Theories Concepts and Models of Development

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Theories Concepts and Models of Development

  1. 1. Special Study PSU-LNU-UCUEdwin B.R. Gbargaye Facilitator Prof Jo B. Bitonio MDM Coordinator
  2. 2.  What is Development? - Development: A multi-dimensional process which involves transformation in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty.
  3. 3.  “ A better quality of life in world’s poor countries calls for higher incomes-but it involves much more. It encompasses better education, higher standards of health and nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment, more quality of opportunities, greater individual freedom, and richer cultural life.”
  4. 4.  To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection To raise levels of living, that is to say, higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and humanistic values. To extend the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation- states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.
  5. 5.  Development is primarily defined in the context of economy as it is equaled with economic development of the country. Various scholars of diverse disciplines have view development in the following context:- Improvement-change (for the better)- Economic growth, Modernization, Industrialization
  6. 6.  Myrdal’s concept –”Soft State” underdevelopment is caused by external relationships (trade, aid, and investments) United Nations- looking for better alternatives for third world countries in dealing with developed countries. Brandt Commission Report- (Uphoff and Ilchman) development is one of the more depreciated terms in social science literature.
  7. 7.  Ferrel Heady- in the case of modernization development tends to be discussed in societal terms. Walter Rostow (Rostowian concept)-5 stages of economic growth. Development process is successive stages. (Traditional, pre-take off, growth, maturity and high mass consumption).
  8. 8.  Harrold- Domar equation- GNP =NS; 3RD world nations must have mixture of savings, investments and foreign aid in order to be developed. Simon Kuznets –social, ideological and institutional aspects of development. Dudley Seers-reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment. Michael Todaro-changes in structures, attitudes, institutions and acceleration of economic growth.
  9. 9.  Amartya Sen: Expanding real freedoms that people enjoy. Douglas North- Institutions (Institutional building).
  10. 10.  Development is understood in terms of the following;  Social  Political  Economic
  11. 11.  Social development: Process of growth and development of the capacities of the people and the improvement of society in which they live in order to obtain a better life for all. Economic development: discussed in terms of economic growth although economist were aware of non-economic factors. Political development: process of increasing rationality, equality, participation and secularization in the political system.
  12. 12.  Democratic governance: involves the interdependent democratization of the state and its governmental institutions. Civil society: All sectors and institutions in the political community outside of the state and its government. Political parties: meaningful and attractive organizations of people who want to play active political roles in affecting public policy and governance.
  13. 13.  Capacity for governance: Refers to the ability of the state to make and enforce its decisions on all citizens and groups. National Identity: Citizens identification within the state to make them perform their duties and responsibilities as participants in the political process.
  14. 14.  Extractive capacity: The ability of the state to raise revenues and generate public support in order to perform its functions and render public service. Distributive capacity: The ability of the state to make decisions to distribute or redistribute material and other benefits in the society.
  15. 15.  World Bank World Development Report, 1991 Michael P. Todaro economic development 6th New York University
  16. 16. Thankyou

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