Transforming Public Service


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Eden Strategy Institute has had the privilege of collaborating with numerous governments and multilateral organizations to improve policymaking approaches and delivery methods. To commemorate the United Nations Public Service Day, we seek to contribute to the important work of policymakers with this practical toolkit of proven, innovative approaches that have the potential to transform public service around the world.

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Transforming Public Service

  1. 1. G O V E R N M E N T   &   N O N -­‐ P R O F I T   Toolkit  for     Public  Service  Transforma@on   S O C I A L   I N N O V A T I O N   P L A Y B O O K   S E R I E S   eden strategy institute
  2. 2.       eden strategy institute |  2  Sources:    Wikipedia  Images;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Emergence  of  complex,  large-­‐scale,  and  non-­‐linear  “wicked”  problems  of  different  yet   domains  requiring  holis&c  solu&ons   Budgetary  constraints  force  governments  to  innovate  in  achieving  more,  faster  and   with  less  resources     Increasingly  acAve  ciAzens  expressing  demands  from  governments  to  do  more  through   public  protests  moAvate  governments  to  be  more  proac&ve  and  responsive   Recent  global  developments  have  created  the  need  for  public  service   innova@on  
  3. 3. eden strategy institute |  3  Sources:    Wikipedia  Images;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Climate  change  is  an  example  of  a  ‘wicked  problem’  with  incomplete,  contradictory,  and  changing  requirements         More  innova@ve  solu@ons  are  required  for  increasingly  complex,   interdependent  and  large-­‐scale  public  challenges     Economic   Development   Climate  Change   Poli@cal  dimensions  Technological   solu@ons   Climate  change   soluAons  involve   immense   economic   investments   Only  countries  with  economic   resources  have  access  to   technological  soluAons   Uneven  ability  to   bear  economic   costs    cause  a   power  imbalance   No  single  view   towards  the   effects  of  climate   change   Industrial  acAvity   increases  green   house  emissions,   worsens  climate   change   Climate  instability   affect  economic   producAon   Broader  poliAcal   interests  come  into   play  in  signing   internaAonal  treaAes   (E.g.  Kyoto  Protocol)     No   central   authority   Long  @meframes  affect  ra@onal  decision  making    
  4. 4.       eden strategy institute |  4  Sources:    Wikipedia  Images;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Global  Day  of  Ac@on  (2005,  2007)  on  how  humans  affect  global  warming     Global  ci@zens  are  increasing  their  demands  from  governments,   expressed  through  recent  social  movements  and  protests     Camp  for  Climate  Ac@on  (2009)  at  Blackheath  
  5. 5. eden strategy institute |  5  Sources:    OECD;  Eden  Research  and  Analysis   -­‐15%   -­‐10%   -­‐5%   0%   5%   Luxembourg   Switzerland   Estonia   Denmark   Germany   Finland   Portugal   Austria   Belgium   France   United  Kingdom   Italy   Netherlands   Greece   Norway   Slovenia   Korea   Slovak  Republic   Czech  Republic   Canada   Sweden   Poland   Hungary   New  Zealand   Ireland   Israel   United  States   Australia   Iceland   Percentage  Change  of  Government  Tax  Revenues  as  a  Propor@on  of  GDP  of  OECD  Countries  between  2007   and  2011   The  recent  economic  crisis  has  @ghtened  public  resources  in  many   countries;  governments  now  must  innovate  to  do  more  with  less     Percentage  
  6. 6. eden strategy institute |  6  Sources:    Eden  research  and  analysis     A  Public  Service  Innova@on  Framework  can  help  government   agencies  respond  to  resource  constraints  with  new  approaches   TRADITIONAL  PUBLIC  SERVICE   PUBLIC  SERVICE  INNOVATION   Organiza@onal     Design   •  Government  agencies  are  organized  in  silos   •  Top-­‐down  communicaAon  driven  by  bureaucraAc   control  and  hierarchy   •  Whole-­‐of-­‐Government  approach     •  VerAcal  communicaAons,  such  as  ‘gangplank’  approaches   •  Senior  officers  align  their  personal  moAvaAons  to  policy  goals   Role  of  the   government     •  Sole  bearer  responsible  for  service  and  programme   delivery     •  Outsourcing  of  programmes,  with  government  acAng  as   regulator  and  quality  monitor   Problem  framing   •  Broader  poliAcal  agenda  influences  problems  framed   by  elite  groups  of  policymakers,  oden  with  short  Ame   horizons   •  Crowdsourcing  problem  sets  and  agenda  to  be  addressed   •  Root  causes  idenAfied  via  on-­‐ground  ethnography   Solu@ons  design   •  Bureaucrats  and  senior  public  officers  oden  use   secondary  informaAon  and  dispassionate  data  to   design  policies  and  programmes   •  Co-­‐design  and  co-­‐creaAon  processes  with  users,  grassroots   organizaAons,  junior  and  senior  policy  level  officers,  and  a   broader  set  of  stakeholders  (e.g.  corporaAons,  civil  society)   Tes@ng   •  Public  consultaAon  to  validate  exisAng  soluAons     •  Large-­‐scale  pilots  of  enAre  programmes   •  Constant  evoluAon  and  improvement  via  rapid  prototyping     •  ConsultaAon  as  a  means  to  surface  issues     Implementa@on   •  Programme  and  execuAon  done  in  agency  silos     •  Clearly-­‐defined  job  scopes  and  responsibiliAes  taken   up  by  specific  agencies  and  organizaAons     •  Integrated  coordinaAon,  building  trust  through  Public-­‐Private   Partnerships   Evalua@on   •  Firm  output-­‐driven  KPIs   •  Mission-­‐driven  KPI  evaluaAon,  sensiAve  to  actual  outcomes  of   programmes  and  real  concerns  of  users     •  Constant  re-­‐iteraAon  and  pivoAng  of  soluAons  based  on   evaluaAon     •  Theory  of  Change  arAculated  to  focus  on  end-­‐outcomes  
  7. 7. eden strategy institute |  7  Sources:    Eden  research  and  analysis     Our  research  with  governments  iden@fied  five  core  issues  of   concern,  associated  with  ten  Public  Service  Innova@on  Tools   ISSUE   IMPETUS   PUBLIC  SERVICE  INNOVATION  TOOLKIT   1.  Consulta@on   Users  are  increasingly  expectant,  willing,  and  able  to  to  co-­‐create   beher  soluAons  with  public  sector  agencies   •  Community  Dialogues  and   Engagement   2.  Building  Trust   Building  public  trust  is  difficult.  The  lack  of  trust  or  credibility  can   render  policies  and  programmes  irrelevant,  and  further  affects  the   effecAveness  of  future  policies   •  Open  Innova&on   3.  Power   Decentraliza@on   Decentralizing  decision-­‐making  powers  to  ciAzens  and   communiAes  can  help  government  agencies  design  more   representaAve  and  relevant  policies  and  programmes   •  Stakeholder  Mapping   4.  Collabora@on  and   Co-­‐Crea@on   Public-­‐Private  Partnerships  enable  stakeholders  to  cross-­‐pollinate   ideas  and  resources   •  Par&cipatory  Policymaking   •  Human-­‐centered  Service  Design     •  Ethnography   •  Visual  Thinking   •  eGovernment   5.  Educa@on  and   Learning     Public  officers  need  to  internalize  the  success  stories  and   methodologies  of  public  service  innovaAon.  Officers  will  benefit   from  training  on  public  service  innovaAon  so  as  to  incorporate   these  principles  into  their  mainstream  work   •  Best  Prac&ce  and  Knowledge  Sharing     •  Theory  of  Change  
  8. 8. Expected  Outcomes  of  Community  Engagement   Inform   Provide  balanced  and  objecAve   informaAon  to  both  officers  and  ciAzen   users,  in  comprehending  the  problems,   soluAons,  and  alternaAves     Consult   Gather  feedback  from  users  and  surface   challenges,  constraints,  and  opportuniAes     for  soluAons  and  improvement   Involve   Work  directly  with  users  to  ensure  that   their  concerns  and  aspiraAons  are   addressed  in  decisions   Collaborate   Partner  with  users  and  the  public  in   decision-­‐making,  when  developing   soluAons  and  alternaAves     Empower   Place  final  decision-­‐making  in  the  hands  of   the  users  and  the  public     TOOL  1:  COMMUNITY  DIALOGUES  &  ENGAGEMENT   RUNNING  COMMUNITY  DIALOGUES   1.  HosAng  logisAcs     •  Role  of  host:     •  Mapping  concerns,  building  mandate     •  ModeraAng:  Tone  and  mode,  develop   agenda,  framing  quesAons,  transiAon   points,  summarising,  driving  acAon   2.  Organizing  dialogues     •  Pre-­‐dialogue  engagements   •  Design  goals  of  dialogue   3.  Outcomes     •  Facilitate  frank    feedback  and  true   understanding  among  stakeholders   •  Influence  each  other’s  aktudes   •  Sustainable  partnerships  in  solving   idenAfied  challenges     4.  DocumenAng     •  Interview  notes  and  wrihen  verbaAms   5.  EffecAve  Media,   Advocacy,  and   Lobbying     •  Networking     •  Mobilizing     •  Media  Coverage   eden strategy institute |  8  Sources:    C-­‐Hub  Online;  Revit;  Human  Service;  The  Australian  Government;  Community  Dialogue;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Community  Dialogue  and  Engagement     Community  dialogue  is  a  way  to  challenge  thinking  and  encourage   ‘quesAoning-­‐imagined’  soluAons,  by  offering  an  unfolding  process  that  helps   to  understand  oneself  and  others   Limita@ons  of  Community  Dialogue     •  Challenges  in:     •  Scoping  decisions  that  can  be  decided  by  the  everyman   •  CreaAng  a  trusAng  and  safe  environment  for  sharing   •  Erasing  fear  of  dialogue  and  sharing  as  weakness  and   vulnerability   •  Ensuring  full  and  genuine  commitment  from  parAcipants     •  Risk  of  using  dialogues  as  tools  for  negoAaAon,  or  to  promote   pre-­‐conceived  ideas  or  hidden  agenda   Consulta@on  
  9. 9. eden strategy institute |  9  Source  Kaga  Brigade;  Flickr  Image;  Eden  research  and  analysis     KaIa  Brigade:  Humanis@c  engagement  with  end-­‐users  in  the  UK   POLICY  CONTEXT   The  Rhondda  Cynon  Taff  Local  Service  Board  strives  to  improve  on  its  services  to  the  large   number  of  vicAms  affected  by  domesAc  abuse   INNOVATION   Human  stories  and  dialogue.  By  engaging  senior  leaders  with  end-­‐users  in  the  same  room   to  listen  to  their  personal  stories,  officers  develop  deep  empathy  and  form  policies  and   programmes  that  beher  ahend  to  the  needs  of  the  vicAms   METRICS   •  Increase  in  early  idenAficaAon  of  symptoms  of  abuse   •  ReducAon  in  number  of  abuse  cases  in  the  long  run     IMPACT   Engaging  directly  with  individual  end  users  shids  public  officer  mentaliAes  and  aktudes   about  the  weight  of  their  work,  and  ahaches  humanisAc  consideraAons  to  policies  and   programmes.  This  differs  from  tradiAonal  policy  imaginaAon  exercises  which  someAmes   discounts  direct  user  emoAons  and  experiences   Innova@on  starts  by  engaging  stakeholders  with  a  clean  sheet,  free  of   assumed  solu@ons  to  imagined  problems   Consulta@on  in  Ac@on  
  10. 10. eden strategy institute |  10   Sources:  Open  Innova&on:  The  New  Impera&ve  for  Crea&ng  and  Profi&ng  from  Technology,  Henry  Chesbrough;  Reinven&ng  Corporate  Growth,  Slowinski;   Eden  research  and  analysis   Find   Want   Get   Manage   •  IdenAfy  resources  needed       •  Determine  which  resources  can  be  found   internally  and  externally   •  PrioriAze  want  briefs  with  planning   outcomes     •  UAlize  structured  process  for  make/buy/ partner  decision   •  Find  and  evaluate  external  sources  of   technology  and  capability  to  fulfill  wants,   treaAng  this  as  a  bilateral  process     (e.g.  knowledge  banks,  crowdsourcing)     •  Use  informaAon  gathered  to  refine  wants   •  Establish  and  maintain  internal  alignment     •  Develop  processes  to  plan,  structure,  and   negoAate  agreements  to  access  external   resources   •  Assign  tools  and  metrics  to  implement  ongoing   collaboraAve  relaAonships     •  Hold  a  kick-­‐off  session  to  integrate   management  systems,  and  to  ensure  parAes   truly  internalize  the  same  key  principles   •  Train  managers  in  the  principles  of  conflict   resoluAon   THE  WANT,  FIND,  GET,  MANAGE  MODEL   8  Differen@a@on  Principles  for  Open  Innova@on   Ahaching  equal  importance  to  external  knowledge   ConverAng  R&D  into  commercial  value     Purposive  outbound  flows  of  knowledge  and   technology     ProacAve  and  nuanced  role  of  IP  management   Tapping  into  abundant  knowledge  landscape   Rise  of  innovaAon  intermediaries   New  metrics  for  assessing  innovaAon  capability   and  performance  (e.g.  %  of  insourced  innovaAon,   rate  of  patent  uAlizaAon)   Open  Innova@on   “The  use  of  purposive  inflows  and  ou9lows  of  knowledge  to   accelerate  internal  innova;on”  –  Henry  Chesbrough     Expected  Outcomes.  Build  public  trust  by  increasing   transparency  and  sharing  informaAon,  catalyzing  and   embracing  innovaAons  from  the  public         Limita@ons  of  Open  Innova@on   •  Increases  complexity  in  managing  overall  processes   due  to  increased  number  of  actors   •  Loss  of  control     •  Requires  officers  to  manage  organizaAon  internal   and  externally       Building  Trust   TOOL  2:  OPEN  INNOVATION   Reframing  unexpected  results  as  opportuniAes  
  11. 11. eden strategy institute |  11  Sources:;  Data.govl;  Wikipedia  Image;  Eden  research  and  analysis   White  House:  Open  Government  Ini@a@ve  in  the  US     POLICY  CONTEXT   The  “secrecy”  of  the  White  House  in  Washington  affects  people’s  trust  in  the   government.  There  is  a  need  to  unveil  informaAon  on  how  public  funds  are   disbursed   INNOVATION   Transparency.  The  Open  Government  Plan  is  a  roadmap  to  make  operaAons   and  data  more  transparent,  and  allow  ciAzens  to  oversee  and  parAcipate  in   the  work  of  the  Government   Open  Innova&on.  The  website  has  an  “Open  InnovaAon  Toolkit”  where   bohom-­‐up  innovaAon  is  encouraged.     METRICS   •  Percentage  increase  of    new  ciAzen  iniAaAves  uAlizing  open  data     •  Costs  saved  from  reducing  spending  on  issues  solved  by  ciAzen  iniAaAves   IMPACT   This  unveils  the  secrecy  of  government  informaAon  and  processes.  CiAzens,   including  students,  sodware  developers,  business  owners  use  this  data  to   make  informed  decisions  for  themselves,  and  to  create  designs  and   prototypes  that  reduce  pressure  on  city  budgets   “My  Administra&on  is  commiSed  to   crea&ng  an  unprecedented  level  of   openness  in  Government…  to  ensure   the  public  trust  and  establish  a  system   of  transparency,  public  par&cipa&on   and  collabora&on.  Openness  will  …   promote  efficiency  and  effec&veness  in   Government”   -­‐  President  Obama,  2009   Holis@c  transforma@on  of  public  service  builts  upon  trust  earned  from   users  and  stakeholders   Building  Trust  in  Ac@on  
  12. 12. TOOL  3:  STAKEHOLDER  MAPPING   eden strategy institute |  12  Sources:    Development  Impact  and  You;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Indirect  Stakeholders     Local  Community/  CiAzens/   Public   Direct  Stakeholders   Families  of  target  audience   Core  Stakeholders   Target  Audience   Na@onal  and  Interna@onal  Stakeholders   STAKEHOLDER  MAPPING   The  stakeholder  mapping  tool  can  help   visualize  and  idenAfy  stakeholders   (individuals  and  organizaAons)  to  include,   when  decentralizing  public  services  to  local   bodies  or  organizaAons.  This  may  be  used   across  a  range  of  situaAons,  such  as  when   sekng  agenda,  analyzing  plans,  or  working   out  budgets     Expected  Outcomes.  Visual  idenAficaAon,   mapping,  and  connecAons  between   relevant  and  valuable  stakeholders  for   policy  and  programme  design   Success  Factors   •  Sufficient  Ame,  resources,  and  networks   to  approach  all  stakeholders  for  their   contribuAons  to  the  overall  strategy     Limita@ons  of  Stakeholder  Mapping   •  Alignment.  DifficulAes  in  aligning   interests  and  moAves  of  stakeholders   involved  into  holisAc  strategy   Power  Decentraliza@on  
  13. 13. eden strategy institute |  13  Sources:    World  Bank;  Wikipedia  Image;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Ministry  of  Educa&on:  Educa@on  Decentraliza@on  in  South  Africa   POLICY  CONTEXT   In  a  context  of  unsaAsfactory  educaAon  services,  and  the  failure  of   governments  to  deliver  basic  services  such  as  educaAon,  community  efforts   and  involvement  need  to  increase  to  meet  basic  needs   INNOVATION   Stakeholder  engagement.  A  real  empowerment  of  ciAzens  and  the   community  to  deliver  public  services  was  observed  in  educaAon   decentralizaAon.  Through  Parents’  AssociaAons  and  School  Councils,  schools   are  kept  responsive  to  local  needs  and  requirements.  Parents,  ciAzens,  and   relevant  stakeholders  parAcipate  in  School  Council  advisory  bodies  to  make   decisions  in  terms  of  purchasing  materials,  hiring  teachers,  even  curriculum   design.  Some  schools  also  rely  on  funding  from  the  community  in  South   Africa.     METRICS   •  General  enrollment,  graduaAon  rates   •  Reduced  spending  on  educaAon     IMPACT   South  Africa  is  one  of  the  more  successful  cases  in  Africa  to  have  achieved   EducaAon  DecentralizaAon.  It  remains  as  the  highest  among  African   countries  in  terms  of  degree  of  decentralizaAon  and  primary  school   coverage   Decentraliza@on  allows  public  services  to  be  delivered  more   adequately  and  appropriately  to  a  broader  base  of  ci@zens   Power  Decentraliza@on  in  Ac@on  
  14. 14. TOOL  4:  PARTICIPATORY  POLICYMAKING   eden strategy institute |  14  Sources:    Par@cipatory  Budge@ng  UK;  People  and  Planet;  Eden  research  and  analysis   Steps  to  high-­‐quality  Par@cipatory  Policymaking   Long-­‐term  strategy   •  Define  desired  outcomes,  sources  of  sustainability,  and  Ameframe  s   •  Increase  parAcipaAon  of  community  and  public     Ensure  commitment   •  Ensure  commitment  from  all  levels  of  public  sector  officers   •  Gain  commitment  from  the  community  and  voluntary  sectors  to  help  deliver   high  levels  of  parAcipaAon  and  to  relieve  workload   Establish  steering  group   •  Involve  and  empower  local  residents  in  a  steering  group   •  Increase  transparency  to  the  locals  and  collaborate  with  residents   Define  objec@ves  and  outcomes   •  Decide  on  metrics  on  community  cohesion,  parAcipaAon  levels,  improved   services,  and  the  confidence  of  local  people     Project  planning  and  evalua@on     •  Determine  informaAon  required  for  project  evaluaAon   •  Benchmark  implementaAon  results  with  pre-­‐implementaAon  baseline   Develop  marke@ng  strategy   •  Design  strategy  to  inform  and  engage  community  at  key  project  stages   •  Consider  launch  event,  compelling  project  name,  consAtuAon  of  steering   group,  bidding  processes     Design  delibera@on  space   •  Enable  people  to  discuss  respecAve  prioriAes  to  build  beher  engagement   Precondi@ons  for  Par@cipatory  Decision  Making   q  Universal  commitment  to  achieve  consensus   q  AcAve  parAcipaAon  from  group  and  good  facilitaAon   q  Thorough  comprehension  on  the  process,  with  clear   methods  of  driving  to  a  consensus   q  SubstanAal  decision  to  be  made   q  Sufficient  Ame  available  for  the  process   PARTICIPATORY  POLICYMAKING   ParAcipatory  policymaking  is  a  creaAve  process  that   empowers  groups  to  take  ownership  of  decisions,  in  order   to  moAvate  them  to  implement  their  soluAons   Expected  outcomes.  Increased  levels  of  ciAzen  involvement   and  empowerment  that  influences  public  policy.  To  discuss   and  decide  on  policy  soluAons  with  the  consensus  from   users   Difficul@es  of  Par@cipatory  Policymaking   •  ConAngent  upon:   o  Context   o  Levels  of  ambiAon  and  commitment  of  iniAators     o  Involvement  and  parAcipaAon  of  actors   o  Knowledge,  power,  and  strategic  behaviour   •  FormalizaAon  of  decisions     •  DifficulAes  in  appreciaAng  and  apprehending  failures     Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  
  15. 15. TOOL  5:  HUMAN-­‐CENTERED  SERVICE  DESIGN   eden strategy institute |  15  Sources:    IDEO  The  Human-­‐Centred  Design  Toolkit;  Eden  research  and  analysis     HUMAN-­‐CENTERED  DESIGN   Human-­‐Centred  Design  is  a  process  and  a  set  of  techniques  used  to  create  new  soluAons,  including  products,  services  environments,  organizaAons  and   modes  of  interacAon.  It  begins  by  examining  the  needs  of  the  people  policymakers  want  to  affect  with  their  programmes.     Expected  Outcomes.  To  build  constantly  iteraAng  service  soluAons  (programme  or  policy)  or  concepts  that  target  the  key  pain-­‐points  faced  by  users   Design  Process   HEAR   1.  IdenAfy  design  challenge   2.  Recognize  exisAng  knowledge   3.  IdenAfy  people  to  speak  with     4.  Choose  research  methods     5.  Develop  interview  approaches   6.  Develop  empatheAc  mindset     CREATE   Hear   1.  Develop  ideaAon  approach   2.  Share  stories   3.  IdenAfy  paherns   4.  Create  opportunity  areas   5.  Brainstorm  new  soluAons   6.  Make  ideas  concrete   7.  Gather  feedback   DELIVER   1.  Develop  a  sustainable  revenue  model   2.  IdenAfy  capabiliAes  for  delivering  soluAons   3.  Plan  a  pipeline  of  soluAons   4.  Create  implementaAon  Ameline   5.  Plan  mini-­‐pilots  and  iteraAon   6.  Create  a  learning  plan   Research  Methods   •  Individual  in-­‐depth  interview   •  Group  interview   •  Self-­‐documentaAon   •  Community-­‐driven  discovery   •  Expert  and  network  interviews   •  QuanAtaAve  surveys   Approach   •  ParAcipatory  co-­‐design   •  Empathic  design   Pakerns   •  Extract  key  insights   •  Find  themes   •  Create  frameworks   Learning  plan   •  Track  indicators   •  Evaluate  outcomes     Limita@ons  of  Human-­‐Centred  Design     •  Challenges  in  structuring  the  distribuAon  of   control  and  autonomy   •  Costlier  and  more  Ame-­‐consuming    than   normal  methods   •  Requires  the  involvement  of  new  team   members  and  other  stakeholders     •  Some  features  cannot  be  easily  prototyped  or   iterated   Desirability     Viability  Feasibility   SoluAons  hikng  the  overlap  of  these  lenses   Lenses   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  
  16. 16. eden strategy institute |  16  Source  Life|Work;    The  Par@cipatory  Budge@ng  Project;  Wikipedia  Image;  Eden  research  and  analysis   Live  |  Work  and  Haringey  Borough  Council:     Community-­‐centered  housing  in  the  UK   POLICY  CONTEXT   The  North  London  local  government  sought  to  improve  services  for   the  homeless,  and  reduce  the  number  of  people  requiring  temporary   accommodaAons   INNOVATION   Innova&on  team  and  Human-­‐centered  Service  Design.  By  including   staff,  managers,  public  officers,  and  residents  to  come  up  with  new   design  housing  services,  the  group  was  able  to  design  new   approaches  beher  catered  to  customers  needs   METRICS   •  Behaviourial  change  in  public  officers,  such  as  their  openness  and   readiness  to  embrace  change   •  Reduced  numbers  of  people  requiring  temporary   accommodaAons,  and  resulAng  cost  savings   IMPACT   This  method  leverages  the  collaboraAve  power  of  different   stakeholders  to  address  users’  needs.  Public  officers  do  not  imagine   soluAons  for  the  users,  but  design  experiences  together  with  them.     Local  officers  and  communi@es  are  typically  forthcoming  in  co-­‐crea@ng   solu@ons  and  policies   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  in  Ac@on   Porto  Alegre  Municipal  Government:     Par@cipatory  Budge@ng  in  Brazil   POLICY  CONTEXT   The  government  enacted  a  reform  in  1989  to  ahend  to   ciAzens’  needs  and  problems  arising  from  a  lack  of  public   faciliAes  and  inequality  in  living  standards  among  ciAzens   INNOVATION   Par&cipatory  decision  making.  Allowed  community  members   to  idenAfy  spending  prioriAes.  Selected  budget  delegates  to   develop  proposals  for  subsequent  voAng  and  implementaAon   METRICS   •  More  responsive  spending  on  public  faciliAes  in  line  with   ciAzen  needs   • 40%  increase  in  educaAon  budget     • 21%  increase  in  the  total  budget     IMPACT   This  method  transformed  the  tradiAonal  way  of  deciding  on   budgets,  where  ciAzens  feel  powerless  before  the  public   consultaAon  process.  CiAzens  build  greater  trust  in  the  public   sector  by  co-­‐creaAng  a  budget  together.    
  17. 17. TOOL  6:  CROSS-­‐SECTOR  COLLABORATION     eden strategy institute |  17  Sources:    IBM  Centre  for  The  Business  of  Government;   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on   Problem  iden@fica@on  and  diagnosis     Contribu@on  and  design       Opera@onaliza@on  and  execu@on     Assessment  and  impact  assessment     q Establish  shared  vision,  shared  value  of  collaboraAon,  and  prioriAes   q Maintain  transparency  of  interests  and  objecAves  of  public  and  private  partners     q IdenAfy  pool  of  exisAng  resources  (financial,  human,  physical  and  infrastructural)     q Examine  why  previous  soluAons  have  not  worked   q Recognize  differences  in  experAse  of  each  partner  and  establish  common  language     q Commit  to  open  sharing  and  communicaAon  of  Amely  and  relevant  informaAon   q Determine  measures  of  success  and  outcomes   q Design  a  collaboraAve  plasorm  and  governance  structure  for  project  management     q Elect  a  manager  and  board  (individual,  organizaAon,  party)  with  effecAve   leadership  as  a  single  point  of  accountability  to  fully  represent  needs  of  public     q  Engage  a  powerful  sponsor  and  champion  to  lead  the  collaboraAon   q  Communicate  new  informaAon,  changing  context,  successes  and  even  failures   q  Map  out  interdependency  and  linkages  between  sectors  and  partners     q InsAtute  incenAve  structures  that  reinforce  collaboraAon  and  align  the  purpose  of   monitoring  and  evaluaAng  with  leading  indicators,  output  metrics,  and  outcomes   q Document  and  communicate  successes  and  lessons  learnt  along  the  journey   CROSS-­‐SECTOR  COLLABORATION     Cross-­‐sector  collaboraAon  links  informaAon,  capital,  acAviAes  and  capabiliAes  among  both  public  and  private  organizaAons,  to  jointly  achieve  an   outcome  that  could  not  be  achieved  separately.                 Expected  outcomes.  This  collaboraAon  aims  to  solve  ‘wicked  problems’  in  the  public  sector  more  effecAvely  and  rapidly  but  with  less  resources,  by   drawing  contribuAon  from  all  relevant  stakeholders    and  creaAng  greater  buy-­‐in             Pre-­‐condi@ons  for  cross-­‐sector  collabora@on     q  EffecAve  board  representaAon  and   leadership  from  public  and  private  sectors   q  Open  communicaAon  plasorms   q  Understanding  discrepancies  between   partners   q  Mutual  trust  and  respect  for  partners     q  Manage  tensions  between  formal  and   informal  networks;  exisAng  and  new   plasorms;  stability  and  change;  hierarchy  and   flat  structures     What  is   shared   Mechanisms  of  sharing     Authority   Merger   Power   Collabo raAon   AcAviAes   Coordina Aon   InformaAon   Commun icaAon     Organiza@onal  Sharing   (Crosby  and  Bryson,  2005)    
  18. 18. eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  18  Sources:     US  Department  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development  and  Atlanta  Housing  Authority:   Public-­‐Private  Partnership  to  revamp  housing  community     POLICY  CONTEXT   The  US  Department  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development  intended  to  renovate  the   crumbling  housing  stock  of  East  Lake  Meadows.  IniAally  a  grant  was  given  to  the  Atlanta   Housing  Authority  to  manage  the  project.  It  led  a  Public-­‐Private  Partnership  for   coordinaAon,  which  allowed  the  plan  to  evolve  into  also  providing  mixed-­‐income   housing,  educaAon,  and  community  resources  to  truly  meet  the  needs  of  the  residents   INNOVATION   Diverse  leadership  team  from  the  government,  private  developers,  and  community   members  worked  together  to  create  a  holisAc  community  for  East  Lake  Meadows.     Ins&tu&onal  partnership  mapping.  When  the  scope  of  the  project  expanded  beyond   house  renovaAon,  the  planning  commihee  recruited  relevant  partners  with  the   corresponding  resources  and  experAse  in  financial,  legal,  planning,  regulatory,   operaAonal  to  commit  to  an  integrated  and  holisAc  approach  for  this  housing  project.     METRICS   •  Increased  enrollment  to  college   •  Increased  ownership  of  houses   •  Reduced  rate  of  family  violence  and  other  social  problems   IMPACT     This  method  met  the  iniAal  objecAve  of  renovaAng  a  housing  development,  but  also   resulted  in  a  holisAc  and  integrated  community  by  recruiAng  the  right  collaborators   from  the  public  and  private  sectors.     Public-­‐Private  Partnerships  to  ensure  integrated  and  holis@c  solu@ons   to  complex  challenges   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  in  Ac@on  
  19. 19. eden strategy institute |  19  Source:  Unfolding  the  Napkin,  by  Dan  Roam;  Eden  Research  and  Analysis     Visual  Thinking     Visual  Thinking  is  a  problem-­‐solving  tool  to  understand  informaAon  in  a  diagrammaAc  and  visual  manner,  which  helps  to  display  complex  relaAonships   and  idenAfy  underlying  paherns,  points  of  bohleneck,  and  possible  scenarios  as  opportuniAes  for  new  policies  and  programmes.       Expected  Outcomes.  To  idenAfy  inefficiencies  in  the  current  processes  and  visualize  potenAal  policy  outcomes.  This  makes  opportuniAes  for   improvement  and  soluAons  apparent.  It  allows  policymakers  to  make  decisions  faster,  communicate  decisions  more  effecAvely,  and  implement   decisions  more  efficiently   S Q V I   D Display  a  simple  problem  and  portrait  to  elaborate   issues  and  pain-­‐points  of  users     Show  informaAon  qualita@vely  and  quan@ta@vely:   What  are  the  numbers  and  what  does  it  feel  like?   Envision  a  big  picture  soluAon  for  the  problem  and   the  execuAon  methods  and  processes  for  that  to   happen     Assess  the  soluAon  on  its  own  merits,  in  terms  of  its   impact  to  the  individual  ciAzen,  and  relaAve  to   other  opAons     Showcase  the  difference  in  the  situaAon  before   and  ader  the  soluAon  is  in  place     SQVID  METHOD   Simple   Qualita&ve   Vision   Individual   Change     Elaborate   Quan&ta&ve   Execu&on   Comparison   Status  Quo   Requirements  for  Visual  Thinking   q  Conducive  environment  that  supports  open     sharing     q  Encouraging  group  dynamics  to  promote   sharing  of  insights  and  soluAons   q  Availability  of  both  qualitaAve  and   quanAtaAve  insights  and  data  from  the   ground,  such  as  with  photographs,  videos,   sketches,  Post-­‐its,  speghek  diagrams,  maps,   brochures,  sample  products,  and  props   Limita@ons   •  The  quality  of  the  soluAons  derived  from   Visual  Thinking  depends  on  the  quanAty  and   quality  of  insights  gathered,  which  is   dependent  on  the  experience  and   percepAveness  of  the  researchers   TOOL  7:  VISUAL  THINKING   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  
  20. 20. TOOL  8:  ETHNOGRAPHY   eden strategy institute |  20  Sources:    Eden  research  and  analysis     ETHNOGRAPHIC  OBSERVATIONS   Ethnographic  is  a  qualitaAve  research  method  to  understand  target  users,  especially  in  situaAons  where  they  are  unable  to  arAculate  their  raAonale  or   feelings.  Its  shows  mulA-­‐faceted  dimensions  of  group  interacAons  to  uncover  and  describe  ciAzen  phenomena.     Expected  Outcomes.  To  allow  policymakers  and  programme  designers  to  understand  root  causes  of  problems  faced  by  ciAzens,  so  as  to  create   appropriate  soluAons     Approach   Descrip@on   Good  for   Limita@ons   Grounded  Theory   •  ComparaAve  thinking   •  Obtaining  mulAple  viewpoints   •  Periodically  stepping  back.  Constant  data  re-­‐ checking  against  interpretaAons     •  Maintaining  skepAcism.  Regarding  interpretaAons   as  provisional,  using  new  observaAons  to  test   •  Systemic  coding   •  Deriving  theories  or   interpretaAons  from  analyzing   paherns,  themes,  and  common   categories  from  observaAonal   data   •  Existence  of  user-­‐induced   bias     •  QuesAon  of  reliability  and   validity  of  observaAons     Par@cipatory   Ac@on  research       •  People.  Informed  by  and  responding  to  ciAzen   needs   •  Power.  ConstrucAon  of  reality,  language,  meanings   informed  by  power   •  Praxis.  Requires  hand-­‐on  research  pracAce   •  Empowering  targets  to  define   their  needs  and  realize  their   aspiraAons   •  Producing  knowledge  useful  to   the  subject  of  study   •  Low  generalizability     •  Experience  required  to   carefully  disAl  the  core   essence  of  observaAons  to   other  contexts   Day  in  the  life   Study     •  Researchers  go  to  homes,  work  places,   communiAes,  and  chronicle  their  acAviAes  and   behaviours  through  disciplined  observaAon,  note-­‐ taking,  sketches,  photography,  and  videos   •  Capturing  a  complete  slice  of   ciAzen  experiences,  to  get  rich   data  on  aktudes,  contexts,  and   behaviours     •  Showing  weak  hand-­‐offs   between  government  agencies   and  organizaAons     •  Time-­‐consuming     •  Low  sample  size   •  May  be  challenging  to  find   willing  subjects   Extreme  User   Study   •  Go  Up.  Target  a  high  volume  of  expert  users   •  Go  down.  Watch  novice  or  disabled  users  make   sense  out  of  the  system,  providing  clues  of  tacit   knowledge   •  InteracAng  with  ciAzens  at  the   fringes  of  acAviAes,  pushing  the   limits  of  what  a  policy  or   programme  was  designed  for     •  Strategic  signaling  in   presenAng  behaviors     •  False  assumpAons   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  
  21. 21. eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  21  Sources:    The  Centre  for  Knowledge  Socie@es;  Eden  research  and  analysis     Bihar  Innova&on  Lab:  Innova@ng  vaccine  delivery   POLICY  CONTEXT   In  improving  its  neonatal  health  care  indicators,  Bihar  was  keen  to  accelerate  its  immunizaAon  coverage  to  match   the  country  average.  The  Government  of  Bihar  partnered  with  the  Bihar  InnovaAon  Lab  and  the  Bill  &  Melinda  Gates   FoundaAon  to  idenAfy  new  ways  to  deliver  vaccines.   INNOVATION   System  Thinking.  The  Bihar  InnovaAon  Lab  adopted  a  holisAc  approach  in  conceptualizing  the  scope  of  its  service   delivery,  based  on  inefficiencies  idenAfied  across  the  healthcare  system     Ethnographic  research.  The  research  team  shadowed  frontline  health  workers  and  families  to  understand  the  pain-­‐ points  of  delivering  vaccine.  Ethnographic  observaAons  showed  the  team  that  vaccines  were  oden  damaged  because   of  low  awareness  of  ambient  storage  temperatures  required.       Visual  Thinking  by  mapping  out  an  “experience  flow  diagram”  from  frontline  health  workers  to  caregivers  to   households,  the  team  was  able  to  collate  a  rich  repository  of  visual  insights  including  process,  relaAonships,   accountability,  and  communicaAons  media  that  sAmulated  the  ideaAon  process   METRICS   •  Increase  in  rate  of  immunizaAon  coverage   •  Decrease  in  contracAon  rate  of  diseases  preventable  by  vaccines,  and  resultant  cost  savings     IMPACT     This  method  increased  the  effecAveness  of  healthcare  soluAons  by  using  ethnography  to  define  an  accurate   statement  of  need,  which  gave  rise  to  more  natural  and  appropriate  soluAons   Skilled  observa@ons  can  help  to  ar@culate  even  ci@zen  challenges  that   cannot  be  well-­‐ar@culated   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐crea@on  in  Ac@on  
  22. 22. TOOL  9:  eGOVERNMENT   eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  22  Sources:  Interna@onal  ins@tute  for  Sustainable  Development;  Eden  research  and  analysis     COLLABORATION  PLATFORMS   Online  collaboraAon  plasorms  allow  ciAzens,  public  officers,  and  different  stakeholders  to  collaborate.  This  can  be  done  via  online  conversaAons   and  video  chats,  as  well  ass  offline  measures  through  forums,  events,  and  regular  focus  group  meeAngs.       Expected  Outcomes.  To  provide  plasorms  for  the  exchange  of  informaAon  and  perspecAves  ,  and  bring  together  many  groups  to  discuss,  build   mutual  understanding  and  dialogue  on  public  policy,  and  arrive  at  recommendaAons  and  decisions  on  issues.     Considera@ons  for  choosing  a  collabora@on  plamorm   •  Transparency.  To  determine  whether  informaAon  is  confidenAal,  or   limited  to  closed-­‐door  sessions,  or  made  publicly-­‐available  online   •  Accessibility.  To  consider  the  ease  of  access  to  the  plasorms   •  Training  required.  Assess  the  training  required  for  officers  and   experts  to  use  the  applicaAon     •  Consistency  and  frequency  of  transmission.  To  assess  whether   officers  can  uAlize  the  tool  or  plasorm  regularly  (e.g.  events  and   forums  are  less  regular  than  online  forums)     •  Resource  requirements.  To  idenAfy  the  equipment  needed  as  well   as  determining  the  accompanied  costs   Steps  for  establishing  online  or  offline  plamorms   1.  Develop  a  background  document  providing  the  context  for  the   forum     2.  IdenAfy  policy  issues  or  categories  of  issues  that  should  be   discussed  or  raised     3.  Structure  the  plasorm     4.  IdenAfy  stakeholders,  partners,  and  funding  insAtuAons     •  Ahempts  must  be  made  to  include  everyone  from  all  sectors     •  IdenAfy  the  government  department  or  actor  sponsoring  and   contribuAng  technical  and  financial  resources     5.  LogisAcs   •  IdenAfy  the  right  event  management  system  or  online   plasorm/  sodware  to  use   •  Coordinate  with  different  stakeholders  managing  parAcipants   and  logisAcs   •  Be  proacAve  in  inviAng  stakeholders     6.  Post-­‐event  report  and  assessment     •  Prepare  report  documenAng  the  insights     •  Evaluate  performance,  areas  to  be  improved,  and  findings     Requirements  for  crea@ng  a  collabora@ve  plamorm   q  SelecAon  of  appropriate  plasorm  and  modality  to  host  discussion   q  Clear  work  distribuAon  amongst  work  officers     q  Training  of  officers  and  experts     q  Follow  up  from  case  officers       Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐Crea@on  
  23. 23. eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  23  Sources:  SWAGAT;;  Wikipedia  Images;  Eden  research  and  analysis     SWAGAT:  Using  technology  to  strengthen  local  governance  in  India   POLICY  CONTEXT   In  India’s  Gujurat  state,  the  local  government  has  to  handle  all  natures  of   grievances  from  the  public  at  the  local  levels,  because  the  top  funcAonaries   of  the  state  cannot  redress  all  grievances   INNOVATION   Applica&on  of  online  pla`orms  to  spread  reach.  The  State-­‐Wide  AhenAon   on  Grievances  through  ApplicaAon  of  Technology  (SWAGAT)  adopted  a   digital  and  video  plasorm  to  surface  problems  presented  by  exisAng   processes,  which  decentralizes  the  way  public  service  problems  are  defined   METRICS   •  ResoluAon  rate  of  complaints  received:  97%     •  Reduced  costs  in  government  spent  on  similar  projects  across  the  state     IMPACT   The  technology  has  taken  upon  an  acAve  role  to  address  ciAzens’  needs   before  they  result  in  public  discontent  or  mistrust.  Technology  decentralized   the  role  of  the  state  government  to  local  governments,  and  maximized  its   reach  to  ciAzens   Collabora@on  and  Co-­‐Crea@on  in  Ac@on   Technological  solu@ons  allow  governments  to  engage  with  and   understand  an  unprecedented  range  of  ci@zens  across  space  and  @me  
  24. 24. TOOL  10:  BEST  PRACTICE  &  KNOWLEDGE  SHARING   eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  24  Sources:    DIY  Toolkit  hkp://­‐of-­‐change/;  Eden  research  and  analysis     BEST  PRACTICE  AND  KNOWLEDGE  SHARING   Best  pracAce  and  knowledge  sharing  is  a  way  to  encourage  new  innovaAons  by  sharing,  capturing,  and  learning  from  exisAng  knowledge  and  pracAces.   It  builds  on  what  has  worked  well  to  inform  beher  strategy,  policy,  and  pracAce  by  offering  and  scaling  up  proven  soluAons  to  policymakers.     Expected  Outcomes.  To  establish  a  department,  process,  channel,  and  culture  for  civil  servants  to  access  lessons  from  public  service  innovaAons.   Approach   Descrip@on   Good  for   Knowledge/   professional  network     A  group  of  people  of  similar  interest  and  experAse  work  together  over   an  extended  period  in  small  groups   Publishing  best  pracAce  papers     Online  sharing,  open  data     Knowledge  Café   Open,  creaAve  conversaAons  in  an  informal  environment  on  a   common  challenge  or  topic  interest     Informal  learning  through  dialogue   Cross  learning  when  inviAng  officers  from   different  agencies/  departments     Knowledge  marketplace   Matching  a  knowledge  requirement  with  someone  with  the  requisite   experAse  or  experience     UAlizing  exisAng  resources  and  human  experAse   with  parAcular  skills   Retrospec@ve  review     Learning  process  from  a  post-­‐project  evaluaAon,  covering  what  has   and  has  not  worked  well,  what  needs  improvement,  and  what  should   inform  future  programmes  and  policies     Capturing  lessons  learnt  for  planning  future   acAviAes   ComparaAve  learning  across  agencies  and   cross-­‐country  learning     Importance  of  Knowledge  Management   •  To  sustain  and  scale  exisAng  innovaAons  and  learn  from  fellow   agencies,  ministries,  and  countries  in  their  approaches  to  public  service   innovaAon   •  To  ensure  that  knowledge  and  best  pracAces  are  shared  and  properly   internalized  amongst  public  officers  for  future  programmes  and   policies     •  To  insAtuAonalize  good  pracAces  and  maintain  a  momentum  of   improvement  and  evaluaAon  for  public  sector  processes   Educa@on  and  Learning   Considera@ons  of  Knowledge  Management   •  Risk  of  applying  a  “best  pracAce”  in  another  context   inappropriately,  such  as  with  wholesale  transplantaAon  or  by     deconstrucAng  the  incorrect  essence  or  success  factor     •  Simply  following  successful  pracAces  from  elsewhere  could  inhibit   internal  creaAvity  and  buy-­‐in  
  25. 25. TOOL  11:  THEORY  OF  CHANGE   eden  strategy  ins@tute  |  25  Sources:    Improvement  and  Development  Agency  UK;  Eden  research  and  analysis     THEORY  OF  CHANGE   Theory  of  Change  is  a  roadmap  outlining  the  process  to  achieve  policy  goals.  It  firstly  arAculates  and  connects  each  workstream  work  to  a  bigger  goal,   and  maps  out  risks  by  arAculaAng  assumpAons  at  each  stage.       Expected  Outcomes.  This  puts  into  perspecAve  individual    contribuAons  to  the  organizaAon’s  larger  goals,  and  aligns  team  member  acAviAes  and   moAvaAons.  It  increases  intrinsic  moAvaAons  to  increase  quality  and  efficiency  of  work,  and  standardizes  the  documentaAon  of  project  outcomes  for   easy  and  systemaAc    shared  within  and  across  agencies.     What  is  the   problem  you   are  trying  to   solve?   Who  is  your   key  audience?   What  is  your   entry  point  to   reaching  your   audience?     What  steps   are  needed  to   bring  about   change?   What  is  the   measurable   effect  of  your   work?     Measurable   effect  1     Measurable   effect  2     …   What  are  the   wider  benefits   of  your  work?   What  is  the   long-­‐term   change  you   see  as  your   goal?     Stakeholders  Key  Assump;ons     Considera@ons  for  Theory  of  Change     •  The  availability  and  quality  of  resources  to   idenAfy  measurable  effects  of  work,  and  to   monitor    them  effecAvely     •  The  Ame  required  to  train  staff  to  use   consistent  language  for  this  framework   Limita@ons  of  Theory  of  Change     •  Long-­‐term  “change”  might  not  be  immediately   intuiAve  to  some  organizaAons   •  Requires  discipline  and  investment  to  consistently   measure  the  impact  of  work     Educa@on  and  Learning  
  26. 26. eden strategy institute |  26  Sources:    The  Human  Experience  Lab;  Civil  Service  College;  Eden  research  and  analysis     The  Human  Experience  Lab  (THE  Lab)  and  Civil  Service  College:  Cross-­‐agency  sharing   POLICY  CONTEXT   In  order  to  heighten  the  level  of  innovaAon  and  learning  ,  the  Public  Service  Division  of   Singapore  iniAated  a  specialized  unit  to  coordinate  innovaAve  efforts     INNOVATION   Best  prac&ce  sharing  across  agencies.  The  Civil  Service  College  uAlizes  learnings  from   different  agencies  through  knowledge  sharing  sessions  and  public  service  best  pracAce   forums.     Sharing  via  mentors.  Staff  from  THE  Lab  act  as  “design  mentors”  to  help  sharing  across   agencies  and  develop  new  policies  and  programmes   METRICS   •  Number  of  successful  case  studies  or  success  stories  shared  across  agencies   •  Decrease  in  Ame  required  to  do  similar  tasks  from  uAlizing  techniques  shared  in  cases     IMPACT   Cross-­‐sharing  pracAces  ensure  that  core  learnings  from  innovaAons  are  consolidated  for   future  use  and  can  be  easily  leveraged  by  different  officers  in  the  organizaAon  and  other   agencies     Learnings  from  innova@ve  prac@ces  need  to  be  systema@cally  codified   and  shared  across  agencies  and  governments  to  scale  ci@zen  impact   Educa@on  and  Learning  in  Ac@on  
  27. 27. Thank  you!   eden strategy institute Contacts:  Calvin  Chu  Yee  Ming,  Partner      Claudia  Cheung,  Strategy  Analyst          Eden  Strategy  InsAtute      T:  +65  9751  5817      E:   Thank  you