What is Morpheme?The smallest significant unit of grammar cooked (cook+ed) cook ed Morphem Morphem
Morpheme• one morpheme: taste• two morphemes: taste+ful• three morphemes: dis+taste+ful• four morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly
Allomorph A variation of a morphemelegal illegalmobile immobileregular irregular
Free and Bound Morpheme• Free morpheme: Morphemes that can occur as an independent word.• Bound morpheme: Morphemes that cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes. distasteful dis + taste + ful dis + taste + ful (bound) + (free) + (bound)
Our New Topic distasteful dis + taste + ful dis + taste + ful (bound) + (free) + (bound) prefix + root + suffix How the word is constructed? New topic will be discussed
Lexicology Lexicology What it is?• “The study of the lexicon or lexis (specified as the vocabulary or total stock of words of a language)” (Lipka, 1992: 1).• In simple, it is the study of words.
Lexicology talks about: The Origins of Words Historical Change Semantic Change Word Formation our focus Lexical Semantics Idioms Dictionaries American English vs. British English
There is no satisfactory definition of word. What is word? The most frequently implied meanings of word:o Orthographic Word It applies only to the written medium.o Morphological Word It considers form (morpheme).o Lexical Word It comprehends the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning.o Semantic Word It involves distinguishing between items which may be morphologically identical but differ in meaning.
Affixation Prefix: An affix that is attached to the front of a base, e.g. re-play. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the end of a base, e.g. kind-ness. Infix: An affix that occur within a base, e.g. (in Indonesian) s-er-uling. Confix (Circumfix/Ambifix): An affix that is attached to the front and to the end of a base simultaneously, e.g. (in Indonesian) ke- lapar-an.
Word Structure Root system noun Stem system+atic noun+suffix Stem un+system+atic prefix+noun+suffix Stem un+system+atic+al prefix+noun+suffix+suffixWord un+system+atic+al+ly prefix+noun+suffix+ suffix+SuffixBase is sometimes used by Linguist to mean any root or stem to which an affix is attached. In the example above, system, systematic, unsystematical, unsystematically would be considered bases.
Word Structure unbelievable Word (Adj.)Prefix Root/Base (V) Suffix un believe able believeable Stem/Base
Compoundingo Compounding is a joining of two separate words to produce a single form. For example: • Home + Work Homework • Girl + Friend Girlfriend • Text + Book Textbooko When the compound is new, a hyphen (-) is used between the parts, but as the compound becomes familiar, the hyphen is dropped. • Micro + Linguistics Micro-linguistics Microlinguistics • Supra + Segmental Supra-segmental Suprasegmental
CompoundingThe meaning of a compound is not always the sum of themeanings of its parts.o Coconut oil oil made from coconuts.o Olive oil oil made from olives.o Baby oil oil for babieso cathouse a house where men visit prostituteso blue-movies o blue-chip
Information InfotainmentEntertainment Blending
BlendingBlending is the combination of two separate forms toproduce a single new term. For example:• Breakfast + Lunch Brunch• Motor + Hotel Motel• Camera + Recorder Camcorder• Wireless + Fidelity Wi-Fi• Universitas + Tirtayasa Untirta
Clipping• Process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word.• For example: Doctor Doc Dormitory Dorm Professor Prof Facsimile Fax Influenza Flu Examination Exam Telephone Phone Hyperactive Hyper Mathematics Maths
Conversion• A change in the function of a word, as for example when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction).• It, sometimes, is called as zero derivation.• For example: stand up (V) stand up comedian (Adj.) to print out (Phr. V) a printout (N) bottle (N) to bottle (V) I chocolate my milk. Chocolate is noun functioned as verb Dont talk the talk if you cant walk the walk.
Backformation• A process that creates a new word by removing a real affix from another word.• A word (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of a different type (usually a verb).• For example: editor edit-or edit donation donate–ion donate babysitter babysit-er babysit
Acronyms• Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS• Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS• Light Amplification by Stimulated LASER Emission of Radiation• Radio Detecting And Ranging RADAR• ATM Auto Teller Machine• TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language• NATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationAbbreviate a longer term by taking the initial letters
Onomatopoeia • Meow • Kukuruyuuk • Krekkkk • MeongWords created to sound like the thing that they name
Eponyms (Coinage) • Kodak • Levis • Aqua • Teflon • InfocusWords derived from proper names or things
Thank You http://e-learning.edibrata.com(Some materials are directly adopted from some sources)