The Philippine Environment Amidst Climate Change
P H IL IP P IN EIO D IV E R S IT Y
Biodiversity refers to thetotality of life forms in the    areas they occupy
Importance                 of            BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY          FoodFood for all living organisms   > 90% calorie intake globallynot just for man!    ...
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY        Medicines•80% of the world’s populationuse plants as 1° source ofmedicine•30% of all pha...
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY    Fuel, timber, fiber and other resourcesMost houses, furniture and evenmany clothes are made ...
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYAir and water purification
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY    Climatemodification
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYDrought, erosion and flood control
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY          Social / cultural               valueBiodiversity is directly linked withtraditional, ...
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYEconomic   value
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYBIODIVERSITY IS OUR LIFE!      security      air      water      land      biodiversity
National              Pride:            Philippine           BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
105 species of AMPHIBIANS82 species are FOUND ONLY     in the Philippines
More than 254species ofReptiles                …with 208                species                endemic to                t...
BIRDSA total of 576 species of birds196 of these occur only in the         Philippines
Of the 179 species of land mammals,        111 species are found only in theHeaney and Regalado Philippines
Around 20,940 species     of insects 69.8% are endemics
estimated 15,000 species, 50% are endemics       70 – 80% Flowering plants       193 Threatened species
INLAND WATERS    211 Lakes, 18 major          rivers,  22 marshes, swamps and         reservoir PHILIPPINE WETLANDS1616 sp...
MANGROVES      Around 60 mangrove plant         species in the world      54 mangroves and related         species occur i...
Corals                         462 coral species                         recorded (Werner and                         Alle...
FISHPhilippine Total = 2,459/4,000 species in theIndo-Pacific region(Fish Base 2000)2,241 marine species (2/3 82 (possib...
Molluscs  22,000 freshwater, land and marine speciesNine species                       Seven occur     of                 ...
Biodiversity and Endemism          Total Endemi    %          LandCOUNTRY specie     c    Endemi       Area            s  ...
Total land area                                 Total species population                                  Philippines     ...
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines•Philippine Eagle-world’s largest eagle•King cobra largest -terrestrial ...
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesOne of the smallestdeerMouse deer1 of the Smallest primitiveprimatesSlow...
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines Giant Clam –     world’s largest giant clam species Boring Clam –    sm...
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesworld’s largest fish•Whale Shark –•Giant Manta Ray –world’s largest ray•...
One of the World’s Richest in       Mineral Resources• 2nd to Indonesia in geological  prospectivity in SouthEast Asia• 2n...
Why is                Philippine            BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
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Present configurationHeaney and Regalado
World rainforests 10ºN and S    World coral reef 30ºN and STROPICAL country- incubator of organisms,            rainforest...
Elevation, climate and rainfallHeaney and Regalado
Luzon Faunal Region    (with Catanduanes and                        Marinduque)             Mindoro                       ...
• Luzon cloud rat, Sierra Madre shrew mouse, golden-  crowned flying fox, pygmy fruit bat, brown deer,  whiskered Pitta- L...
Disappeari                     ng                 BiodiversitHeaney and Regalado
Coral Reefs of the World5% in excellentcondition   (by Alino, 4.86%    Phil Coral reef2002)                30,000km2 Area ...
Composition and current characteristics of     biodiversity in the Philippine Marine environment                          ...
Status of Philippine Mangroves1918            450,000 hectares    (Brown and Fisher, 1920)1997             only 112,400 he...
Total number of wildlife species in the                    PhilippinesMajor Taxa        No. of    Endemic       Threatene ...
Forest loss in Negros                      1875          1949 1970   1987 1992Heaney and Regalado
Extent of Forest Cover Loss in the last 100years                                                Less than 6%              ...
70-80% forest cover        Highlight of Damage   Central Cordillera                local action   Ilocos                  ...
60% forest cover  Highlight of Damage  U.S. demand for primary woodLuzon          complete deforestationRomblon        com...
40% forest coverHighlight of Damage 1945-1950’s             50% forest cover The Philippines (56% upland area)      crosse...
34% forest cover         Highlight of Damage            1977-1980’s     all time high            deforestation rate (300,0...
23.7% forest coverHighlight of Damage1977-1980’s     only 8.9% ofold growth forest remains!!!Source: Environmental Science...
YEAR 2002             18% forest cover< 3% original forest remains!!!
Km2FORESTCOVER Land area (300,000 km2)                                                         (100 years)300,000         ...
The Physical Environment
Rainfall, Rainrise 1960s to 1990s                     Source: F Avila
The Little Boy’s Tantrum   The Little Girl’s Tears
Country’s productivity           *"Declining"            productivity of            the countrys            agricultural  ...
• These areas         • Cause: Rapid forest  become                loss has eliminated  increasingly          habitat for ...
• *The loss of  nutrient rich soil  reduces crop  yields and  contributes to the  expanded use of  chemical fertilizers  -...
• Rivers and streams • * Soil runoff into  also carry eroded    fish breeding and  soil to the coasts,  nursery areas is  ...
Consequences   Food insecurity. The lack of a stable and reliable    food supply contributes to poor nutritional status f...
.*  In 1970, 32 percentof the countryspopulation lived inurban areas. * Today, 48 percent iscrowded into cities,where hous...
• Overcrowding and  insufficient housing  can be particularly  detrimental to  children: Studies have  suggested that infa...
   Water crisis is not far behind: Access to clean    and adequate water is an acute seasonal    problem in Metro Manila,...
   While on the average, the atmosphere’s    moisture is renewed every 8 days, stream    water every 16 days, soil moistu...
Threats to              Philippine             biodiversityHeaney and Regalado
Heaney and Regalado
(Sources of Water… continuation)     Industrial Pollution     Aquaculture
(Sources of Air… continuation)     Mobile Pollution
   Domestic Pollution
DIRECT• Deforestation due to  unsustainable  logging, farming and related  practices• Aquatic destruction due to  unsustai...
INDIRECT  •Poverty    from 47% Erap regime to 65% now (2out of 3 feel extreme hunger)  •Overpopulation   87.6 Million (Aug...
Global Warming
Laws of Ecology
Nature’s Law of InterrelatednessAll things are interconnected
Find the Relationship• Between you eating in a fast food burger chain  and global warming• Between the low scores of eleme...
Law of Conservation of MatterEverything Must Go somewhere!
Erosion                                                             HumansDried Up Streams and Waterways                Fl...
Nature Knows Best
The Origin of Life                                                                      Akinetes:                         ...
“In the end, we will conserveonly what we love, we will loveonly what we understand, andwe will understand only whatwe are...
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  • Fruits, nuts, mushrooms, honey, spices and other foods that human and wildlife consume originate from natural ecosystems. In 1989 the total world fishery catch reached an astounding 100 million metric tons (since then annual landings have dropped or at best remained the same)
  • Sponge: conch shell: pain reliever tea: relaxing/cleansing :aspirin?
  • Forest is a carbonsink
  • Forest traps rain, watershed allowing slow release of water
  • More evident among Ips being more in tuned to native practices Vs. new breed/half/modern (nawawla bec of separation from the orig dweeling chuchu (naiwan sa songs)
  • Palawan ecotourism, Apo Island, Palawan, diving, capture fisheries
  • Philippine total and endemism
  • Phil total
  • Eagle hornbill MALkOHA x fruitdove x dwarf kingfidsher X guiabero Last is racquet-tail
  • Tarsier (nocturnal), calamian deer (palawan), shrewmouse and cloudrat (mossy forest)
  • Stick insect walking stick, Phil?
  • Major riverine systems dying state, endemic animals are threatened by introduced species (lanao lake, introd of bangus sp accid with gobi which killed the native of sp the lake
  • 1 ha=3 tons of fish other uses
  • Highest in the world, followed by Eastern Papua New Guinea with 380 species; Ryukyu / Yaeyama Islands with 370 and Great Barrier Reef, Australia with 350 (McManus, ) I ha= 3 tons fish * (an additional 30 species can be expected) At least 21 undescribed species recently found in the Calamianes Islands, Palawan 12 species are endemic to the Philippines &amp; Indonesia 1 new species of Leptoseris in the Kalayaan Is.
  • Center of the center of world fish diversity, highest sp richness, second is indonesia (Carpenter and Spring) 59 Threatened species
  • Biggest and smallest and rarest giant clams in the world (octo, cuttlefish)
  • Endemism, land area dir rel
  • Income generation vs hunting (more profitable in ecotourism) Big 4 not endemic, 2 fish sp. Freshwater and endemic (endangered due to overharvesting and habitat destruction)
  • (plate tectonics only) Fragmentation, originated from other regions dir rel with endemism and variety of terrestrial and marine Bohol prev part of greater Min evidence in tarsier Mindoro close to Luzon but with greater similarity of biodive with Palawan coming from S Chiana Habitats produced in time are varied, resulting varied lifeforms coming from diff regional origin
  • Palawan and mindoro Luzon risen
  • Rise and fall of land, land bridges transported animals Land bridges divided the seas and gave rise to fish diversification with 4 sea systems
  • Very tiny percentage of marine envi is the coral reef system but the bulk of marine biodiversity
  • Start and present due to massive conversion
  • From vanishing treasures by Lawrence Heaney (2002) Philippine endimism and relative percentage + Includes new species (38 sp. for amphibians, 35 sp. for reptiles) * Includes rediscovered species ** 22 species of dolphins, whales and dugong
  • Estimates place forest cover in 1900 at 21 million has. (210,000 km 2 ) or 70% of the total land area. Many areas were already heavily damaged by this time in the Central Cordilleras and Ilocos by local action, while the Spanish were responsible for the cutting of the much valued molave of the Central Visayas and the conversion of the marsh lands of Pangasinan and Culion which was reportedly already bald The Americans introduced logging for export.
  • Forest still covered 18 million hectares (180,000 km 2 ) or 60% of the total land area but the forests were under pressure because of the great demand for tropical hardwood for export to the U.S. Between 1900 and 1920, Romblon Island was completely deforested; the Central Plains of Luzon were also cleared, while Northen Bukidnon and Cotabato were opened up.
  • By 1950 estimates place forest cover at 15 million hectares (150,000 km 2 ) or 50% of the total land area. Since 56% of the Philippines is classified as upland, the threshold in sustainable management was crossed in the 1945-50 period . FAO, 1963 put forest cover at 12 million hectares (120,000 km 2 ) or 40% of the total land area. The late 1960s is considered the start of a logging boom period. Logging concession areas increased from 4.5 million hectares to 11.6 million hectares .
  • Forest covered 34% of the total land area or 10.2 million hectares (102,000 km 2 ) . From 1977 to 1980, deforestation reached an all time high- over 300,000 hectares a year. By the end of the 1970s, the following islands were either almost completely deforested or had less than 5% forest cover: Polillo, Burias, Palaui, Tablas, Batanes Islands, Lubang, Marinduque, Ticao, Guimaras, Masbate, Siquijor, Cebu, Bohol, Samal, Siargao, Tawi-Tawi, Jolo and Camiguin. The Philippine forest was rapidly disappearing .
  • The Swedish Space Corporation (SPOT) study of 1987 place forest cover at 6.9 million hectares (69,000 km 2 ) or 23.7% of the total land area. There were 2.7 million (27,000 km 2 ) hectares or 8.9% of the total land area of primary forest and this included mossy and pine forest.
  • Slope more drastically downward with proper scaling also forest cover
  • Golden kuhol (massive escargo demand, pagbaha, kumalat, infested even ricefields displacing native kuhol) Dominant in lakes, in gen displacing native sp bec of agression over time esp with GM tilapia) Am bullfrog Black/brown rat when mAGELLAN arrived displacing native sp (also bec native rats don’t cohabit with people but the undesirables do)
  • In the first time line it is shown that -Life started 5billion years ago or 5,000million years ago in the marine environment, a unicellular blue green algae which later differentiated into sea invertebrates again in the marine environment. The last one tenth of this time line is detailed in the second time line which is the last 500million years of life evolution. In the second time line it is shown that- (after the sea inverts) the land inverts have risen, followed by land plants, then by spiders and insects (they are older than people!), then followed by the amphibians (frogs), gymnosperms (flowering plants), reptiles, dinosaurs, birds and the radiation of mammals. The frogs were the first water species to attempt conquering land but was unsuccessful as they have to lay eggs in water. Where the frogs were unsuccessful, the reptiles were because they had thick scaly looking skin and leather covered egg for adaptation to terrestrial survival. Dinosaurs had come and gone. There are many theories why they have become extinct like they were hit by meteorites, they could not sustain their humongous diet… Radiation of mammals 100million years ago gave rise to animals that are terrestrial, marine, nocturnal diurnal, etcetera, they each developed a specialized adaptation for survival. In the third time line - it is shown that the
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    1. 1. The Philippine Environment Amidst Climate Change
    2. 2. P H IL IP P IN EIO D IV E R S IT Y
    3. 3. Biodiversity refers to thetotality of life forms in the areas they occupy
    4. 4. Importance of BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
    5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY FoodFood for all living organisms > 90% calorie intake globallynot just for man! comes from 80 PLANT SPECIES FISH comprises 10% of protein intake globally and 50-60% that of Filipinos.
    6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Medicines•80% of the world’s populationuse plants as 1° source ofmedicine•30% of all pharma medicinesare developed from plants andanimals
    7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Fuel, timber, fiber and other resourcesMost houses, furniture and evenmany clothes are made from naturalproducts, including wood, oils,resins, waxes, gums and fibers.The cocoons of silk worms are thebasis of the valuable, centuries-oldAsian silk-making industry.
    8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYAir and water purification
    9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Climatemodification
    10. 10. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYDrought, erosion and flood control
    11. 11. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Social / cultural valueBiodiversity is directly linked withtraditional, spiritual and cultural values ofpeople.
    12. 12. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYEconomic value
    13. 13. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITYBIODIVERSITY IS OUR LIFE! security air water land biodiversity
    14. 14. National Pride: Philippine BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
    15. 15. 105 species of AMPHIBIANS82 species are FOUND ONLY in the Philippines
    16. 16. More than 254species ofReptiles …with 208 species endemic to the Philippines
    17. 17. BIRDSA total of 576 species of birds196 of these occur only in the Philippines
    18. 18. Of the 179 species of land mammals, 111 species are found only in theHeaney and Regalado Philippines
    19. 19. Around 20,940 species of insects 69.8% are endemics
    20. 20. estimated 15,000 species, 50% are endemics 70 – 80% Flowering plants 193 Threatened species
    21. 21. INLAND WATERS 211 Lakes, 18 major rivers, 22 marshes, swamps and reservoir PHILIPPINE WETLANDS1616 species of aquatic plants 3675 species of fauna
    22. 22. MANGROVES Around 60 mangrove plant species in the world 54 mangroves and related species occur in the PhilippinesHeaney and Regalado
    23. 23. Corals 462 coral species recorded (Werner and Allen, 2000) Highest in the world !!!•Eastern Papua NewGuinea with 380species;•Ryukyu / YaeyamaIslands with 370•Great Barrier Reef,Australia with 350
    24. 24. FISHPhilippine Total = 2,459/4,000 species in theIndo-Pacific region(Fish Base 2000)2,241 marine species (2/3 82 (possibly 98) speciescoral reef-associated) are Philippine Endemics209 freshwater species
    25. 25. Molluscs 22,000 freshwater, land and marine speciesNine species Seven occur of inGiant Clams Philippine worldwide watersphotos by Evette Lee
    26. 26. Biodiversity and Endemism Total Endemi % LandCOUNTRY specie c Endemi Area s Species c (km2)Philippin 1139 558 50% 300,780esSpain 435 25 6% 451,171Brazil 3131 788 25% 8,511,96 5 Source: Heaney, 2002
    27. 27. Total land area Total species population Philippines Philippines Spain Spain Brazil Brazil 300780 1139 451171 435 8.5M 3131 Species endem ism in Brazil Species endem ism in Philippines Endemic Endemic 25 species species % non-endemic non-endemic species species 51% 49%75%
    28. 28. Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines•Philippine Eagle-world’s largest eagle•King cobra largest -terrestrial venomoussnake•Phil. IronWood/magkuno -hardest wood•Reticulated python -largest / longest snake
    29. 29. Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesOne of the smallestdeerMouse deer1 of the Smallest primitiveprimatesSlow loris & Tarsier Heaney and RegaladoOne of the Largest flowersRafflesia speciousaWorld’s 2 largest batsGolden-crownedFlying Fox & LargeFlying FoxWorld’s largest ratCloud rat
    30. 30. Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippines Giant Clam – world’s largest giant clam species Boring Clam – smallest giant clam species Porcelain Clam – rarest giant clam species Sperm whale – largest toothed cetacean Killer whale – largest dolphin species Minke Whale – smallest of all baleen whales Dugong – only herbivorous marine mammal in the Philippines
    31. 31. Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species inPhilippinesworld’s largest fish•Whale Shark –•Giant Manta Ray –world’s largest ray•Saltwater crocodile –world’s largest livingreptile•Leatherback turtle – largest ofall sea turtles •Dwarf Pygmy Goby - smallest Photo by Evette Lee freshwater fish •Sinarapan / Bia / Tabios - smallest food fish
    32. 32. One of the World’s Richest in Mineral Resources• 2nd to Indonesia in geological prospectivity in SouthEast Asia• 2nd to South Africa in Gold production• 3rd in copper production• 3rd in Gold, 4th in Copper deposits• 5th in Nickel deposits• 6th in Chromite in nickel deposits
    33. 33. Why is Philippine BiodiversityHeaney and Regalado
    34. 34. S E A s iaR e c o n s t r u c t io n s 5 0 -0 M a © R o b e r t H a l l 19 9 5
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    82. 82. Present configurationHeaney and Regalado
    83. 83. World rainforests 10ºN and S World coral reef 30ºN and STROPICAL country- incubator of organisms, rainforest and coral reef
    84. 84. Elevation, climate and rainfallHeaney and Regalado
    85. 85. Luzon Faunal Region (with Catanduanes and Marinduque) Mindoro Mindanao Palawan and the (with Sundaic Sulu region and Islands Borneo) (with Bohol, Samar,Negros/West central Leyte)- Visayas (with Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras, Cebu)
    86. 86. • Luzon cloud rat, Sierra Madre shrew mouse, golden- crowned flying fox, pygmy fruit bat, brown deer, whiskered Pitta- LUZON• spotted deer, warty pig, white throated jungle fly- catcher, Negros bleeding heart- W VISAYAS• tamaraw, tree frog, scarlet collared flower pecker, Mindoro Tarictic- MINDORO• Tarsier, Sulu woodpecker, blue-winged racquet tail MINDANAO, SULU, BOHOL & E VISAYAS10.peacock pheasant, bear cat, otters, mouse deer, flying squirrel, Philippine cockatoo- PALAWAN
    87. 87. Disappeari ng BiodiversitHeaney and Regalado
    88. 88. Coral Reefs of the World5% in excellentcondition (by Alino, 4.86% Phil Coral reef2002) 30,000km2 Area By McManus 2000 617,000 square km or 1/6 of ONE percent of thelowest inSEAsia!!! marine environment (which is75% of earth) (Smith, 1978)
    89. 89. Composition and current characteristics of biodiversity in the Philippine Marine environment (source: DENR, 1997) Economically Taxon Number Threatened Important Marine Fungi 7 Sea Grasses 16 3 Algae 1,062 531 60 Corals1 381 Other Invertebrates 1,616 152 47 Fish2 1,831 672 Mammals3 18 18 18 Reptiles 20 20 20 Total* 4,951 1,396 1451 Total number of corals found in the Phil. now stands at 462 (Werner andAllen, 2000)2 Total number of fish now is estimated to be over 2,000 species.3 Total number of marine mammals in Philippine waters is now at 23.* Estimated number of species in the Philippine marine environment is over5,000
    90. 90. Status of Philippine Mangroves1918 450,000 hectares (Brown and Fisher, 1920)1997 only 112,400 hectares (24.97%) remains!!!(Phil. Forestry Statistics, 1998) ! loss is largely due to fishpond conversion of mangroves ! reclamation for residential, commercial & industrial purposes and excessive harvesting of trees for fuel
    91. 91. Total number of wildlife species in the PhilippinesMajor Taxa No. of Endemic Threatene Species Species dAmphibians 101+ 82+ (78%) Species 24Reptiles 258+ 170+ (66%) 8Birds 576+* 195+ (34%) 74Mammals 204+** 111+ (54%) 51Total 1139+ 558+ 50%) 157
    92. 92. Forest loss in Negros 1875 1949 1970 1987 1992Heaney and Regalado
    93. 93. Extent of Forest Cover Loss in the last 100years Less than 6% of the country’s original forest remains! Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    94. 94. 70-80% forest cover Highlight of Damage Central Cordillera local action Ilocos local action Spanish demand Pangasinan marshland conversion Culion marshland conversion Central Visayas molave loss U.S. demandLuzon logging for export Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    95. 95. 60% forest cover Highlight of Damage U.S. demand for primary woodLuzon complete deforestationRomblon complete deforestationNorthern Bukidnon logging startsCotabato logging starts Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    96. 96. 40% forest coverHighlight of Damage 1945-1950’s 50% forest cover The Philippines (56% upland area) crossed the threshold in sustainable management Late 1960’s logging boom starts Logging concession increased from 4.5 M ha → 11.6 M haSource: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    97. 97. 34% forest cover Highlight of Damage 1977-1980’s all time high deforestation rate (300,000 ha/yr) Philippine forest rapidly disappearing Completely deforested or <5% cover Pollilio Burias Palaui Camiguin Batanes Lubang Ticao Guimaras Samal Siquijor Bohol Tablas Siargao Jolo Cebu Masbate Tawi-tawi MarinduqueSource: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    98. 98. 23.7% forest coverHighlight of Damage1977-1980’s only 8.9% ofold growth forest remains!!!Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
    99. 99. YEAR 2002 18% forest cover< 3% original forest remains!!!
    100. 100. Km2FORESTCOVER Land area (300,000 km2) (100 years)300,000 Spanish colonization (270,000 km2)250,000 (400 years)200,000 American colonization (210,000 km2) (50 years)150,000100,000 Philippine Independence 1950’s (150,000 km2) (40 years) 50,000 Post EDSA Revolution (8,000 0 km2) 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1990 YEAR Extent of Original Forest Cover in thePhilippines
    101. 101. The Physical Environment
    102. 102. Rainfall, Rainrise 1960s to 1990s Source: F Avila
    103. 103. The Little Boy’s Tantrum The Little Girl’s Tears
    104. 104. Country’s productivity *"Declining" productivity of the countrys agricultural lands and fisheries. •.
    105. 105. • These areas • Cause: Rapid forest become loss has eliminated increasingly habitat for unique and threatened plant and degraded and animal species; it has pushed beyond also left large tracts of their capacity to land in the Philippines produce vulnerable to soil erosion
    106. 106. • *The loss of nutrient rich soil reduces crop yields and contributes to the expanded use of chemical fertilizers - a practice that can, in turn, pollute water sources.
    107. 107. • Rivers and streams • * Soil runoff into also carry eroded fish breeding and soil to the coasts, nursery areas is where it interferes one of several with fish nursery factors leading to areas. the overall decline in productivity of fisheries in the Philippines
    108. 108. Consequences Food insecurity. The lack of a stable and reliable food supply contributes to poor nutritional status for many Filipinos, especially for children: Approximately 28 percent of children under 5 are underweight (DOH Report, 2006) Food insecurity also contributes to increases in environmentally destructive practices such as slash-and-burn agriculture ("kaingin" farming) or the use of dynamite to increase short-term fish catches.
    109. 109. .* In 1970, 32 percentof the countryspopulation lived inurban areas. * Today, 48 percent iscrowded into cities,where housing andinfrastructure struggleto keep pace with thegrowing numbers.
    110. 110. • Overcrowding and insufficient housing can be particularly detrimental to children: Studies have suggested that infant mortality rates in Manilas slums are three times higher than in non-slum areas
    111. 111.  Water crisis is not far behind: Access to clean and adequate water is an acute seasonal problem in Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central Visayas. Government monitoring data showed that up to 58 percent of the countrys water ground is contaminated with coliform bacteria, causing such diseases as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis A. studies show that there is a steady 30-50% drop in the levels of the country’s water sources for the past 20 years or an average drop of 1 meter/year
    112. 112.  While on the average, the atmosphere’s moisture is renewed every 8 days, stream water every 16 days, soil moisture annually, swamp water in 5 years, lake water in 17 years, groundwater renews only after 1,400 years.
    113. 113. Threats to Philippine biodiversityHeaney and Regalado
    114. 114. Heaney and Regalado
    115. 115. (Sources of Water… continuation)  Industrial Pollution  Aquaculture
    116. 116. (Sources of Air… continuation)  Mobile Pollution
    117. 117.  Domestic Pollution
    118. 118. DIRECT• Deforestation due to unsustainable logging, farming and related practices• Aquatic destruction due to unsustainable fishing and deforestation• Conflicting and poor policies• Poor law enforcement• Pollution• Natural extinction
    119. 119. INDIRECT •Poverty from 47% Erap regime to 65% now (2out of 3 feel extreme hunger) •Overpopulation 87.6 Million (August 1, 2007) •Corruption •Lack of knowledge/Miseducation •Apathy (Tragedy of the Common)
    120. 120. Global Warming
    121. 121. Laws of Ecology
    122. 122. Nature’s Law of InterrelatednessAll things are interconnected
    123. 123. Find the Relationship• Between you eating in a fast food burger chain and global warming• Between the low scores of elementary students in achievement tests and a factory worker.• Deforestation and the losing productivity of the seas.• What is the relationship between you, eating a bar of Hershey’s chocolate, and the death of thousands in Quezon due to massive commercial logging?
    124. 124. Law of Conservation of MatterEverything Must Go somewhere!
    125. 125. Erosion HumansDried Up Streams and Waterways Flooding Sedimentation of Waterways Siltation of the No Aquifer Recharge Near shore AreasSource: The Laws of Nature and Other Stories by: Antonio A. Oposa Jr.
    126. 126. Nature Knows Best
    127. 127. The Origin of Life Akinetes: LIFE: blue- cellular Hard-bodied marine formation green algae differentiation invertebrates of Earth 5,000 million years 4,600 3,600 2,300 570 MYA Land MYA MYA MYA 500 Invertebrates, Amphibians Radiation of million land plants, Gymnosperms First Mammals yearsJawless fish bony fishes Dinosaurs, Archaeopteryx Mass First extinction of Agnathans Spiders & first true First birds Reptiles Dinosaurs insects mammals 500 million years 500 400 370 350 300 200 140 100 65 MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA MYA 5 million Homo habilis years Homo erectus Australopithecus first species of closest to Homo afaransis genus Homo moden humans sapiens modern 5 million years man 4 2 1 30,000 MYA MYA MYA years ago
    128. 128. “In the end, we will conserveonly what we love, we will loveonly what we understand, andwe will understand only whatwe are taught.” -Baba Dioum, a Senegalese conservationist

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