• It has been accepted as a truism that good
leadership is essential to businesses, to
government, and to the countless groups and
organizations that shape the way we live,
work, and play.
• If leadership is such an important factor, the
crucial issue is: what makes a great leader?
• The tempting answer to give is: Great
• Although there is some truth to this response,
the issue is far more complex.
What is Leadership?
• Leadership is the ability to influence a group
toward the achievement of goals.
• The source of this influence may be formal,
such as that provided by the possession of
managerial rank in an organization.
• Because management positions come with
some degree of formally designed authority,
an individual may assume a leadership role as
a result of the position he or she holds in the
• But not all leaders are managers, nor, for that
matter, are all managers leaders?
• Just because an organization provides its
managers with certain rights is no assurance
they will be able to lead effectively.
• No transactional leadership, that is, the ability
to influence that arises outside of the formal
influence. In other words, leaders can emerge
from within a group as well as being formally
• In other words, leaders can emerge from
within as well as being formally appointed.
• If one were to describe a leader on the basis
of the general connotations presented in
today’s media, one might list qualities such as
intelligence, charisma, decisiveness,
enthusiasm, strength, bravery, integrity, self-
confidence, and so on.
• Is it possible to isolate one or more
personality traits in individuals we generally
acknowledge as leaders-Winston Churchill,
Mother Teresa, Martin Luther King, Jr., John F.
Kennedy, Nelson Mandela, Colin Powell-that
non leaders do not possess?
• We may agree that those individuals meet our
definition of a leader, but they represent
individuals with utterly different
• Behavioral theories of leadership sought to
find something unique in the way that
effective leaders behave. Do they tend to be
more democratic than autocratic?
• The difference between trait and behavioral
theories, in terms of application , lies in their
underlying assumptions. If trait theories were
valid, then leaders were basically born.
• A graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view
of leadership styles was developed by Robert
Blake and Jane Mouton
• .They proposed a managerial grid based on
the styles of “concern for people” and
concern for production”, which essentially
represent the Ohio State dimensions of
consideration and initiating structure or the
Michigan dimensions of employee-oriented
and production –oriented.
• The grid has 9 possible positions along each
axis, creating 81 different positions in which
the leader’s style may fall.
• The grid does not show results produced but
rather the dominating factors in a leader’s
thinking in regard to getting results.
• On the basis of the findings from the research
Blake and Mouton conducted, they concluded
that managers perform best under a 9.9 style,
as concerned , for example, with a 9.1 (tasked-
oriented ) or the 1.9 (country-club type)
• Unfortunately, the grid offers a better
framework for conceptualizing leadership
style than for presenting any tangible new
information in clarifying the leadership
quandary, since there is little substantive
evidence to support the conclusion that a 9.9
style is most effective in all situations.
Summary of Behavioral Theories
• We have discussed the most popular and
important of the attempts to explain
leadership In terms of the behavior by the
• Unfortunately, there was very little success in
identifying consistent relationships between
patterns of leadership behavior and group
• What was missing was consideration of the
situational factors that influence success or
• For example, it seems unlikely that Martin
Luther King Jr. , would have been a great civil
rights leader In 1900, yet he was in the 1950s
• It became increasingly clear to those were
studying the leadership phenomenon that
predicting leadership success was more
complex than isolating a few traits or
• The failure to obtain consistent results led to a
new focus on situational influences.
• The relationship between leadership style and
effectiveness suggested that style x would be
appropriate under condition a, whereas style
y would be more suitable for condition b, and
style z, for condition c.
• but what were the conditions a, b, c, and so
• It was one thing to say that leadership
effectiveness was dependent on the situation
and another to be able to isolate those
The Fiedler Model
• The first contingency model for leadership was
developed by Fred Fiedler.
• The Fiedler Model proposes that effective
group performance depends on the proper
match between the leader’s style of
interacting with his or her subordinates and
the degree to which the situation gives control
and influence to the leader.
• Fiedler believed that the individual’s basic
leadership style is a key factor in leadership
• So he began by trying to find out what the
basic style was. Fiedler created an
instrument, which he called the least-
preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire, for
• It contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such as
open/guarded, and supportive/hostile) and
purports to measure whether a person is task-
oriented or relationship-oriented.
• The questionnaire asks the respondents to
think of all the coworkers he or she has ever
had and to describe the one person he or she
least enjoyed working with by rating that
person on a scale of 1 to 8 for each of the 16
sets of contrasting adjectives.
• After an individual’s basic leadership style has
been assessed through the LPC , it is
necessary to match the leader with the
situation. Three situational factors or
contingency dimensions identified by Fiedler
are defined as follows:
• 1. Leader-member relations: the degree of
confidence, trust, and respect subordinates
have in or for their leader.
• 2. Task structure: the degree to which the job
assignments of subordinates are structured or
• 3. Position power: the degree of influence a
leader has over power variables such as hiring,
firing, discipline, promotions and salary
• The next step in the Fiedler model is to
evaluate the situation in terms of these three
• Leader-member relations are either good or
poor, task structure either high or low, and
position power either strong or weak.
• Fiedler stated that the better the leader-
member relations, the more highly structured
the job, and the stronger the position power,
the more control or influence the leader had.
Leader Member Exchange Theory
• The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
argues that leaders establish a special
relationship with a small group of their
• These individuals make up the leader’s in
group-people that the leader trusts, gets a
disproportionate amount of his or her time,
and are more likely to receive special
• Other followers fall into the out-group. They
get less of the leader’s time, fewer of the
preferred rewards that the leader controls,
and have leader-follower relations based on
formal authority interactions.
• The theory proposes that early in the history
of the interaction between a leader and a
given follower, the leader implicitly
categorizes the follower as an “in” or an “out”
and that relationship is relatively stable over
• Studies confirm several LMX theory
predictions: leaders do differentiate among
followers ; these disparities are far from
random; and followers with in-group status
have higher performance ratings, lower
turnover interventions, greater satisfaction
with their superiors, and higher overall
satisfaction than those in the out-group.