Intro. to Linguistics_10 Lexicology

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Intro. to Linguistics_10 Lexicology

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics Session 10: Lexicology   Edi Brata http://e-learning.edibrata.com
  2. 2. Preview to the Previous Session (Morphology)
  3. 3. What is Morphology?The study of “morphemes”
  4. 4. What is Morpheme?The smallest significant unit of grammar cooked (cook+ed) cook ed Morphem Morphem
  5. 5. Morpheme• one morpheme: taste• two morphemes: taste+ful• three morphemes: dis+taste+ful• four morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly
  6. 6. Allomorph A variation of a morphemelegal illegalmobile immobileregular irregular
  7. 7. Free and Bound Morpheme• Free morpheme: Morphemes that can occur as an independent word.• Bound morpheme: Morphemes that cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes. distasteful  dis + taste + ful  dis + taste + ful (bound) + (free) + (bound)
  8. 8. Our New Topic distasteful  dis + taste + ful  dis + taste + ful (bound) + (free) + (bound)  prefix + root + suffix  How the word is constructed? New topic will be discussed
  9. 9. Lexicology
  10. 10. Lexicology Lexicology What it is?• “The study of the lexicon or lexis (specified as the vocabulary or total stock of words of a language)” (Lipka, 1992: 1).• In simple, it is the study of words.
  11. 11. Lexicology talks about: The Origins of Words Historical Change Semantic Change Word Formation  our focus Lexical Semantics Idioms Dictionaries American English vs. British English
  12. 12.  There is no satisfactory definition of word. What is word?  The most frequently implied meanings of word:o Orthographic Word It applies only to the written medium.o Morphological Word It considers form (morpheme).o Lexical Word It comprehends the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning.o Semantic Word It involves distinguishing between items which may be morphologically identical but differ in meaning.
  13. 13. Word formation:• Affixation• Compounding• Blends• Clipping• Conversion• Backformation• Acronyms• Onomatopoeia• Eponyms
  14. 14. Affixation Prefix: An affix that is attached to the front of a base, e.g. re-play. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the end of a base, e.g. kind-ness. Infix: An affix that occur within a base, e.g. (in Indonesian) s-er-uling. Confix (Circumfix/Ambifix): An affix that is attached to the front and to the end of a base simultaneously, e.g. (in Indonesian) ke- lapar-an.
  15. 15. Word Structure Root system noun Stem system+atic noun+suffix Stem un+system+atic prefix+noun+suffix Stem un+system+atic+al prefix+noun+suffix+suffixWord un+system+atic+al+ly prefix+noun+suffix+ suffix+SuffixBase is sometimes used by Linguist to mean any root or stem to which an affix is attached. In the example above, system, systematic, unsystematical, unsystematically would be considered bases.
  16. 16. Word Structure unbelievable Word (Adj.)Prefix Root/Base (V) Suffix un believe able believeable Stem/Base
  17. 17. Some Examples of English Affixes and Their Function• -ic : Noun  Adj ; alcohol  alcoholic• -ance : Verb  Noun ; clear  clearance• -ly : Adj  Adv ; exact  exactly• -ity : Adj  Noun ; active  activity• -able : Verb  Adj ; read  readable• -ship : Noun  Noun ; friend  friendship• re- : Verb  Verb ; cover  recover• in- : Adj  Adj ; definite  indefinite
  18. 18. Wall WallpaperPaperCompounding
  19. 19. Compoundingo Compounding is a joining of two separate words to produce a single form. For example: • Home + Work  Homework • Girl + Friend  Girlfriend • Text + Book  Textbooko When the compound is new, a hyphen (-) is used between the parts, but as the compound becomes familiar, the hyphen is dropped. • Micro + Linguistics  Micro-linguistics  Microlinguistics • Supra + Segmental  Supra-segmental  Suprasegmental
  20. 20. CompoundingThe meaning of a compound is not always the sum of themeanings of its parts.o Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts.o Olive oil  oil made from olives.o Baby oil  oil for babieso cathouse  a house where men visit prostituteso blue-movies o blue-chip 
  21. 21. Information InfotainmentEntertainment Blending
  22. 22. BlendingBlending is the combination of two separate forms toproduce a single new term. For example:• Breakfast + Lunch  Brunch• Motor + Hotel  Motel• Camera + Recorder  Camcorder• Wireless + Fidelity  Wi-Fi• Universitas + Tirtayasa  Untirta
  23. 23. Clipping• Process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word.• For example:  Doctor  Doc  Dormitory  Dorm  Professor  Prof  Facsimile  Fax  Influenza  Flu  Examination  Exam  Telephone  Phone  Hyperactive  Hyper  Mathematics  Maths
  24. 24. Conversion• A change in the function of a word, as for example when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction).• It, sometimes, is called as zero derivation.• For example:  stand up (V)  stand up comedian (Adj.)  to print out (Phr. V)  a printout (N)  bottle (N)  to bottle (V)  I chocolate my milk.  Chocolate is noun functioned as verb  Dont talk the talk if you cant walk the walk.
  25. 25. Backformation• A process that creates a new word by removing a real affix from another word.• A word (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of a different type (usually a verb).• For example:  editor  edit-or  edit  donation  donate–ion  donate  babysitter  babysit-er  babysit
  26. 26. Acronyms• Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  SARS• Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  AIDS• Light Amplification by Stimulated  LASER Emission of Radiation• Radio Detecting And Ranging  RADAR• ATM  Auto Teller Machine• TOEFL  Test of English as a Foreign Language• NATO  North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationAbbreviate a longer term by taking the initial letters
  27. 27. Onomatopoeia • Meow • Kukuruyuuk • Krekkkk • MeongWords created to sound like the thing that they name
  28. 28. Eponyms (Coinage) • Kodak • Levis • Aqua • Teflon • InfocusWords derived from proper names or things
  29. 29. Thank You http://e-learning.edibrata.com(Some materials are directly adopted from some sources)

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