Special Study PSU-LNU-UCUEdwin B.R. Gbargaye Facilitator Prof Jo B. Bitonio MDM Coordinator
What is Development? - Development: A multi-dimensional process which involves transformation in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty.
“ A better quality of life in world’s poor countries calls for higher incomes-but it involves much more. It encompasses better education, higher standards of health and nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment, more quality of opportunities, greater individual freedom, and richer cultural life.”
To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection To raise levels of living, that is to say, higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and humanistic values. To extend the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation- states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.
Development is primarily defined in the context of economy as it is equaled with economic development of the country. Various scholars of diverse disciplines have view development in the following context:- Improvement-change (for the better)- Economic growth, Modernization, Industrialization
Myrdal’s concept –”Soft State” underdevelopment is caused by external relationships (trade, aid, and investments) United Nations- looking for better alternatives for third world countries in dealing with developed countries. Brandt Commission Report- (Uphoff and Ilchman) development is one of the more depreciated terms in social science literature.
Ferrel Heady- in the case of modernization development tends to be discussed in societal terms. Walter Rostow (Rostowian concept)-5 stages of economic growth. Development process is successive stages. (Traditional, pre-take off, growth, maturity and high mass consumption).
Harrold- Domar equation- GNP =NS; 3RD world nations must have mixture of savings, investments and foreign aid in order to be developed. Simon Kuznets –social, ideological and institutional aspects of development. Dudley Seers-reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment. Michael Todaro-changes in structures, attitudes, institutions and acceleration of economic growth.
Amartya Sen: Expanding real freedoms that people enjoy. Douglas North- Institutions (Institutional building).
Development is understood in terms of the following; Social Political Economic
Social development: Process of growth and development of the capacities of the people and the improvement of society in which they live in order to obtain a better life for all. Economic development: discussed in terms of economic growth although economist were aware of non-economic factors. Political development: process of increasing rationality, equality, participation and secularization in the political system.
Democratic governance: involves the interdependent democratization of the state and its governmental institutions. Civil society: All sectors and institutions in the political community outside of the state and its government. Political parties: meaningful and attractive organizations of people who want to play active political roles in affecting public policy and governance.
Capacity for governance: Refers to the ability of the state to make and enforce its decisions on all citizens and groups. National Identity: Citizens identification within the state to make them perform their duties and responsibilities as participants in the political process.
Extractive capacity: The ability of the state to raise revenues and generate public support in order to perform its functions and render public service. Distributive capacity: The ability of the state to make decisions to distribute or redistribute material and other benefits in the society.
World Bank World Development Report, 1991 Michael P. Todaro economic development 6th New York University