. et al. 1999.Plant Systematics: A the name Crucifer), often with anPhylogenetic Approach. elongate claw and abruptly spreading limb. • Fruit a berry or capsule, fre- quently with 2 valves often breaking away from a central persistent septum (the fruit then a silique), these are highly variable in form and diagnostic for many species, short to elongate, globose to flattened. Draba lactea: Growth form, leaves, flower and capsules. http://svalbardflora.net/index.php?id=206#
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)Common name: Cuckoo Flower Cardamine pratensis • Pinnate leaves. Upper leaves with linear leaflets; basal leaves variable in shape with more elliptical leaflets or even fern like (name “cuckoo-flower” derived from “crazy” basal leaves). • White flowers with pink veins • Mainly vegetative reproduction via adventious leaflets that detach and produce roots. Image author: S.G. Aiken, C. Campbell and E. Robinson Flora of Canadian Archipelago: http://nature.ca/aaflora/data/www/bacapr.htm
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)Common name: Scurvy Grass Cochlearia officinalis • Growth form: Rosette (when young) to spreading herb with taproot. • Leaves: Basal rosette of “spoon-shaped” (actually heart-shaped) leaves (from Greek cochlear, a spoon); upper leaves more variable, often toothed. • Rich is ascorbic acid and used by explorers to treat scruvy. • Fruit: Spherical to broadly elliptic silicles. • Habitat: saline meadows near coast. http://www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/biologie/pb/kulakbiocampus/images/ http://www.plant- buiten-kulak/lage_planten/Cochlearia%20officinalis%20- identification.co.uk/skye/cruciferae/cochlearia-Not in teaching collection officinalis.htm %20Echt%20lepelblad /
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)Common name: Naked-stemmed Parrya Parrya nudicaulis http://www.kk.iij4u.or.jp/~shingo-t/plants/red.html http://www.renyswildflowers.com/20844.html Not in teaching collection
Campanulaceae Bellflower Family • Growth form: Mostly herbs, but sometimes secondarily woody. • Leaves: Usually alternate, simple, sometimes lobed, entire to serrate, with pinnate venation; stipules absent. • Inflorescences various. • Flowers: Usually bisexual, radial to bilateral, with hypanthium, sometimes twisting 180° in development (resupinate). Usually 5 connate sepals and 5 connate petal forming a tubular Campanula rotundifolia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Campanula_roton or bell-shaped corolla (as inLobelia cardinalis. Judd, W.S. et al. 1999. difolia.jpg Campanula) or 2- lipped to 1-lippedPlant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. and then with a variously developed dorsal slit, the lobes valvate (as in Campanula rotundifolia. Lobelia, shown in drawings). (See Plant Family Characteristics web page for more detail.) Lobelia cardinalis. Not an Arctic plant. Photos by Alan heilman and Penny Stritch. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the- week/lobelia_cardinalis.shtml.
Family: CampanulaceaeCommon name: Bellflower Campanula lasiocarpa http://www.jardiniere.net/ campanula/campanula2.ph p http://www.angelfire.com/journal/turtles/04climbing2.html http://www.renyswildflowers.com/10572.html• Usually small forb, 5-10 cm tall.• Leaves: Mainly basal, linear or lanceolate, dark green..• Flowers: Solitary, nodding in anthesis. Hairy sepals (C. rotundifolia sepals are glabrous.)
Caryophyllaceae Pink or Carnation Family Growth form: Usually forbs, sometimes mat or cushion forms in the Arctic. Leaves: opposite, simple, entire, often narrow. Leaf nodes usually swollen; stipules lacking or present. Inflorescences: determinate, sometimes reduced to a single flower, terminal. Flowers usually bisexual, radial. True petals lacking, but outer whorl of 4-5 stamens very often petal-like, here called "petals” frequently bilobed. Fruit: Capsule, opening by valves or apical teeth, but sometimes a utricle;Mostly Silene virginica. Judd, W.S. et al. 1999. PlantSystematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Cerastium sp. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/c aryophyll.htm Silene dioica. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_ca mpion_close_700.jpg
Family: CaryophyllaceaeCommon name: Nodding bladder Melandrium apetalum campionhttp://www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/arctic-islands/arctic-09-de.html?id=9 http://nature.ca/aaflora/data/www/casiur.htmFlowers: Solitary, pink to purple, sepals united forming tube, calyx inflated (like Chinese lantern) with dark veins, nodding when young, erect in fruit.
Family: CaryophyllaceaeCommon name: Moss Campion Silene acaulis • Growth form: Cushion forb, with taproot. • Leaves: Lanceolate, spreading. • Flowers: Petals pink, deeply cleft. • Fruit: Dry ovioid capsule. • Habitat: Dry, wind exposed sites to http://nature.ca/aaflora/images/b08 snowbeds, often 80087.jpg calcareous sites.. http://nature.ca/aaflora/image http://nature.ca/aaflora/images/casiac s/casiacp2.jpg u1.jpg Closeup of leaves and developinghttp://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Silene_acaulis_Kalk- Underside of plant showingPolsternelke.JPG capsules with tubular calyx. taproot.
Family: Caryophyllaceae Stellaria laetaCommon name: Long-stalked Stichwort • Distinct from Cerastium because of deeply cleft (bifid) petals often appearing as two petals. Cerastium has 2-cleft or notched petals. • Separation to species often difficult; based on leaf shape and margins, sepal margins, http://www.renyswildflowers.com/20864.html Hulten, Flora of Alaska
Family: CaryophyllaceaeCommon name:Wilhelmsia Wilhelmsia physodes Flowers: solitary, white sepals often reddish Fruit: grooved, spherical capsule, 3 parts at maturity Lvs glabrous, ciliate Stem creeping in margin Hulten, Flora of Alaska • Growth form: Mat forming forbs. • Leaves: Elliptic lanceolate, sessile. • Flowers: Solitary, white. Sepals often purplish. • Fruit: Grooved spherical capsule. inflated, 2-3 locules. • Habitat: Streams and brackish shorelines. Inflated fruits of W. physodes. http://www.cdhs.us/Flower%20Project/Flower%20Proje ct%20Images/Images/W.-physodes-1.jpgPhoto: Martha Raynolds
Crassulaceae Stonecrop Family Succulent herbs; with leafy stems. Leaves: succulent, inflated; stipules lacking. Inflorescences: determinate, sometimes reduced to a solitary flower, terminal or axillary. Flowers: Sepals and petals usually 4 or 5, distinct or nearly so; stamens 4-10. Fruit: an aggregate of dry dehiscent follicles. Sedum lanceolatum (stone crop).http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enla http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Yellow%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/amerosedum%20lanceolatum. rged%20Photo%20Pages/amerosedum%20lanceolatum.htm htm
Family: Crassulaceae Sedum rosea (= Rhodiola rosea)Common name: Roseroot http://www.renyswildflowers.com /10665.html Growth form: Succulent forb, with thick much branched rhizome. Leaves: Alternate, oblong lanceolate, entire or dentate. Flowers: Dense terminal cluster, male flowers yellow, female flowers dark red to purple. Fruits: Follicles, reddish, plump. Habitat: Moist alpine sites to rocky beaches. Saline tolerant.
Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Legume or Pea Family Growth form: Perennial herbs in the Arctic but trees and shurbs in many temperate and tropical areas. Leaves: Alternating, pinnately or palmately compound, stipulate. Flowers: Perfect, irregular; calyx cup- shaped or tubular, usually with 5 teeth. Corolla with 5 petals, with upper median one larger (the banner) and two similar lateral ones (wings), and with two lowest petals joined to form a keel. http://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/mmy Fruits: various shaped legumes, often 8/r/Fabaceae_Oxytropis_sp_25775.html a pea-like pod.An unknown Mongolian Oxytropis, illustrating the typical pea flower. Variety of Fabaceae legumes.
Family: Fabaceae Astragalus umbellatusCommon name: Arctic Milk-vetchGrowth form: Erect forb 10-30 cm tall.Leaves: 4-12 cm long, 7-11 leaflets.Inflorescence: Short, few-flowered racemeFlowers: Pendulous. Petals, yellow. Calyx lobes, shorttriangular, green to brown, sparely black villous. http://www.renyswildflowers.com/20820.htmlLegumes: 20-25 mm long, black hirsute, stipitate,pedulous.Habitat: Rich nonacidic meadows.
Family: Fabaceae Hedysarum alpinumCommon name: Eskimo potato Loment of H. alpinum. http://www.colinherb.com/Leguminosae/Hedys arum/Alpinum/Hedysarum_alpinum_1353_094. htm To separate H. alpinum (edible, Eskimo potato) from very similar H. mackenzii (poisonous, bear root). H. alpinum leaves are glabrous on underside http://www.goyert.de/cgi- with with prominent lateral veins; loments are local/an//db.cgi?db=default&uid=&ww=on& http://www.alclanativeplants.com/section2/plants/hedysarum_alpinum.htm ID=13033&view_records=1 net veined and have a narrow wing margin and 2-5 joints. H. mackenzii leaves are felty and whitish on Hedysarum has a boat-shaped keel to the flowers.. underside and veins are not prominent. Loments are cross veined, not wing-margined, and pubescent with 3-8 joints.
Family: FabaceaeCommon name: Arctic lupine Lupinus arcticushttp://ultima0thule.blogspot.com/2011_03_20_archive.htmlLeaves. Palmate leaves. Basal leaves long petioled.Inflorescence: Showy racemes 4-14 cm long.Corolla: Bluish purble.Pods: 2-4 cm long, silky pilose. http://superactiondog.com/horton/pages/arctic%20lupine%20floHabitat: Common in nonacidic tundra and along rivers. wer.htm http://www.naturewatch.ca/english/ plantwatch/species_details.asp?speci es=17
Family: FabaceaeCommon name: Yellow or Field Oxytrope Oxytropis campestris icf/fab/www/faoxct.htm http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arct http://davesgarden.com/forums/t/479560/Growth form: caespitose forb from stout taproot. http://www.flogaus-faust.de/e/oxytcamp.htmLeaves: basal, pinnate with 11-35 mostly opposite silky-pilose to glabrescentleaflets.Flowering heads: Capitate racemes, 6-26 flowered.Flowers: cream colored to yellow. Calyx with black and white hairs,Fruit: Pods, yellow green with mixed white and black hairs.Habitat: Common on gravel river bars and terraces and open slopes.
Family: Fabaceae Oxytropis maydelliana Common name: Maydell’s Oxytrope Has mass of reddish-brown stipules at base of stem. Upper part of roots are good to eat and heavily used by Arctic ground squirrels near Toolik. http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/nature/denali/flora/5/pea/ox y/maydelliana.htm Reddish brown stipuleNot in teaching collection Starchy root
Family: FabaceaeCommon name: Vetch Vicia cracca http://www.mtq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/reseau/gestion_eco/fleur.asp• Climbing forb by means of tendrils at end of pinnate leaves.• Common weed in Fairbanks area.• Flowers, purple racemes.
Liliaceae Lily Family • Worldwide distribution. Includes many ornamentals as well as onion, garlic, and chives. A very diverse family which is divided into several different families by some workers. • Herbaceous, 3-merous flowers which are distinctive and known to most. Many have bulbs, corms, or swollen rhizomes. Leaves are simple, often basel, and have parallel venation. Flowers are regular and may be showy, or small and inconspicous, but always have that lily look with 3 sepals (which may be petaloid), 3 petals, and 6 stamens. Courtesy: Carolyn Parker, UAF Biol 474 http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/chocolate-lily- search=Veratrum+viridewildflowers-eklutna-alaska-8867-pictures.htmFritillaria camschatcensis. Zygadenus elegans. Veratum viride.
Family: Liliaceae Lloydia serotinaCommon name: Alp Lily http://efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=78 51&flora_id=1• A small easily overlooked lily, especially if not in flower with only narrow linear leaves http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/White showing. Dry to moist arctic and alpine sites. %20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/lloydia%20ser otina.htm