Fruits, nuts, mushrooms, honey, spices and other foods that human and wildlife consume originate from natural ecosystems. In 1989 the total world fishery catch reached an astounding 100 million metric tons (since then annual landings have dropped or at best remained the same)
Forest traps rain, watershed allowing slow release of water
More evident among Ips being more in tuned to native practices Vs. new breed/half/modern (nawawla bec of separation from the orig dweeling chuchu (naiwan sa songs)
Palawan ecotourism, Apo Island, Palawan, diving, capture fisheries
Philippine total and endemism
Eagle hornbill MALkOHA x fruitdove x dwarf kingfidsher X guiabero Last is racquet-tail
Tarsier (nocturnal), calamian deer (palawan), shrewmouse and cloudrat (mossy forest)
Stick insect walking stick, Phil?
Major riverine systems dying state, endemic animals are threatened by introduced species (lanao lake, introd of bangus sp accid with gobi which killed the native of sp the lake
1 ha=3 tons of fish other uses
Highest in the world, followed by Eastern Papua New Guinea with 380 species; Ryukyu / Yaeyama Islands with 370 and Great Barrier Reef, Australia with 350 (McManus, ) I ha= 3 tons fish * (an additional 30 species can be expected) At least 21 undescribed species recently found in the Calamianes Islands, Palawan 12 species are endemic to the Philippines & Indonesia 1 new species of Leptoseris in the Kalayaan Is.
Center of the center of world fish diversity, highest sp richness, second is indonesia (Carpenter and Spring) 59 Threatened species
Biggest and smallest and rarest giant clams in the world (octo, cuttlefish)
Endemism, land area dir rel
Income generation vs hunting (more profitable in ecotourism) Big 4 not endemic, 2 fish sp. Freshwater and endemic (endangered due to overharvesting and habitat destruction)
(plate tectonics only) Fragmentation, originated from other regions dir rel with endemism and variety of terrestrial and marine Bohol prev part of greater Min evidence in tarsier Mindoro close to Luzon but with greater similarity of biodive with Palawan coming from S Chiana Habitats produced in time are varied, resulting varied lifeforms coming from diff regional origin
Palawan and mindoro Luzon risen
Rise and fall of land, land bridges transported animals Land bridges divided the seas and gave rise to fish diversification with 4 sea systems
Very tiny percentage of marine envi is the coral reef system but the bulk of marine biodiversity
Start and present due to massive conversion
From vanishing treasures by Lawrence Heaney (2002) Philippine endimism and relative percentage + Includes new species (38 sp. for amphibians, 35 sp. for reptiles) * Includes rediscovered species ** 22 species of dolphins, whales and dugong
Estimates place forest cover in 1900 at 21 million has. (210,000 km 2 ) or 70% of the total land area. Many areas were already heavily damaged by this time in the Central Cordilleras and Ilocos by local action, while the Spanish were responsible for the cutting of the much valued molave of the Central Visayas and the conversion of the marsh lands of Pangasinan and Culion which was reportedly already bald The Americans introduced logging for export.
Forest still covered 18 million hectares (180,000 km 2 ) or 60% of the total land area but the forests were under pressure because of the great demand for tropical hardwood for export to the U.S. Between 1900 and 1920, Romblon Island was completely deforested; the Central Plains of Luzon were also cleared, while Northen Bukidnon and Cotabato were opened up.
By 1950 estimates place forest cover at 15 million hectares (150,000 km 2 ) or 50% of the total land area. Since 56% of the Philippines is classified as upland, the threshold in sustainable management was crossed in the 1945-50 period . FAO, 1963 put forest cover at 12 million hectares (120,000 km 2 ) or 40% of the total land area. The late 1960s is considered the start of a logging boom period. Logging concession areas increased from 4.5 million hectares to 11.6 million hectares .
Forest covered 34% of the total land area or 10.2 million hectares (102,000 km 2 ) . From 1977 to 1980, deforestation reached an all time high- over 300,000 hectares a year. By the end of the 1970s, the following islands were either almost completely deforested or had less than 5% forest cover: Polillo, Burias, Palaui, Tablas, Batanes Islands, Lubang, Marinduque, Ticao, Guimaras, Masbate, Siquijor, Cebu, Bohol, Samal, Siargao, Tawi-Tawi, Jolo and Camiguin. The Philippine forest was rapidly disappearing .
The Swedish Space Corporation (SPOT) study of 1987 place forest cover at 6.9 million hectares (69,000 km 2 ) or 23.7% of the total land area. There were 2.7 million (27,000 km 2 ) hectares or 8.9% of the total land area of primary forest and this included mossy and pine forest.
Slope more drastically downward with proper scaling also forest cover
Golden kuhol (massive escargo demand, pagbaha, kumalat, infested even ricefields displacing native kuhol) Dominant in lakes, in gen displacing native sp bec of agression over time esp with GM tilapia) Am bullfrog Black/brown rat when mAGELLAN arrived displacing native sp (also bec native rats don’t cohabit with people but the undesirables do)
In the first time line it is shown that -Life started 5billion years ago or 5,000million years ago in the marine environment, a unicellular blue green algae which later differentiated into sea invertebrates again in the marine environment. The last one tenth of this time line is detailed in the second time line which is the last 500million years of life evolution. In the second time line it is shown that- (after the sea inverts) the land inverts have risen, followed by land plants, then by spiders and insects (they are older than people!), then followed by the amphibians (frogs), gymnosperms (flowering plants), reptiles, dinosaurs, birds and the radiation of mammals. The frogs were the first water species to attempt conquering land but was unsuccessful as they have to lay eggs in water. Where the frogs were unsuccessful, the reptiles were because they had thick scaly looking skin and leather covered egg for adaptation to terrestrial survival. Dinosaurs had come and gone. There are many theories why they have become extinct like they were hit by meteorites, they could not sustain their humongous diet… Radiation of mammals 100million years ago gave rise to animals that are terrestrial, marine, nocturnal diurnal, etcetera, they each developed a specialized adaptation for survival. In the third time line - it is shown that the
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The Philippine Environment Amidst Climate Change
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY FoodFood for all living organisms > 90% calorie intake globallynot just for man! comes from 80 PLANT SPECIES FISH comprises 10% of protein intake globally and 50-60% that of Filipinos.
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Medicines•80% of the world’s populationuse plants as 1° source ofmedicine•30% of all pharma medicinesare developed from plants andanimals
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Fuel, timber, fiber and other resourcesMost houses, furniture and evenmany clothes are made from naturalproducts, including wood, oils,resins, waxes, gums and fibers.The cocoons of silk worms are thebasis of the valuable, centuries-oldAsian silk-making industry.
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYAir and water purification
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYBIODIVERSITY IS OUR LIFE! security air water land biodiversity
National Pride: Philippine BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
105 species of AMPHIBIANS82 species are FOUND ONLY in the Philippines
More than 254species ofReptiles …with 208 species endemic to the Philippines
BIRDSA total of 576 species of birds196 of these occur only in the Philippines
Of the 179 species of land mammals, 111 species are found only in theHeaney and Regalado Philippines
Around 20,940 species of insects 69.8% are endemics
estimated 15,000 species, 50% are endemics 70 – 80% Flowering plants 193 Threatened species
INLAND WATERS 211 Lakes, 18 major rivers, 22 marshes, swamps and reservoir PHILIPPINE WETLANDS1616 species of aquatic plants 3675 species of fauna
MANGROVES Around 60 mangrove plant species in the world 54 mangroves and related species occur in the PhilippinesHeaney and Regalado
Corals 462 coral species recorded (Werner and Allen, 2000) Highest in the world !!!•Eastern Papua NewGuinea with 380species;•Ryukyu / YaeyamaIslands with 370•Great Barrier Reef,Australia with 350
FISHPhilippine Total = 2,459/4,000 species in theIndo-Pacific region(Fish Base 2000)2,241 marine species (2/3 82 (possibly 98) speciescoral reef-associated) are Philippine Endemics209 freshwater species
Molluscs 22,000 freshwater, land and marine speciesNine species Seven occur of inGiant Clams Philippine worldwide watersphotos by Evette Lee
Biodiversity and Endemism Total Endemi % LandCOUNTRY specie c Endemi Area s Species c (km2)Philippin 1139 558 50% 300,780esSpain 435 25 6% 451,171Brazil 3131 788 25% 8,511,96 5 Source: Heaney, 2002
Total land area Total species population Philippines Philippines Spain Spain Brazil Brazil 300780 1139 451171 435 8.5M 3131 Species endem ism in Brazil Species endem ism in Philippines Endemic Endemic 25 species species % non-endemic non-endemic species species 51% 49%75%
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines•Philippine Eagle-world’s largest eagle•King cobra largest -terrestrial venomoussnake•Phil. IronWood/magkuno -hardest wood•Reticulated python -largest / longest snake
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesOne of the smallestdeerMouse deer1 of the Smallest primitiveprimatesSlow loris & Tarsier Heaney and RegaladoOne of the Largest flowersRafflesia speciousaWorld’s 2 largest batsGolden-crownedFlying Fox & LargeFlying FoxWorld’s largest ratCloud rat
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines Giant Clam – world’s largest giant clam species Boring Clam – smallest giant clam species Porcelain Clam – rarest giant clam species Sperm whale – largest toothed cetacean Killer whale – largest dolphin species Minke Whale – smallest of all baleen whales Dugong – only herbivorous marine mammal in the Philippines
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesworld’s largest fish•Whale Shark –•Giant Manta Ray –world’s largest ray•Saltwater crocodile –world’s largest livingreptile•Leatherback turtle – largest ofall sea turtles •Dwarf Pygmy Goby - smallest Photo by Evette Lee freshwater fish •Sinarapan / Bia / Tabios - smallest food fish
One of the World’s Richest in Mineral Resources• 2nd to Indonesia in geological prospectivity in SouthEast Asia• 2nd to South Africa in Gold production• 3rd in copper production• 3rd in Gold, 4th in Copper deposits• 5th in Nickel deposits• 6th in Chromite in nickel deposits
Why is Philippine BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
World rainforests 10ºN and S World coral reef 30ºN and STROPICAL country- incubator of organisms, rainforest and coral reef
Elevation, climate and rainfallHeaney and Regalado
Luzon Faunal Region (with Catanduanes and Marinduque) Mindoro Mindanao Palawan and the (with Sundaic Sulu region and Islands Borneo) (with Bohol, Samar,Negros/West central Leyte)- Visayas (with Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras, Cebu)
• Luzon cloud rat, Sierra Madre shrew mouse, golden- crowned flying fox, pygmy fruit bat, brown deer, whiskered Pitta- LUZON• spotted deer, warty pig, white throated jungle fly- catcher, Negros bleeding heart- W VISAYAS• tamaraw, tree frog, scarlet collared flower pecker, Mindoro Tarictic- MINDORO• Tarsier, Sulu woodpecker, blue-winged racquet tail MINDANAO, SULU, BOHOL & E VISAYAS10.peacock pheasant, bear cat, otters, mouse deer, flying squirrel, Philippine cockatoo- PALAWAN
Coral Reefs of the World5% in excellentcondition (by Alino, 4.86% Phil Coral reef2002) 30,000km2 Area By McManus 2000 617,000 square km or 1/6 of ONE percent of thelowest inSEAsia!!! marine environment (which is75% of earth) (Smith, 1978)
Composition and current characteristics of biodiversity in the Philippine Marine environment (source: DENR, 1997) Economically Taxon Number Threatened Important Marine Fungi 7 Sea Grasses 16 3 Algae 1,062 531 60 Corals1 381 Other Invertebrates 1,616 152 47 Fish2 1,831 672 Mammals3 18 18 18 Reptiles 20 20 20 Total* 4,951 1,396 1451 Total number of corals found in the Phil. now stands at 462 (Werner andAllen, 2000)2 Total number of fish now is estimated to be over 2,000 species.3 Total number of marine mammals in Philippine waters is now at 23.* Estimated number of species in the Philippine marine environment is over5,000
Status of Philippine Mangroves1918 450,000 hectares (Brown and Fisher, 1920)1997 only 112,400 hectares (24.97%) remains!!!(Phil. Forestry Statistics, 1998) ! loss is largely due to fishpond conversion of mangroves ! reclamation for residential, commercial & industrial purposes and excessive harvesting of trees for fuel
Total number of wildlife species in the PhilippinesMajor Taxa No. of Endemic Threatene Species Species dAmphibians 101+ 82+ (78%) Species 24Reptiles 258+ 170+ (66%) 8Birds 576+* 195+ (34%) 74Mammals 204+** 111+ (54%) 51Total 1139+ 558+ 50%) 157
Forest loss in Negros 1875 1949 1970 1987 1992Heaney and Regalado
Extent of Forest Cover Loss in the last 100years Less than 6% of the country’s original forest remains! Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
70-80% forest cover Highlight of Damage Central Cordillera local action Ilocos local action Spanish demand Pangasinan marshland conversion Culion marshland conversion Central Visayas molave loss U.S. demandLuzon logging for export Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
60% forest cover Highlight of Damage U.S. demand for primary woodLuzon complete deforestationRomblon complete deforestationNorthern Bukidnon logging startsCotabato logging starts Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
40% forest coverHighlight of Damage 1945-1950’s 50% forest cover The Philippines (56% upland area) crossed the threshold in sustainable management Late 1960’s logging boom starts Logging concession increased from 4.5 M ha → 11.6 M haSource: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
34% forest cover Highlight of Damage 1977-1980’s all time high deforestation rate (300,000 ha/yr) Philippine forest rapidly disappearing Completely deforested or <5% cover Pollilio Burias Palaui Camiguin Batanes Lubang Ticao Guimaras Samal Siquijor Bohol Tablas Siargao Jolo Cebu Masbate Tawi-tawi MarinduqueSource: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
23.7% forest coverHighlight of Damage1977-1980’s only 8.9% ofold growth forest remains!!!Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
YEAR 2002 18% forest cover< 3% original forest remains!!!
Km2FORESTCOVER Land area (300,000 km2) (100 years)300,000 Spanish colonization (270,000 km2)250,000 (400 years)200,000 American colonization (210,000 km2) (50 years)150,000100,000 Philippine Independence 1950’s (150,000 km2) (40 years) 50,000 Post EDSA Revolution (8,000 0 km2) 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1990 YEAR Extent of Original Forest Cover in thePhilippines
Rainfall, Rainrise 1960s to 1990s Source: F Avila
The Little Boy’s Tantrum The Little Girl’s Tears
Country’s productivity *"Declining" productivity of the countrys agricultural lands and fisheries. •.
• These areas • Cause: Rapid forest become loss has eliminated increasingly habitat for unique and threatened plant and degraded and animal species; it has pushed beyond also left large tracts of their capacity to land in the Philippines produce vulnerable to soil erosion
• *The loss of nutrient rich soil reduces crop yields and contributes to the expanded use of chemical fertilizers - a practice that can, in turn, pollute water sources.
• Rivers and streams • * Soil runoff into also carry eroded fish breeding and soil to the coasts, nursery areas is where it interferes one of several with fish nursery factors leading to areas. the overall decline in productivity of fisheries in the Philippines
Consequences Food insecurity. The lack of a stable and reliable food supply contributes to poor nutritional status for many Filipinos, especially for children: Approximately 28 percent of children under 5 are underweight (DOH Report, 2006) Food insecurity also contributes to increases in environmentally destructive practices such as slash-and-burn agriculture ("kaingin" farming) or the use of dynamite to increase short-term fish catches.
.* In 1970, 32 percentof the countryspopulation lived inurban areas. * Today, 48 percent iscrowded into cities,where housing andinfrastructure struggleto keep pace with thegrowing numbers.
• Overcrowding and insufficient housing can be particularly detrimental to children: Studies have suggested that infant mortality rates in Manilas slums are three times higher than in non-slum areas
Water crisis is not far behind: Access to clean and adequate water is an acute seasonal problem in Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central Visayas. Government monitoring data showed that up to 58 percent of the countrys water ground is contaminated with coliform bacteria, causing such diseases as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis A. studies show that there is a steady 30-50% drop in the levels of the country’s water sources for the past 20 years or an average drop of 1 meter/year
While on the average, the atmosphere’s moisture is renewed every 8 days, stream water every 16 days, soil moisture annually, swamp water in 5 years, lake water in 17 years, groundwater renews only after 1,400 years.
Threats to Philippine biodiversityHeaney and Regalado
DIRECT• Deforestation due to unsustainable logging, farming and related practices• Aquatic destruction due to unsustainable fishing and deforestation• Conflicting and poor policies• Poor law enforcement• Pollution• Natural extinction
INDIRECT •Poverty from 47% Erap regime to 65% now (2out of 3 feel extreme hunger) •Overpopulation 87.6 Million (August 1, 2007) •Corruption •Lack of knowledge/Miseducation •Apathy (Tragedy of the Common)
Nature’s Law of InterrelatednessAll things are interconnected
Find the Relationship• Between you eating in a fast food burger chain and global warming• Between the low scores of elementary students in achievement tests and a factory worker.• Deforestation and the losing productivity of the seas.• What is the relationship between you, eating a bar of Hershey’s chocolate, and the death of thousands in Quezon due to massive commercial logging?
Law of Conservation of MatterEverything Must Go somewhere!
Erosion HumansDried Up Streams and Waterways Flooding Sedimentation of Waterways Siltation of the No Aquifer Recharge Near shore AreasSource: The Laws of Nature and Other Stories by: Antonio A. Oposa Jr.
The Origin of Life Akinetes: LIFE: blue- cellular Hard-bodied marine formation green algae differentiation invertebrates of Earth 5,000 million years 4,600 3,600 2,300 570 MYA Land MYA MYA MYA 500 Invertebrates, Amphibians Radiation of million land plants, Gymnosperms First Mammals yearsJawless fish bony fishes Dinosaurs, Archaeopteryx Mass First extinction of Agnathans Spiders & first true First birds Reptiles Dinosaurs insects mammals 500 million years 500 400 370 350 300 200 140 100 65 MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA 5 million Homo habilis years Homo erectus Australopithecus first species of closest to Homo afaransis genus Homo moden humans sapiens modern 5 million years man 4 2 1 30,000 MYA MYA MYA years ago
“In the end, we will conserveonly what we love, we will loveonly what we understand, andwe will understand only whatwe are taught.” -Baba Dioum, a Senegalese conservationist